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Showing 19 results for Infants

Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.

  It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.

  The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.

Manoochehr Barak , Nayereh Aminisani , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objective: Each year thousands of children under five years old die due to acute respiratory infection and diarrheal diseases. A huge number of infants and children are hospitalized and visited by the physicians whereas most of these diseases can be prevented with timely treatment. Child health maintenance and improvement is one of the most important considerations in each society. Moreover, identifying child morbidity patterns should be a matter of concern in order to improve the health services. This study provides an overview of the leading causes of hospitalization among children with the aim of determining the most important causes of hospitalization and offering appropriate strategies to decrease them.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2001 in Ardabil Ali-Asghar hospital. The subjects were randomly selected from the admission list on a daily basis. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics such as age, sex, time of admission and primary diagnosis was completed for each subject. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.

 Results: A total of 1945 patients were admitted almost half of which were studied. Febrile convulsion was found to be the most common cause of hospitalization (26%) while gastroenteritis (22.1%) and pneumonia (20%) were in the second and third order. Other causes included epilepsy, drug poisoning, meningitis, mumps, drug encephalitis, asthma, etc.

 Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, standard case management is necessary especially about febrile convulsion which is the most common cause of hospitalization. Since the present pattern is different from similar studies, further investigations are required to identify its causes.

Masoumeh Rostamnegad, Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Mother ’ s milk is the best food for the newborns and has positive effects on both mother and infant health, decreasing infant mortality, satisfying emotional needs of mother and infant and economizing the domestic as well as social expenditures. Unfortunately, because of different economical, social and cultural reasons in many parts of the world breast feeding and its length of time has decreased. WHO emphasizes breast feeding in the first six months of life in developing countries. This study is an attempt to determine the causes of unsuccessful breast feeding in the first six months after birth in Ardabil.

  Methods : This descriptive analyticalstudy was conducted on 160 mothers who had 2- month- old or younger infants and did not have exclusive breast feeding until the end of 6 months. The researchers referred to 4 health centers, selected based on cluster sampling, in order to select the qualified mothers and complete the questionnaires in their presence.

 Results: Most of the mothers (37.5%) have begun feedings supplementary nutrition to their infants at the age of 2-4 months. The most common (90.5%) cause for the lack of the exclusive breast feeding was found to be insufficiency of mother milk.Most of the mothers (67%) stated the infant cry as the main reason for this insufficiency. There is a significant relationship between exclusive breast feeding on the one hand and the delivery, time of first feeding, occupation and mother ’ s education on the other (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Social and economic conditions and misbeliefs have all affected the success of exclusive breast feeding. Most of these problems can be prevented through proper trainings.

Farnaz Moslemi Tabrizi, Soosan Rassooli , Simin Atash Khoii , Rasool Azarfarin ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Nitroglycerin is found to have vasodilatory effect. It has also a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of other organs including uterus. This study investigates the effect of intravenous nitroglycerin in emergency cesarean sections in which rapid and transient uterine relaxation for rapid and nontraumatic extraction of the fetus is necessary.

  Methods: Sixty pregnant women who were candidated for emergency cesarean and needed rapid uterine relaxation for different reasons were selected. These subjects underwent spinal anesthesia and at the time of uterine incision, 100 micrograms of nitroglycerin was injected to them intravenously. The time lapse between nitroglycerin administration and fetal extraction, the degree of uterine relaxation, the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage, uterine tone after fetal delivery and APGAR scores of the infants were all controlled and recorded. Also with regard to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin and probably its resultant homodynamic problems, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial O2 saturation were recorded before and after nitroglycerin injection and throughout the surgery.

  Results: The results showed that in 53 (88.3%) of the patients the uterus was acceptably relaxed and the fetus was delivered very easily. Only in 7 patients (11.7%) uterine relaxation was not acceptable. The mean decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after nitroglycerin administration compared with before injection BP was 12.97 mmHg (12.210 %) and 7.86 mmHg (12.208 %), respectively. There was not seen any prolonged effect of the drug such as uterus relaxation tone or abnormal bleeding. Also, none of the delivered infants had low APGAR scores. Besides, in patients with acceptable uterine relaxation the first and fifth minute APGAR score of infants were higher (p = 0.008, p = 0.000).

  Conclusion: This study shows that nitroglycerin can relax uterine smooth muscles very rapidly and transiently and in emergencies it can be an appropriate alternative to the other tocolytic agents with prolonged effect or onset time.

