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Showing 17 results for Sonography

Khalil Rostami,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Hydatic cyst is caused by Echinococus worm, that involves any part of the body, sometimes it is presented in organs such as thyroid, breast and other organs. Axillary that may be consider adenopathy or metastasis and do biopsy, which so there is danger of leakage, anaphylaxis or relaps.

 The reported case was 39 years old female presented with painless axillary mass without inflammation since 19 years ago that slowly enlarged. Physical findings suggested hydatid cyst which was confirmed with ultrasonography and IHA for Echinococus granolosus and other diseases ruled out. She was operated and she had no relapses after 1.5 years follow up.


Abbas Aflatoonian , Hajar Hojat , Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. 10% of maternal death is due to EP and only one-third of women with previous ruptured ectopic pregnancy could have a normal delivery in future. Research about prevalence and risk factors of this kind of pregnancy, could help early diagnosis and treatment of EP and improve the prognosis of fertility rate in the future.

Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, seventy-two patients with EP diagnosis admitted and treated in Yazd hospitals were studied. The data were collected using a questionnaire and hospital records. Sonography and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-Square test.

Results: 11176 pregnancies were recorded in Yazd between March 1999 and March 2000 and seventy-two of these pregnancies were ectopic. So prevalence of EC in yazd was found to be 0.5%. Most of the patients (58 cuses) were 20 to 39 years old. 52.8% of the patients had primipar. 25% had a history of one to three times abortion. From 43 patients who used contraceptive, 19 ones used OCP (oral contraceptive). 39 patients had a history of previous surgery, 7 patients had a history of EP and 25 patients had a history of treatment of infertility. The most common symptom of patients was abdominal pain. Only 4 out of 72 patients were treated with a medical method using methotraxe and the rest of them were operated. Three out of these four patients were finally obliged to undertake surgery.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EP was 0.5%, which is lower than the national scale. 
Gollam Ali Hamedbarghi, Afshin Mohammadi , Abdoll Rasool Safaeian,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Patients in unstable condition with blunt abdominal trauma require rapid evaluation of abdominal organs to assess the need for laparatomy. Ultrasonography is a fast technique which can be used in the resuscitation area to detect free intraperitoneal fluid as an indication of intraabdominal injury. This prospective study was designed to determine the efficiency of emergency abdominal sonography for evaluating patients with blunt abdominal trauma and to compare the accrurcy of ultrasonography with the results of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT scan.

  Methods: Emergency sonography was performed prior to diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT scan on 174 patients with blunt abdorminal trauma. Sonography was performed with FAST ( Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma) technique and six area of the abdomen where examined to detect free intraperitoneal fluid.

  Results: The results of this study revealed that ultrasonography has a sensitivity of 95% a specificity of 80.8%., and an overall accuracy of 89.4% for detecting free intraperitoneal fluid. The positive and negative predictive value of sonography was 89.4% and 90.1% respectively.

  Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a reliable method for the emergent evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma and can be used instead of diagnostic peritoneal lavage.


Saeid Khamnei , Nahid Ghandchilar, Hooshang Najafi, Mahdi Farhoudi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Many researches have been conducted on autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), but its possible variations coincidence with postvagal tachycardia have not yet been studied. The present study searched for the effect of this phenomenon on CBF in young and middle-aged persons.

 Methods: 52 healthy volunteers including 13 young males (mean age 23.9±0.8), 13 young females (mean age 24.2±0.7), 13 middle-aged males (mean age 58±0.9) and 13 middle-aged females (mean age 56.4±0.7) went under the study. Flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) was assessed using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography apparatus. Eckberg’s neck suction device was utilized to stimulate carotid baroreceptors. The data were analyzed using Minitab and SPSS software (rel. 10).

 Results: Concomitant to the carotid baroreceptors stimulation there was a significant reduction in heart rate in all groups (p<0.05), but mean cerebral blood flow did not change significantly. After ending the carotid baroreceptors stimulation and concomitant to PVT, mean cerebral blood flow increased in all groups except middle-aged males. This increase in CBF became significant in middle-aged females (p<0.05).

 Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that cerebral blood flow autoregulation act effectively concomitant to acute stimulation of carotid baroreceptors and this efficacy is maintained until the middle-age, but when faced with PVT, cerebral blood flow autoregulation dose not act effectively.


