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Showing 154 results for Women

Parvin Dibajnia, Maryam Bakhtiari ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : Entering the university is an urgent event in the life of the young’s, that causes a lot of changes in their social relationships. This study was performed in order to evaluate students mental health in the Faculty of Rehabilitation at Shahid Beheshti University in spring 2002.

  Methods : For this descriptive and analytical study,120 students were selected including

  86 female and 34 male of whom 109 were single and 11 were married. The sampling method was unrandom. These students were requested to fill General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as well as personal information Questionnaire.

  Results : According to this study, the mean score of students’ GHQ was 21.96(with 8.76 S.D) and 31.6% of students were suspected suffering from a kind of mental disorders .

  Conclusion: Statistical method in this research showed no significant difference between men and women, single and married and different age groups. This study suggests further psychological evaluation and adequate counseling service to promote students mental health.

Saryeh Golmohammadlo , Farzaneh Bromand ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : One percent of emergency ward receptions are acute abdomen problems. Gynecological causes include 20%of them. Relation between physiology of women and abdominal pains challenges diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis in these cases have no substitution and studies about accuracy of diagnosis helps to correct future clinical diagnosis .

  Methods : A cross-sectional study conducted over 148 women whom admitted for acute abdomen causes and operation in Urmia Kosar Hospital during 1375-79. Data of history and Para clinical and also pre and post operation diagnosis Collected by related questionnaire and interpreted .

  Results : Ectopic pregnancy (39.9%), ruptured ovarian cyst (23.6%), ovarian cyst torsion(18.2 % ), abdomen masses unrelated to gynecological system (4.1%), were respectively common causes. Two cases were normal. Five appendicitis cases diagnosed after laparatomy. We observed 76% similarity of diagnosis before and after laparatomy, which coordinated with other studies. Ectopic pregnancy with 66 cases of diagnosis before and 53cases confirmation after operation was related to over diagnosis and 22 cases of ovarian cyst ruptures before operation and 36 cases of them after operation were related to under diagnosis .

  Conclusion : Considering the results, common causes of acute abdomen incur most frequent misdiagnoses. So keeping in mind that sometimes common cases appear atypically and on time using of paraclinic measures can help the surgeon to diagnose correctly before laparatomy .

Farnaz Ehdaivand ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease. The prevalence of endometriosis in the reproductive age of women varies between 3-10%. Cesarean scar endometriosis is a rare event and rare cases have been reported in gynecologic and surgical articles. The incidence of cesarean section scar endometriosis is not accurately determined but ranges from 0.03% to 0.15% and in some other articles the incidence up to 1% has been reported. Frequently the cesarean scar endometriosis is not diagnosed until before surgery (80%) and usually the patients are operated on the basis of some pre-operative diagnoses such as kelloid, hematoma, suture granuloma, incisional herina and neoplasm. The most common symptom is cyclic and periodic pains in the area of operation which appear approximately 1-7 years after cesarean section. The accurate diagnosis is made by pathology. In this article a patient with cyclic and severe pain in cesarean scar area for 8 years is reported. The patient had been treated with anti- inflammatory drugs for several years without any diagnosis. The patient was operated with diagnosis of subcutaneous mass and probably suture granuloma and the final pathologic report was Endometriosis. The choice treatment for cesarean scar endometriosis is surgery, and awareness about this unusual complication of it will increase the probability of preoperative diagnosis.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.

Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Mahdi Mohebali , Seyedhashem Sezavar, Arman Javanrozegar , Darioush Emdadi , Vahid Sepehram , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Backgrond & Objective: In recent years, malaria has been a serious problem in Parsabad (a north-western town in Iran). A lot of health-care funding has been allocated to malaria campaign program in this area. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical epidemiology of malaria during 1999-2000.

 Methods: The data collected through epidemiology forms filled for 509 malaria positive cases during 1999- 2000 was analyzed by EPI2000 software. Frequency tables, X2 test and one way ANOVA were used in this analysis.

 Results: All 509 Malaria cases diagnosed were P vivax. They belonged to the first seven-month of the year. 69.4% of malaria cases were related to the year 2000 and the others were related to 1999. The most frequent symptoms were chills in 488 cases (95.9%) and fever in 481 of them (94.5%). Sweating was found only in 3.9% of the reported cases. Mean age and standard deviation of patients was 22.9 + 15.6. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the distribution of fever and chills.