Mohammad Narimani , Parvin Nakhostine Ruhi , Mahnaz Yosefi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression, as a mental disorder, is seen in some women and can threaten their mental health as well as their infants. At least 7% of mothers suffer from this problem after parturition. Studies indicate that many variables are associated with this disorder during and after the gestation period. The aim of this study was to achieve the rate of postpartum depression and its relevant variables among women who referred to the parturition ward of Buali and Emam Hossein hospitals in Tehran.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study a questionnaire construced by researchers as well as Beck 21- item depression inventory were used to collect the data. The subjects (100 cases) responded to the questions individually in the hospitals. According to the type of variables, X2 nonparametric test was used in the data analysis.

 Results: The results of this study indicated that 17% of the subjects were suffering from moderate and severe depression and among the 14 predictive variables of the postpartum depression four variables, namely, matrimonial dissatisfaction, unwanted gestation, unemployment and low economical status of family have significant relationship with the postpartum depression.

 Conclusion: In comparison with the previous studies, the prevalence of postpartum depression is in higher level therefore, it is necessary to increase the information of parturition ward staff about this disorder and inform them to refer any cases of depression to the counseling centers.

Manoogehr Barak , Firooz Amani, Mehrdad Mirza Rahimi , Nateg Abbasgholizadeh, Ali Reza Hamid Kholgh ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Neglecting children can have irremediable and harmful effects on them concerning their growth, evolution, acquisition, and health both at present and in the future. Since lack of nutrition knowledge and failing to observe the principles of infant nutrition is one of the important causes of malnutrition and its unpleasant consequences, we decided to carry out an assessment concerning mothers’ level of awareness about infant nutrition and the factors affecting this knowledge, as well as the effect of this knowledge on growth and development of children.

 Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted to evaluate mothers’ knowledge of infant and neonatal nutrition and its effect on infant growth in Hir health center. The data were collected using a questionnaire, including 20 questions, which was filled out in the health center. Moreover weight, height and head circumference of 100 infants were measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: All mothers’ age ranged between15-36 and were housewives.15% were unlettered, 18% had high school education and others primary or secondary school education. 55% of children were female and 45% male. 67% of mothers had knowledge about proper neonatal and infant nutrition. 97% of them had little knowledge about when to start introducing different nutrients for infants, 3% had moderate knowledge in this regard.

 Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study and the lower knowledge level of mothers about when to start giving different food to infants as well as the importance of proper nutrition in their growth, it is necessary to improve mothers’ knowledge and promote children’s health.

Nader Pashapour, Mohamaad Hosein Hosseinianzakaria,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Yogurt is recommended as a treatment for acute diarrhea. This study was conducted to determine the effect of pasteurized yogurt consumption on acute non-bloody and non-mucoid diarrhea in hospitalized 6-24 month old infants as compared with that of routine treatment.

 Methods: In a clinical trial study 80 children with 6 to 24 months of age with diarrhea for less than four days and were hospitalized in Urmia Imam Hospital, were assigned into two groups. The first group consumed yogurt containing streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus bullgaris 5 ml/kg per day while the second group received the routine treatment. Those suffering from malnutrition, bloody stool and diarrhea without GI source were excluded. Reduction of diarrhea frequency to half compared to admission time was regarded as response to treatment. Weight gaining, duration of admission and reduction of diarrhea frequency were compared in two groups.

 Results: The two groups were not significantly different in terms of age, weight and frequency of diarrhea at the time of admission. Mean hospitalization days, weight gaining, reduction of diarrhea frequency were 2.7±0.91 days, 435± 89.30 grams, and 4.30±1.74 times respectively for case group and, 3.1± 0.74 days, 383 ± 98.96 grams, and 3.60±1.23 times for control group respectively. No significant differences were observed between two groups regarding mean hospitalization days (P=0.035), reduction of diarrhea frequency (P=0.049) and weight gain (P= 0.017).

 Conclusion: Consuming pasteurized yogurt as a probiotic agent has a positive effect in treatment of acute nonbloody and nonmucoid diarrhea. Public use of yogurt is recommended.

Kazem Sakha, Arman Malekian,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Regarding the admitted cases at early infancy in Tabriz Pediatrics Medical Center, this research was carried out to determine the role of Hep.B. vaccination in the incidence of ITP.