Mahdi Farhoudi , Mohammadkazem Tarzamani , Khandan Ghannadi Emami ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common disabiling neurologic disorders and the third cause of death in the population over 45 years of age. Most of the strokes in adults are ischemic and almost one-fifth of them are due to intra- or extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, cost-effective and safe technique for evaluation of intra or extracranial vessels that is available in two methods: TCD and carotid Duplex. The present research is an attempt to investigate the appropriatens and comprehensiveness of TCD in diagnosing symptomatic significant carotid stenosis.

  Methods : This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on fifty patients admitted to the neurology ward of Imam Hospital who underwent both carotid duplex and TCD examination. Variables of blood flow velocities, collateral flow evidences and degree of carotid stenosis were assessed with both methods. The data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.11.5) using T.test, Chi-square and Fisher test.

  Results : 34 patieuts were. Male mean age of the patients was 66.70% of the subjects were above 65 and 68% of them had a history of hypertension. No statistically significant difference was seen between systolic and diatolic blood flow velocity in internal carotid artery and pulsatile index obtnined from reported by TCD and carotid Duplex. There was no statistically significant difference between the percentage of stenosis TCD finding of the patients with carotid stenosis showed collateral flow in 78.57% of the cases.

  Conclusion: Acceptable correlation of the flow velocity parameters and the percentage of carotid stenosis between TCD and Carotid Duplex results showed that the primary performance of TCD to diagnose significant carotid stenosis (that causes hemodynamic disorder) and screen ischemic cerebrovascular accident is a reliable and effective method, but for precise determination of stenosis, plaque typing and for diagnosing stenisis below 50% the performance of carotid duplex study is also necessary and to complemantory TCD.


Hasan Anari, Farhad Salehzadeh , Ramin Mirmohammadi , Simin Monshari ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Developmental dislocation of hip (DDH) as an inherited joint disorder results from external location of the head of femora from the acetabulum.Early diagnosis of this disorder is very important and any delay may result in long life handicap. Nowadays new methods such as sonogrphy are recommended in diagnosis of this disorder. Radiology and physical examination are traditional methods. This study was designed to evaluate the results of sonographical, radiological and physical examination findings in 100 infants who were suspected to have DDH.

 Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was done in private clinics from June 2004 to June 2005. The one hundred infants who were suspected to have DDH in physical examination entered the study. A questionnaire was completed for each infant, and then sonography and radioghray have been done for them. The data were collected and analyzed by statistical programs.

 Results: Among 100 infants 48% were female and 52% male, with mean age 42±7.23.In 44% they were the firstborn.58% had normal delivery and 42% cesarean section. 15% had breech presentation. In 28% radiological and 56% sonographical methods showed findings in favor of DDH.

 Conclusion: This study showed, simultaneous physical and sonographic examination especially during the first month result in early and precise diagnosis of DDH, on the other hand it does not have radiologic side effects.


Fariba Kahnamouei, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Farideh Mostafazadeh, Afshar Ebrahimi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

  Backgrond & Objectives: Oligohydramnios is a disorder which is followed by unpleasant outcomes for fetus that can lead to termination of pregnancy before term and preterm delivery. For these patients' increase in gestational period and prevention of preterm delivery is the most important act. In this study the effect of intravenous and oral hydration therapy in increasing duration of gestation in patient with oligohydramnios was evaluated.

  Methods: In this study, the population was devided into two case and control groups with 30 female individual who were found to have oligohydramnios in course of hospital admission according to on sonographic results. Patients were randomly put in case or control groups. Case group were given 3-4 liter normal salin for 1 week and then were given oral hydration solution until the end of pregnancy, In each group whenever it was found that pregnancy was not possible the pregnancy continuance was stopped. Data collection was through history, physical examination completing relevant questionnaire and findings of sonography and in order to see the relationship among finding s, kitest and t-test from SPSS software were used.

  Results: The age means of case and control groups were 25 and 24 respectively. The mean of pregnancy duration from the diagnosis time in case group was 30.2 weeks and in control group 31.8 weeks. The mean of pregnancy terminatior in case group was 34.6 weeks and in control group 34.2. In increasing duration of pregnancy in case and control group. It was concluded that intravenous and oral Hydration therapy cause incerease in duration of pregnancy in patients suffering from oligo Hydraminos. According to the results of this study and significance of the difference.