 Conclusions: The high prevalence of fever and chills was compatible with the findings of previous studies. If one of the two symptoms is positive in the residents of this area or those people traveling there, malaria should be suspected.

Afsar Foroud , Afsaneh Foroud ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : In order to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity, midwives should be able to implement community cares for women and their families. The aim of this study is to investigate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery (COM).

  Methods : In this cross sectional study, all 280 midwives working in Kerman hospitals and health service centers were selected. The questioner for data collection had two parts. The first part intended to describe the characteristics of samples and the second part was used to evaluate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery. Correlation and chi - square tests were used to analyze the data.

  Results : Mean of knowledge score was 21.13 and 16.4% of the subjects had a good knowledge of COM. Mean of attitude score was 77.07 and 61.8% of the samples had a positive attitude towards COM. 79.2% of samples announced their readiness to practice COM.

  Conclusions : Based on the findings of this study it seems that the professional knowledge of midwives should be promoted, regarding COM.

Nayereh Aminisani , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and accounts for the majority of their deaths due to the cancer. Hence, diagnosing its risk factors is of great importance. In this study the association between abortion and breast cancer risk was investigated.

  Methods : In this Case- Control study in Mashhad, 105 patients with confirmed breast cancer were compared with 105 healthy women who were living in their neighborhood and were the same age. A questionnaire including demographic information as well as same questions regarding the factors associated with conception and emphasising abortion were used to collect the data, which then were analyzed using SPSS ver 9.

  Results : the findings indicated a relationship between breast cancer and history of abortion, compared to women with no history of abortion (OR=2.09 95% CI=1.18- 3.69). Also there was a significant relationship between the frequency of abortion and breast cancer (P=0.008 ). but odds ratio was not higher among women whose age at first abortion was less than 20 years. Also abortion before first full- term pregnancy increased breast cancer risk (OR= 5.97 95% CI=1.18-19.6). But the age at the time of abortion did not have any effect on the breast cancer risk.

  Conclusions : The findings suggested that the risk of breast cancer has a positive relationship with frequency of abortion and the risk is even higher if the abortion occurs before the first full-term pregnancy. Thus, health interventions seem to be necessary in this regard.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.

Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.

  Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.

  Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.

  Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.

Tahereh Seghatoleslam, Omidvar Rezaee , Kobra Aghighi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

 Background & Objective: Dependence on substance or addiction is a psychological disturbance. This is referred to as substance abuse in psychological classifications and is the second most common psychological disturbance. On the other hand depression is an instance of disturbance, which is observed among the victims of substance abuse. This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) of depression among patients with substance abuse.

 Methods: Using experimental method, 28 men and women (23-35 years, normal IQ) with substance abuse were randomly selected according to DSMIV criteria. These subjects had been under anti-addiction medication for two years, without adequate control, and were divided into two groups. The two groups received the following treatments for 6 weeks: 1- Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 2- No specific psychological treatment (control group). Two instruments were used to collect data namely Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate depression and demographic forms to record the information.

 Results: The data were analyzed using repeated measurements including a pretest and two posttests. In pretest, according to scores of both groups from Beck test, there was a severe depression among the subjects. However in the second and third posttests these scores fell significantly. The intra-group and inter-group tests showed that these reduction in scores was related to the intra-group differences.

 Conclusions: CBT has had an important role in treatment of depression among patients with substance abuse. Psychological intervention was able to help them change their cognition by decreasing depression and enable them to have a more positive belief in controlling themselves against dependency. It seems that taking psychologically team-approach (both theoretically and practically) about control strategies and treatment of depression in patients with substance abuse can deeply improve their life style as well as their individual and social relations.

Adalat Hosseinian , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Mohammadtaghi Nikneghad , Farid Ghosseili, Zahra Mussavi , Eilnaz Mohammadi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

 Background & Objective: Despite all improvements in diagnosis and treatment, one third of patients with Myocardial infarction lose their life. Different studies have shown that cardiac arrhythmia are the most common cause of death in MI, and cardiac blocks are one of the important groups of these arrhythmia, which are effective in prognosis, duration of hospitalization and hospital mortality of the patients.