 Methods: We studied all patients’ admission files in Tabriz Pediatrics Center from 1993 to 2002. The patients were under 6 months of age and hospitalized with the impression of ITP. There were 25 infants whose ITP was diagnosed upon their clinical findings, blood counts and bone marrow aspiration and confirmed by exclusion of other causes of thrombocytopenia. Hep. B. vaccination has been included in routine immunization in Iran since 1993. In order to compare the incidence rate of ITP before and after 1993, we also sought all ITP patients’ files at the same age group who had been admitted to Tabriz Pediatrics Center during the decade before the beginning of routine Hep.B. vaccination (i.e. 1982 to 1992).

 Results: This study shows a considerable increase in incidence of ITP in infants under 6 months of age between 1993 asnd 2002 compared to the decade before the beginning of Hep.B.vaccination, which is statistically significant (P=0.0029).

 Conclusion: Although there is no facility to measure antibodies in Iran and many other countries, and this is one of the reasons for lack of proof for existence of a relationship between vaccination and ITP incidence, the study of cases in two different periods may strengthen the role of Hep.B. vaccination in the occurrence of ITP at early infancy.

Habib Ojaghi, Rahim Maasoomi, Nasrin Mazaheri Garangah, Mohsen Sagha,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Considering the high prevalance of congenital obstruction of nasolacrimal ducts in infants and the importance of timely intervention and due to the lack of previous similar researches in Ardebil province, and regarding the discrepancies in the reports about the degree of successful accomplishment of the first probing, the researchers set out to design and perform the present research among the patients referring to ophthalmology ward.

  Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 children suffering from congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction who had undergone pobing surgery in Alavi hospitaly between 2000 and 2002.

  Results: 70 eyes of 50 patients were examined. 27 (54%) were male and 23 (46%) were female. 20 of them (40%) had bilateral involvement and 30 (60%) had unilateral one. Involvement of right eye (60%) was more than left eye (40%) and was expected in first child (56%) more than subsequent offsprings. Clinical manifestation was epiphora in 44%, prulent discharge in 12% and epiphora with prulent discharge in 44%. 90% of the subjects were operated for the first time while 10% had had 2-3 operations before complete recovery was observed in 48% of the patients 46% of them had relative improvement and no recovery was witnessed in 6% of them.

 Conclusion: This study showed that the male infants were affected more than females, and the rate of involvement in right eye as well as in first children was relarively high. Also the rate of recovery among unilateral groups and infants under 1 year of age was considerably high, so it is recommended that the patients of this age group undertake a therapy with topical antibiotic and lacrimal sac massage and because of the low success of the surgery above 2 years of age, probing is recommended from 6 month to 18 months of age if medical treatment was unsuccessful.

Hasan Anari, Farhad Salehzadeh , Ramin Mirmohammadi , Simin Monshari ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)

 Background & Objective: Developmental dislocation of hip (DDH) as an inherited joint disorder results from external location of the head of femora from the acetabulum.Early diagnosis of this disorder is very important and any delay may result in long life handicap. Nowadays new methods such as sonogrphy are recommended in diagnosis of this disorder. Radiology and physical examination are traditional methods. This study was designed to evaluate the results of sonographical, radiological and physical examination findings in 100 infants who were suspected to have DDH.

 Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was done in private clinics from June 2004 to June 2005. The one hundred infants who were suspected to have DDH in physical examination entered the study. A questionnaire was completed for each infant, and then sonography and radioghray have been done for them. The data were collected and analyzed by statistical programs.

 Results: Among 100 infants 48% were female and 52% male, with mean age 42±7.23.In 44% they were the firstborn.58% had normal delivery and 42% cesarean section. 15% had breech presentation. In 28% radiological and 56% sonographical methods showed findings in favor of DDH.

 Conclusion: This study showed, simultaneous physical and sonographic examination especially during the first month result in early and precise diagnosis of DDH, on the other hand it does not have radiologic side effects.

Nayereh Amini Sani , Manoochehr Barak , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Firooz Amani , Saadollah Mohammadi , Benyamin Fazli ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)

  Background & Objectives: The high incidence of low birth weight (LBW) occurs in developing countries, and diarrhea and respiratory infections are the main causes of infant mortality and morbidity. This study was done to find out whether there was a growth or morbidity response to zinc supplememttion, among LBW infants during the first 6 mo of life.

  Methods: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial study. LBW infants were given daily for 6mo 5mg zn, or a placebo. Questionnairs were filled out during the study by a pediatrician and a GP. Anthropometric measurements were made at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 wk via home visits by trained interviewers.

  Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in zinc and placebo groups. Weight gain in zinc group was significantly higher that of placebo group between 1 to 6 months (p=0.036). Length and head circumference gain were also greater in zinc group than in placebo groups, (p=0.04, p<0.001). The episodes of upper respiratory infections was greater in placebo group than zinc group (mean Episodes in zinc groups= 1.7 and in placebo group was 3) and there was significant difference between two groups (p=0.005). 8 Cases of lower respiratory infections in placebo group and 5 cases in zinc group were observed, but it was not significan diarrheal episods were observed only in placebo groups.

  Conclusion: It was found that low birth weight infants had better growth and lower morbidity during the first 6 months of life by receiving zinc supplementation.

Vahed Alaei, Farhad Salehzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)

 Background & Objectives: Identifying urinary tract infection, especially in infants and young children is very important from the viewpoint of start of treatment, and if it is delayed probably the children are affected by risk of failure to thrive, sepsis and chronic problems such as renal scars, increase of arterial blood pressure and renal failure. Increasing usage of antibiotics, result in AB resistance microorganism. This study was done because of bacterial differences in resistance in different regions and the change in the rate of resistance in UTI.

 Methods:This research is a descriptive-prospective study 510 children under the age of 12 as the study samples were chosen. These children were referred to clinics of Ardabil Aliasghar and Sabalan Hospitals in 2006. Their urine culture colony was above 100000. Data gathering was accomplished by their parents through questionnaire and interview's then gathered Data were analyzed by computer software programs of the SPSS and Excel.

 Results:Findings of research showed that symptoms of malodorous urine (54.7%) in children under 12 months, dysuria (58.9%) in 1-3 years age groups, frequency (54.8%) in 3-6 years old groups dysuria (49.2%) in 6 years old groups and above were most prevalent symptoms which were reported. From the viewpoint of gender differences UTI in girls was 4 times more than that of boys that this difference in 1-3 years old groups was highest range (4.8 to 1). About antibiotical resistancy of microorganisms, Ampicillin with 78.9% resistance, Co-trimoxazole with 66%, Cephalexin with 62.8% and cephazoline with 33.3% were most resistant antibiotics respectively. E-coli resistance against gentamicine was 15.8%, that compared with other microorganisms is very high and its resistance against ceftriaxon was 8%, which is low compared with other microorganisms.

 Conclusion: Findings of research showed the variety of UTI symptoms in children and also showed that drug resistancy against Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Cephalexin and cephazoline is high.


Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Hakimeh Saadati, Manoochehr Barak , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Ahad Azami, Afsaneh Enteshari ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Birth weight less than 2500gr (as result of preterm delivery and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)) is a major cause of both neonatal health. Predominate cause of LBW in developed countries is premature birth, whereas in developing countries is more often IUGR. Different risk factors, including demographic and behavioral during and before pregnancy are effective in LBW incidences which can reduce LBW and neonatal mortality rate by identification and control of these risk factors. The present study has been carried out with purpose of identification and decreasing the LBW rate in Ardabil.

 Methods: In this case – control study all infants delivered in 2006 in hospitals in Ardabil were investigated. Every neonate whose weight was less than 2500gr was taken as a case (n=470) and 482 neonates whose weight was more than 2500gr was taken as a control. Data gathering was done through questionnaires, interviewing the mothers and physical examination. The data were analyzed statistically through SPSS.

 Results: In the present study, the presence of LBW amount is %6.4 in Ardabil hospitals. The results of our study showed that a significant relationship existed between prematurely and gestational age<37wk, mother’s age, mother’s job and maternal weight, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), maternal diseases, multiple births, bleeding during pregnancy, interval between pregnancies less than <2 years, prior history of low birth weight, use of drugs by mother in pregnancy, congenital malformation with LBW. In this study relation between parity, the use of Folic Acid, Fe, cigarette smoking and addiction of mother, living area (village or city), family marriage, health care and mother’s education were not significant with LBW.

  Conclusion: The LBW important risk factors in Ardabil hospitals were prematurity or gestational age <37wk, multiple pregnancies, PROM, mother’s age over 35 years, and mother weight <50kg, maternal diseases.

Samira Shahbazzadegan , Kazem Hashemimajd, Behzad Shahbazi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2010)

  Background & Objectives : Excessive amounts of nitrate and nitrite in food causes to increasing the risk of gut and intestinal cancer in adults and met-hemoglobinemia disease in infants. Human body intake about 80% of nitrate from fruits and vegetables. This research carried out with the aim of determining the nitrate concentration of fruits and vegetables consumed by Ardabil citizens and to compare with acceptable levels.