Soltanali Mahboob, Majid Mohamad Shahi , Abolhasan Shakeri, Alireza Ostad Rahimi , Seyedjamal Ghaem Maghami , Fatemeh Haidari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Goiter prevalence in school age children is an indicator of the severity of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDS) in the society and a goiter prevalence ≥5 % in school age children indicates a public health problem. In area of mild to moderate IDDS, measurement of thyroid volume by ultrasonography through observation is preferrable to population for grading goiter. Considering the importace of this issue, because of being mountainous and lack of this method's application for determining the incidence of goiter this study was desinged.

 Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, thyroid volumes of 230 boys between 12 to 15 years old were measured by portable ultrasonograph in Tabriz. Also urinary iodine concentrations were determined by method A (Sandell-kolthoff reaction).

 Results: Mean of subjects’ thyroid volume was 8.12 ±2.21 ml and with latest references of Iran and WHO/NHD, goiter prevalence was taken based age 51.7 % and based surface body 81.1 %. Urinary iodine median of tested samples was 15.2µg/dl and iodine deficiency prevalence was 29.1 % . There was no significant correlation between urinary iodine and thyroid volume.

 Conclusion: Large thyroid volume of middle school boys in Tabriz is probably due to iodine intake deficiency in the first years of their life. Also, the role of goitrogenic factors and effect of climate condition on thyroid volume and goiter prevalence of middle school boys in Tabriz shouldn't be ignored. Further studies are recommended for determination of a local reference for thyroid volume Also it is necessary to be sure from consumption of iodine salt and its standardization.


Parvin Shakouri, Mohammad Kazem Tarzamni, Khalil Ansarin, Marziyeh Tolouea Sadegzadeh, Masoud Nazemyeh, Mohammad Reza Gaffari, Sara Farhang,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Venous thromboembolism is a common disorder that is difficult to diagnose clinically but carries significant mortality if untreated. Many diagnostic imaging algorithms for the detection of PTE, including ventilation perfusion lung scan, Doppler ultrasonography of lower extremity and pulmonary CT angiography. This study's aim was the comparison of Doppler ultrasonography of lower extremity with perfusion -ventilation lung scan in patients suspected for pulmonary emboli and finding the best approach for diagnosis of the suspected pulmonary emboli.
Methods: One hundred twenty patients of suspected pulmonary embolism referred by internists to Doppler ultrasonography of lower limbs Department of Imam's Khomeini Hospital were studied. The patients were studied within 48 hour post suspected pulmonary emboli and evaluated with V/Q scan and Doppler ultrasonography.
Results: The prevalence of DVT in lower limbs of patients suspected of pulmonary emboli was %37.5. Results of lung scan in patients suspected pulmonary emboli are as below: High probability in %17.5, intermediate probability in %27.5, low probability in %41.5 and normal in %13.5 Results of lung scan in patients suspected  for pulmonary embolism with DVT are as follow: High probability in %24.4, Intermediate probability in %33.3, low probability in %26.7 and normal in %15.6. Mean age in patients with and without DVT Was 52.53 14.13 and 56.22 17.63 year respectively.
Conclusion: Patients suspected for pulmonary emboli with normal lung scan needs more assessment for DVT in lower extremity with Doppler ultrasonography. Normal Doppler ultrasonography of lower extremity doesn't exclude performing lung scan for approving pulmonary emboli. Doppler ultrasonography and lung scan both need evaluating patients suspected for pulmonary embolism.
Ashraf Mahboby, Zahra Basirat,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Mastalgia is a common breast disorder affecting lots of women during reproductive ages and leads to cancer phobia in some women. It increase clinical referring and disturb the social activities and familial communities. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, sonogarphical and mammographic findings in patient with mastalgia.

  Method: This cross-sectional study was done on 160 patients with mastalgia who referred to gynecologic clinic, Yahyanejad hospital, Babol University of medical sciences. They were examined by gynecologist, then in patients under 35 years sonography and older than 35 years mammography was done. Other information including age, menarche age, age of first pregnancy, number of delivery, history of oral contraceptive usage or hormone replacement therapy, family history of cancer, knowledge of diet recommendation for mastalgia and correlation of mastalgia with menstrual cycle were recorded for all patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS10.

  Results: The mean age of patients was 34.8±9.9. Tenderness was observed in 122 (76.3%) patients. Fibrocystic disease was seen in 42 (53.2%) patients in mammography and 50 (40.3%) in sonography. There were normal findings in 29 patients (36.7%) in mammography and 60 patients (48.4%) in sonography.