  Methods : In this study, 630 patients with AMI, who were admitted in CCU of Bou-Ali hospital in Ardabil from January 1998 to January 2001 were studied and the data were callected with the help of questionnaires and secondary data analysis method. The data were analyzed with statistical methods.

  Results : 9.4% of cases in this study had AV block and 30.2% had bundle branch block. 40.5% of men and 37.6% of women had at least one kind of block(in AV node or bundle branch), but no significant relation was found between sex and these blocks. Also, 62% of in-hospital mortalities of patients with AMI were in association with blocks (AV or bundle branch) and only 38% of mortalities were without blocks. This showed a meaningful relation between hospital mortality and these kinds of blocks (p <0.05 ).

 Conclusions: The total frequency of AV and bundle branch blocks due to AMI, was 39.6% which is similar to other studies, but what is remarkable in this study, is the higher prevalence of bundle branch blocks due to AMI.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

  Background & Objective : Despite the ever increasing use of oral contraceptives there is uncertainty about the stroke risk associated with their use. Some cases of pulmonary Emboli and stroke have been reported among women taking these pills. The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between taking contraceptive pills and the risk of ischemic stroke.

  Methods : In a case-control study, women with definite ischemic stroke were selected from Alavi Hospital in Ardabil who had no prior stroke. The control group was age-matched ( ± 3years) to cases and were selected from other wards of the same hospital. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information about prior exposure to various risk factors, including the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver. 12) and statistical methods such as chi-square, multivariate regression and ANOVA. The risk factor were estimated by odds ratio.

 Results: OCP consumption was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR=5.4 95% CI=1.1-5.3), and after adjustment for other risk factors of stroke it was OR=2.7 (95% CI=0. 95-7.2) with p=0.05.

 Conclusions: According to this study there was weak evidence for an association between ischemic stroke and OCP consumption. Extended studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk of stroke and the present/ past use of OCP.

Homayoun Sadeghi , Nayereh Aminisani , Shahnam Arshi, Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: World health organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the reproduction health, which plays a crucial role in women health care and its promotion. The purpose of this study is to determine reproductive factors among Ashayer women in Ardabil province.

 Methods: Part of the plan entitled Investigating health and disease among Ashayer in Ardabil which was conducted in 2003 aimed at determining the reproduction indices using a structured questionnaire. The present research was a cross-sectional study in which the data regarding the reproductive status of the Ashayer women were extracted, collected and analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics.

 Results: 268 women at the age of 10-49 completed the questionnaire. Mean age of marriage among women was 18.2, 8.6% of them had a history of stillbirth, 18.1% abortion and 38.19% unwanted pregnancy. 31.4% of the subjects did not have any reproductive health care, and 67.6% of those who did so were taken care less than four times.

 Conclusion: Improvement of reproductive indices among these women requires proper health care programs in order to enhance family planning services as well as reproductive health. This can prevent future outcomes such as unwanted pregnancy and other related complications.

Mohammadreza Ghodraty , Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Firooz Amani , Shahnaz Rahimi , Nasrin Shahab ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Regional anesthesia is a method of choice in cesarean section. But in emergency cesarean sections general anesthesia is usually preferred. On the other hand, intravenous sedative drugs used in general anesthesia induction rapidly crosses the placenta and result in fetal depression. Because of higher prevalence of general anesthesia in Iran it is reasonable to conduct more researches in this field. This study set out to compare the effects of Propofol and Thiopental-Na as induction agents on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal hemodynamic status.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 60 pregnant women with ASA class I & II were studied. In a random way 30 patients received 2mg/kg Propofol and the rest of them were given 4mg/kg of Thiopental-Na. All these subjects had full term and normal fetus. Pre and post-induction status of the patients was monitored noninvasively after tracheal intubations and during 12 minutes after that. Also time intervals between induction and birth (cord clipping) and between uterus incision and birth were measured. Apgar score of neonates was evaluated through clinical examination in 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th minutes after birth. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi-square and ANOVA.

 Results: Apgar score in different times (1.5,10&15 minute) had no significant difference between two groups. (In the 1st minute Propofol was 7.1 ± 2.2 and Thiopental was 74 ± 1.8, in the 5th minute Propofol was 9.2 ± 0.7 and Thiopental was 9.1 ± 0.9) Maximum variation of heart rate and blood pressure in two groups were not significantly different. The time intervals between induction and birth (less than 8 minutes) on the one hand and uterus incision and birth(less than 130 seconds) on the other were similar in two groups.