  Methods : Samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from 10 markets around Ardabil city in September and October of 2009. The samples were washed two times with tap and distilled water, dried at 55 ºC and their moisture content were measured. Samples were ground with regular and ball mills and 0.025 molar aluminum sulfate solution was used to extraction. Nitrate concentration of extracts was measured with anion selective apparatus with nitrate electrode. To investigate the possibility of nitrate intake reduction by peeling, the skin and meat of some fruits and vegetables samples were measured, separately. SPSS software was used for determining of mean and standard deviation of sample's nitrate concentration. Duncan multiple range test was used for grouping of fruits and vegetables in the respect of their nitrate concentration.

  Results : The concentration of nitrate in leafy vegetables was higher than those of root and glandy vegetables. Fruits had lower nitrate concentration than vegetables. The highest nitrate concentrations were observed in spring onion, purple headed cabbage, and spinach with the amounts of 1555.8, 1394.8, and 1021 mg/kg of wet weight and lowest belonged to red and golden apples with the amounts of 29.7 and 29.9 mg/kg, respectively. Most of fruits and vegetables samples had lower nitrate than acceptable levels.

  Conclusion: With regards to high consumption rate of some fruits and vegetables and great variation of nitrate concentration, additional investigation and permanent control of their nitrate concentration is necessary.

Fatemeh Dorre , Gholamali Fattahi Bayat ,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2011)

  Background & objectives: Screening and early diagnosis of delayed development in children particularly among high risk groups are obligatory. Children with a history of one or more risk factors in pre-natal, peri-natal and post-natal periods are prone to delayed development in comparison with normal population. This study was launched to assess the developmental status in children with a history of NICU admission.

  Methods : In this study 114 children, aged between 4-60 months with a history of NICU admission were recruited. ASQ questionnaires including information in 5 fields: communication, fine and gross motor status, personal-social and problems solving, were filled for each one of the cases by their parents. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test.

  Results: Among 114 cases, there were 71.1% male. Totally 70.2% of cases were premature. The most prevalent reason for admission was immaturity. The average weight of infants was 2233 ± 680 gram. Figures of abnormal findings in 5 fields were: communication 20.2%, gross motor 17.5%, fine motor 19.3%, problem solving 8.8% and personal-social 16.7%. In this study 67.5% of children showed normal development while 6.1% were abnormal in all 5 fields and 26.3% were abnormal in at least one filed. Statistically, there weren’t significant differences between various developmental fields and genus, length of hospital stay and birth weight.

  Conclusion : Despite normal developmental status in majority of children with a history of NICU admission, a considerable number of them had delayed development in at least one field. These findings suggest a need for patient screening and intense follow up programs.

Manoochehr Barak , Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Firouz Amani , Gholamreza Asadi, Gity Rahimi , Elham Khadem,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (11-2012)

  Background & Objective: Currently, migration of rural population to cities and developing slums around them are main problems in population settlement that lead to imbalance in health standards such as difference in age groups death. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with infant mortality in slums of the Ardabil city.

  Methods: This was a case- control study. All infants’ deaths from 2008 to 2010, which occurred in slums as a case, were included. For each case, tow controls, were chosen. Controls the ones who survived and were living in non marginalized area and years of birth and sex were matched in two groups. Information collected from health centers through questionnaires, interviews with parents and child death files.

  Results: The majority of mortalities (74.6%) were in neonatal period and 25.4% was in post- neonatal period. The most important causes of deaths in neonatal were prematurity (57%), and in post neonatal period were congenital abnormality (35.4%). Analysis of effective factors showed that birth weight, parents age and education, family income and occupation and smoking of father were highly associated with mortalities.

  Conclusion: Infant mortality of the family that their father is a smoker and they have low income, and low parental education level is significantly higher and should be taken into serious consideration to reduce the mortality.

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin , Kimyia Rahimi , Ali Pezeshki , Firooz Amani , Peyman Azghani , Soltan Asghari , Elham Raeisi ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (4-2015)

  Background & objectives: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite lives and also causes symptoms in urogenital system of human. Trichomoniasis is the widest spread infection which is transmitted through sexual contact and more than 170 million people are a ffected with Trichomonas vaginalis in the world. Trichomonas vaginalis in women causes pelvic inflammatory disease, increase in the risk of fallopian tube dependent infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, the birth of low weight infants and the increase in the possibility of HIV transmission. Considering the importance of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women and lack of data from Ardabil city, this study was performed to identify this infection in pregnant women referred to health and medical centers of Ardabil city.