Conclusion: In the majority of women with mastalgia, sonography and mammography showed normal or fibrocystic changes. A comprehensive history and breast exam is essential to make decision.
Mehrdad Kashifard, Zahra Basirat,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Mastalgia is a common breast disorder affecting lots of women during reproductive ages and leads to cancer phobia in some women. It increase clinical referring and disturb the social activities and familial communities. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, sonogarphical and mammographic findings in patient with mastalgia.

  Method: This cross-sectional study was done on 160 patients with mastalgia who referred to gynecologic clinic, Yahyanejad hospital, Babol University of medical sciences. They were examined by gynecologist, then in patients under 35 years sonography and older than 35 years mammography was done. Other information including age, menarche age, age of first pregnancy, number of delivery, history of oral contraceptive usage or hormone replacement therapy, family history of cancer, knowledge of diet recommendation for mastalgia and correlation of mastalgia with menstrual cycle were recorded for all patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS10.

  Results: The mean age of patients was 34.8±9.9. Tenderness was observed in 122 (76.3%) patients. Fibrocystic disease was seen in 42 (53.2%) patients in mammography and 50 (40.3%) in sonography. There were normal findings in 29 patients (36.7%) in mammography and 60 patients (48.4%) in sonography.

Conclusion: In the majority of women with mastalgia, sonography and mammography showed normal or fibrocystic changes. A comprehensive history and breast exam is essential to make decision.
Amir Mohammad Asnaashari , Hasan Ghobadi Moralou, Shahrzad Mohamadzadeh Lari , Elham Ghalenoei ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

 The OHS is characterized by hypersomnolence, hypoxia, polycytemia, headache and edema. Polysomnography is the gold standard diagnostic test. Overnight oximetry with significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation is reasonable to begin treatment. Weight reduction and Non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has evolved as the mainstay of treatment.

 Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Heparin and warfarin are the drugs that used for treatment of DVT. HIT typically appears as a 50% or greater reduction in the platelet count after the first exposure to heparin. This case is a obese man with extreme DVT that diagnosed by duplex sonography and symptoms of obesity hypoventilation syndrom.

 In overnight pulseoximetry oxyhemoglobin desaturation was occurred more than 15 times per hours and treatment begins with NIPPV. Patients thrombosis were treated with heparin and warfarin. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and cutaneous necrosis was occurred and drug therapy withdrawn. After healing of cutaneous necrosis low dose warfarin was started.

 NIPPV promote airway occlusion and improve hypercapnia.hypoxia and quality of life and reduced cardiovascular complications.


Eiraj Feyzi, Amin Bagheri , Samira Matin ,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

  Hydatid disease infection in humans is caused by larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Definitive hosts are carnivores such as dogs, while intermediate hosts are herbivores. Humans can also be intermediate hosts. Hydatid disease is clinically related to the presence of cysts, most frequently in the liver and the lungs and less frequently in the other organs such as kidney, spleen, brain, heart and bone. In this article, a case of splenic hydatid cyst is reported. A 50-years-old man was admitted to the clinic with a abdominal pain lasting for two weeks. Sonography and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a splenic cyst. Cyst was removed by a surgery. The diagnosis of a hydatid cyst was confirmed by histopathology.


Hafez Mirzanejad-Asl ,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis (CE and AE) are caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granolosus, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the spread of human AE and CE diseases among the tribes and livestock breeders and farmers in the Moghan plain. The prevalence of infection (CE and AE) significantly increases with a rise in age.
Methods: In this study, using ELISA and HCF-Ag (raw liquid antigen of hydatid cyst) was used for the first time to perform screening, and then the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis was evaluated by specific anti-genes Ag-5 and EM2+, respectively. A total of 2003 serum samples were collected randomly from normal populations of five different areas of Moghan plain. In the first stage, serum screening was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and HCF-Ag. After that, the serology of all sera was evaluated by ELISA and specific antigens for alveolar and cystic Echinococcus.
Results: From 2003 samples, 24 serum samples were (1.19%) AE-positive. Infection was higher in men than women (2.1% vs. 0.6%). The age group of 5-19years had the lowest infection rate and the age group 40- 59 years had the highest infection rate (2%). In the case of cystic ecinococcosis, 164 serum samples were positive for Ag-5 specific antigen, i.e. 7.6% infection, and 156 serum samples were positive for Ag-B-specific antigen.
Conclusion: The findings showed that the highest infection rate was found in the Boran and Eivazlou (Palanglou) regions of Moghan plain and the lowest level of human infection was reported in Parsabad region (Nadar-kandi and Agh-ghabagh). In areas with higher contamination, the risk factor associated with CE and AE were the type of water used, the method of washing edible and wild vegetables, occupation and having or not having knowledge of hydatid disease. The infection of Moghan region dogs is one of the main indicators and potential risk factors for human infection.
Shahriar Hashemzadeh , Davood Imani , Reza Javad Rashid , Mohammad Kazem Tarzamani , Sajjad Pourasghary ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (4-2018)
Abstract