  Conclusions : Thiopental-Na and Propofol can be used with similar results for induction of general anesthesia in cesarean section.

Afrouz Mardi , Parviz Molavi , Zahra Tazakori , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

 Background & Objective: Postpartum depression is a problematic and important disease and if not recognized and treated on time, it can be aggravated or chronic. Exercise is strongly recommended in this regard to prevent any family disorders and improve the health of mother, child and family. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on mild postpartum depression among women referring to Ardabil health centers.

  Methods : This study was a double blind clinical trial. About 50 subjects with normal vaginal delivery were selected. The subjects had referred to health canters in the second week after delivery and were diagnosed to have mild depression using Beck depression test. They were randomly divided into two groups (exercise and non-exercise). Then Beck test was done 6 weeks after delivery again and the results were compared in two groups.

  Results : The findings indicated that between mildly depressed mothers, 36% were 26-30 years old, 82% were housekeeper, 44% had under diploma education, 60% had two previous deliveries. 56% of exercise group and 32% of non-exercise group were treated. 8% of experimental subjects and 18% of control ones needed psychological consultation 6 weeks after delivery. T-test showed significant differences between two groups (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Results showed that exercise had a positive effect on the treatment of mild postpartum depression. As a result it is recommended strongly in postpartum care.

Farnaz Ehdaivand , Masoumeh Rostamnegad , Homayoun Sadeghi , Nayereh Aminisani,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Cesarean section is one of the most common surgeries in women. In developed countries the rate of cesarean section is reported to be 21.2%. In Iran, the rate of cesarean section is even higher than the international norms. In a study in Ardabil, in 2001, cesarean section rate came out to be 42.86%. Postoperative pain after cesarean is one of the complications that all mothers experience in one-way or another. Besides bothering mother it can disorder newborn feeding, ambulation of mother and bonding between newborn and mother if it is not controlled effectively. This study was conducted to compare the effect of intramuscular Methadone and Diclofenac suppository for pain relief after cesarean section in Alavi hospital, Ardabil.

  Methods: This study was a double blind clinical trial. 56 women who experienced cesarean section for the first time were randomly divided into two groups. Diclofenac suppository (100 mg every 8hr) was given to first group and Methadone (5 mg every 8hr) was injected to the second group for 24 hours. Then, the severity of pain was measured with numerical scoring in serial postoperative visits. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated that the severity of pain in 2nd, 3rd and 4th postoperative visits was significantly lower in patients who received Diclofenac suppositories than the other group (p<0.05). But overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the pain severity in Methadone receiving group (Mean & SD= 5.85 ± 3.5) and Diclofenac receiving group (Mean & SD= 6.46 ± 2.9).

  Conclusion: There was no significant difference between Diclofenac suppository and Methadone in terms of decreasing the postoperative pain after cesarean section. However, regarding the restrictions in the use of opioids, Diclofenac can be a suitable replacement for these drugs.

Soheila Rabiey Poor , Shohreh Afshar Yavari ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives : Smoking is one of the major problems in the world today. It threatens people ’ s health. Pregnant women are no exception in this regard. Today, it is found that smoker women bear low birth weight babies, but the studies don ’ t offer clear findings about passive smoking in pregnancy and its effect on weight and height of newborns. This study is an attempt to determine the effects of passive smoking on the weight and height of the newborn babies.

  M ethods : This was a retrospective cohort study. We studied 100 pregnant mothers who were exposed to cigarette smoke and 100 others who were not. A checklist was completed in order to select those who could enter the study. A questionnaire was then filled out for both groups including the information related to the newborns ’ physical specifications.

  Results: This study showed that the average age of the mothers, their education, their husband ’ s education, number of pregnancies and the sex of babies born weren ’ t meaningfully different between the two groups. In the case group the mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2.36 ± 2.28 hours on average and most of them (72%) were exposed to their husbands ’ cigarette smoke. The findings also indicated that difference in weight, height and head circumference among two groups ’ newborns were 11 grams, 0.15 cm and 0.02 cm respectively. The T-test indicated no significant difference between the two groups.

  Conclusion: The study showed that the newborns ’ of mothers exposed to the smoke had lower weigh, height and head circumference than the babies ’ of the control group subjects although the difference was not statistically significant.