  Methods: Vaginal discharge from 500 pregnant women was collected with sterile swap and disposable speculum and examined for Trichomonas vaginalis by direct microscopic examination and cultured in Diamond specific medium. A testimonial and questionnaire were completed for each case and the results analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS statistical software version 19.

  Results: In this study, the culture of samples displayed 12 positive cases (2.4%). Furthermore, Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites were observed in five cases (1%) with direct microscopic examination. Among 12 positive cases, five respondents (41.7%) were in age range of 16-25 years and seven (58.3%) in 26-35 years old. Among different clinical manifestations there was a significant relation between discharge and the infection.

  Conclusion: The present survey confirmed the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women of Ardabil city. Therefore, an effective healthcare program by health authorities for prevention of infection in this group seems to be needed.

Hasan Boskabadi, Maryam Kalateh Molaee ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Background & objectives: Weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration is a common problem in infants with inadequate nutrition. Determination of risk factors and clinical characteristics of these neonates may help to prevent or early detection of hypernatremia. This study designed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs and risk factors for hypernatremic dehydration.

Methods: This study is a sectional descriptive study that conducted on 418 newborns during 1385 to 1393 AHS that referred to Ghaem hospital in Mashhad. The hypernatremic group consisted of 197 neonates with serum sodium level higher than 150 mg/dl and 221 isonatremic newborns with sodium level less than 150 mmol/L were included as controls. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical symptoms of dehydration and maternal risk factors. All data were recorded and coded. Data analysis performed using paired T test and chi square tests by SPSS 16 software.

Results: In the present study, 2.8% of infants were hypernatremic. The most common symptoms were neonatal jaundice (62.2%), hyperthermia (25.8%), lethargy (23.6%), agitation (20.8 %) and mucous membranes dryness (17.2%). Problems in pregnancy (p=0.002), inappropriate feeding techniques (p=0.000), the first lactation duration (p=0.022) and frequency per day (p=0.000) had statistically significant difference between case and control groups.

Conclusion: Prevalence of hypernatremic dehydrationis considerable in our study and identifying the risk factors may help to reduce its incidence or exacerbation. Weight loss, especially in newborns having jaundice, hyperthermia and irritability, may be helpful in the early diagnosis of hypernatremic dehydration

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin , Hannane Javanpour Heravi , Mohsen Arzanlou, Mohammadreza Sarvi ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background & objectives: Candidiasis is a fungal infection which is caused by Candida spp. Candida albicans is the most common agent of candidiasis. This infection may cause various side effects during pregnancy including prematurity, chorioamnionitis, candidal pneumonia, and systemic candidiasis of infants. This research was conducted for determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Candida spp, collected from pregnant women admitted to health centers in Ardabil, Iran.

Methods: Totally, 408 subjects were included in this study. Demographic data and risk factors were recorded using a questionnaire. Two swab samples were taken from vulvovaginal mucus. One swab was used for preparing smear and direct microscopic examination and the second one used for cultivating the specimen. After identification of Candida spp., antimicrobial resistance pattern was determined by disk diffusion method against Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Nystatin and Amphotericin B. Results were interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. The data were analyzed by χ2 and t-test using SPSS-19.

Results: Out of 408 subjects, 143 cases (35%) were positive for candida spp. The Candida albicans with 119 (83.2%) cases was the most prevalent species followed by Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parpsilosis and Candida tropicalis.According to disk diffusion test, overall 116 (81.1%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, 100 (69.9%) to Ketoconazole, 67 (46.9%) to Clotrimazole and 25 (17.5%) to Amphotericin B. Candida spp. had a highest sensitivity (118, 82.5%) to Nystatin. For Candida albicans 97(81.5%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole and 99(83.2%) isolates to Nystatin. For Candida glabrata 10 (90.9%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, and 9(81.8%) sensitive to Nystatin.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, vulvovaginal candidiasis is prevalent among pregnant women in Ardabil and isolates were significantly resistant against commonly used antifungal drugs. Nystatin was the most effective against Candida spp. As antibiogram for fungal agents is not routinely performed, the similar periodical studies could be useful for choosing appropriate antibiotics in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. 

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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