Background & objectives: 10 year survival rates for thyroid cancer is about 90%, but papillary thyroid cancer often spread to regional lymph nodes resulting in survival rate falls below 90%. In patients with thyroid cancer, cervical lymph node metastasis risk is about 20 to 50 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ultrasound results and the involvement of lymph nodes before thyroidectomy and compare it with the pathologic response after thyroidectomy in patients with non-medullary thyroid cancer.
Methods: 60 patients with thyroid cancer were randomly selected and entered into the study. Ultrasonographic examination of cervical lymph nodes was performed by two radiologists using an ultrasound machine in all patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Patients underwent total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection by surgeon.
Results: In papillary thyroid cancer, there was a significant relationship between ultrasonographic results and pathologic outcomes in determining the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis before thyroidectomy. And also, there was a significant relationship between the results of ultrasonography and pathologic findings in determining the location of affected lymph nodes.
Conclusion: Compared to histological examination, ultrasonography can be a useful tool in determining the location of affected cervical lymph node in thyroid cancers before surgery.
Alireza Lashay, Navid Masoumi, Mahdi Dehghani, Mobin Nakhaie,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (7-2018)
Abstract

Background & objectives: In recent years، Computed Tomography (CT scan) has become the Gold Standard for detecting urinary stones. This study was conducted to predict the size of possible passage of ureteral stones based on clinical signs, lab data (e.g. Ultrasounds) in patients with small passable stones and to prevent CT scan, which requires high costs and x-ray exposure.
Methods: In this cross- sectional study, fifty consecutive patients from emergency room who had clinical symptoms of renal colic and urinary tract stones were recruited by simple non-random sampling. After obtaining the primary data, all of them underwent sonography (US), and in those without sings of stone in US، CT scan was performed. Based on the CT scan, the patients were divided into two main groups: 1) patients who had no ureteral stones or had ureteral stones <5mm, and 2) patient who had ureteral stones 5mm. All gathered data were analyzed by t-test and chi-square test.
Results: Among our proposed variables, previous history of urinary stone (p=0.05), irritative urinary symptoms (e.g. dysuria, frequency and urgency) (p=0.001), gross hematuria (p=0.049) and degree of hydronephrosis (p=0.029) had statistically significant relationship with the presence, size and spontaneous expulsive potential of ureteral stones.
Conclusion: Based on our results, negative history of urinary stones, absence of irritative urinary symptoms and gross hematuria and absence or mild degree of hydronephrosis in sonography were in favor of small (<5mm) or passable ureteral stones for which CT scan can be omitted.
 
Manocher Iran-Parvar , Hasan Anari , Seyed Taha Ghoreishi , Mohammad Javad Naghi-Zadeh , Shadab Mirfakhrayi,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (7-2018)
Abstract

 Background & objectives: Ultrasonography as a non-invasive, inexpensive and generally available method has been used to measure of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries changes and finding its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the carotid arterial wall thickness (IMT) changes based on clinical and para-clinical indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 100 patients with type 2 DM were randomly selected from all patients admitted to diabetes clinics and were considered in terms of clinical and paraclinical indexes of systemic atherosclerosis. Both types of IMT (TA and TB) were measured by ultrasonography in six locations of the carotid system. The intensity of these two values was calculated compared with the normal IMT and also, its relationship with clinical and para clinical indexes were determined. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 19. 
Results: In this study, more than 80% of patients had IMT upper than normal. There was a significant difference between the severe increase of IMT and effective variables such as sex, smoking, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and poor blood glucose control.
Conclusions: This study showed that the DM and factors such as sex, smoking, physical inactivity had a significant effect on the increasing IMT compared to the normal range.

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