Masoumeh Rostamnegad, Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Mother ’ s milk is the best food for the newborns and has positive effects on both mother and infant health, decreasing infant mortality, satisfying emotional needs of mother and infant and economizing the domestic as well as social expenditures. Unfortunately, because of different economical, social and cultural reasons in many parts of the world breast feeding and its length of time has decreased. WHO emphasizes breast feeding in the first six months of life in developing countries. This study is an attempt to determine the causes of unsuccessful breast feeding in the first six months after birth in Ardabil.

  Methods : This descriptive analyticalstudy was conducted on 160 mothers who had 2- month- old or younger infants and did not have exclusive breast feeding until the end of 6 months. The researchers referred to 4 health centers, selected based on cluster sampling, in order to select the qualified mothers and complete the questionnaires in their presence.

 Results: Most of the mothers (37.5%) have begun feedings supplementary nutrition to their infants at the age of 2-4 months. The most common (90.5%) cause for the lack of the exclusive breast feeding was found to be insufficiency of mother milk.Most of the mothers (67%) stated the infant cry as the main reason for this insufficiency. There is a significant relationship between exclusive breast feeding on the one hand and the delivery, time of first feeding, occupation and mother ’ s education on the other (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Social and economic conditions and misbeliefs have all affected the success of exclusive breast feeding. Most of these problems can be prevented through proper trainings.

Farnaz Moslemi Tabrizi, Soosan Rassooli , Simin Atash Khoii , Rasool Azarfarin ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Nitroglycerin is found to have vasodilatory effect. It has also a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of other organs including uterus. This study investigates the effect of intravenous nitroglycerin in emergency cesarean sections in which rapid and transient uterine relaxation for rapid and nontraumatic extraction of the fetus is necessary.

  Methods: Sixty pregnant women who were candidated for emergency cesarean and needed rapid uterine relaxation for different reasons were selected. These subjects underwent spinal anesthesia and at the time of uterine incision, 100 micrograms of nitroglycerin was injected to them intravenously. The time lapse between nitroglycerin administration and fetal extraction, the degree of uterine relaxation, the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage, uterine tone after fetal delivery and APGAR scores of the infants were all controlled and recorded. Also with regard to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin and probably its resultant homodynamic problems, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial O2 saturation were recorded before and after nitroglycerin injection and throughout the surgery.

  Results: The results showed that in 53 (88.3%) of the patients the uterus was acceptably relaxed and the fetus was delivered very easily. Only in 7 patients (11.7%) uterine relaxation was not acceptable. The mean decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after nitroglycerin administration compared with before injection BP was 12.97 mmHg (12.210 %) and 7.86 mmHg (12.208 %), respectively. There was not seen any prolonged effect of the drug such as uterus relaxation tone or abnormal bleeding. Also, none of the delivered infants had low APGAR scores. Besides, in patients with acceptable uterine relaxation the first and fifth minute APGAR score of infants were higher (p = 0.008, p = 0.000).

  Conclusion: This study shows that nitroglycerin can relax uterine smooth muscles very rapidly and transiently and in emergencies it can be an appropriate alternative to the other tocolytic agents with prolonged effect or onset time.

Mohammad Narimani , Parvin Nakhostine Ruhi , Mahnaz Yosefi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression, as a mental disorder, is seen in some women and can threaten their mental health as well as their infants. At least 7% of mothers suffer from this problem after parturition. Studies indicate that many variables are associated with this disorder during and after the gestation period. The aim of this study was to achieve the rate of postpartum depression and its relevant variables among women who referred to the parturition ward of Buali and Emam Hossein hospitals in Tehran.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study a questionnaire construced by researchers as well as Beck 21- item depression inventory were used to collect the data. The subjects (100 cases) responded to the questions individually in the hospitals. According to the type of variables, X2 nonparametric test was used in the data analysis.

 Results: The results of this study indicated that 17% of the subjects were suffering from moderate and severe depression and among the 14 predictive variables of the postpartum depression four variables, namely, matrimonial dissatisfaction, unwanted gestation, unemployment and low economical status of family have significant relationship with the postpartum depression.

 Conclusion: In comparison with the previous studies, the prevalence of postpartum depression is in higher level therefore, it is necessary to increase the information of parturition ward staff about this disorder and inform them to refer any cases of depression to the counseling centers.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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