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Showing 72 results for Risk Factors

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.

Nayereh Aminisani , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and accounts for the majority of their deaths due to the cancer. Hence, diagnosing its risk factors is of great importance. In this study the association between abortion and breast cancer risk was investigated.

  Methods : In this Case- Control study in Mashhad, 105 patients with confirmed breast cancer were compared with 105 healthy women who were living in their neighborhood and were the same age. A questionnaire including demographic information as well as same questions regarding the factors associated with conception and emphasising abortion were used to collect the data, which then were analyzed using SPSS ver 9.

  Results : the findings indicated a relationship between breast cancer and history of abortion, compared to women with no history of abortion (OR=2.09 95% CI=1.18- 3.69). Also there was a significant relationship between the frequency of abortion and breast cancer (P=0.008 ). but odds ratio was not higher among women whose age at first abortion was less than 20 years. Also abortion before first full- term pregnancy increased breast cancer risk (OR= 5.97 95% CI=1.18-19.6). But the age at the time of abortion did not have any effect on the breast cancer risk.

  Conclusions : The findings suggested that the risk of breast cancer has a positive relationship with frequency of abortion and the risk is even higher if the abortion occurs before the first full-term pregnancy. Thus, health interventions seem to be necessary in this regard.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

  Background & Objective : Despite the ever increasing use of oral contraceptives there is uncertainty about the stroke risk associated with their use. Some cases of pulmonary Emboli and stroke have been reported among women taking these pills. The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between taking contraceptive pills and the risk of ischemic stroke.

  Methods : In a case-control study, women with definite ischemic stroke were selected from Alavi Hospital in Ardabil who had no prior stroke. The control group was age-matched ( ± 3years) to cases and were selected from other wards of the same hospital. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information about prior exposure to various risk factors, including the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver. 12) and statistical methods such as chi-square, multivariate regression and ANOVA. The risk factor were estimated by odds ratio.

 Results: OCP consumption was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR=5.4 95% CI=1.1-5.3), and after adjustment for other risk factors of stroke it was OR=2.7 (95% CI=0. 95-7.2) with p=0.05.

 Conclusions: According to this study there was weak evidence for an association between ischemic stroke and OCP consumption. Extended studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk of stroke and the present/ past use of OCP.

Ali Majidpour , Hasan Adalatkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Nayereh Aminisani , Masoud Shabani , Ali Nemati ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Promoting health has always been considered as one of the basic priorities in international, national, regional and local policies. Moreover, retention and promotion of individual health requires a good knowledge of essentials and priorities of the future. Consequently, determining heslth priorities and devising public health programs and policies is just one of the crucial issues to be considered and implemented by the organizations involved. So a fundamental revising of the health care services based on health promotion indices seems to be necessary in order to increase the influence of health interference programs, extend the quality of health care services and improve activities concerning public health.

  Methods: This project started in 2001 and was defined by precise planning of its organization chart. Its two basic concerns included the current status of health and determining its priorities. The first point, that is the current status of health was performed through investigating the previous researches as well as qualitative and field studies. In this phase of research 1000 urban and 1000 rural families were interviewed about different aspects of health including population characteristics, nutrition, risk factors, treatment habits and so forth. To measure the parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrite, sugar and lipids, blood samples were taken from members of 200 families who were above 15. Weight, height and blood pressure of all the subjects who were above 15 years of age and weight, height and Mid Arm Circumference (MAC) of the children aged below 6 were measured. The data were collected and scored based on scientific indices and finally the research priorities in the field of health were determined. It should be noted that many people and organizations participated in this research.

  Results : The findings indicated that mortality of children under 5 years of age, casualties, accidents, etc. were among 34 most essential health priorities.

  Conclusions : Regarding the great experience of determining health priorities which was conducted through need assessment and wide cooperation of the public and organizations, it seems important to conduct such researches once in some years and transfer their findings to other sectors in order to prevent wastage of costs, time and labor. This will also lead the researches towards the real needs and necessary interference in order to promote public health.

Seyedhashem Sezavar , Leili Abbaszadeh , Adalat Hosseinian , Manoochehr Iranparvar , Minaye Khodamoradzadeh ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus coexist more commonly than predicted by chance and the synergistic effect of these two diseases is the cause of early disability and high rate of mortality in these patients. Controlling the blood pressure has a critical role in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in diabetic hypertensive cases. The goal of this study is to determine the rate of recognition and treatment of hypertension in type II diabetic subjects referring to diabetes clinic of Bou-ali hospital, Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 300 type II diabetic patients were examined in terms of blood pressure control.

 Results: The patients who participated in this study ranged between 28 to 80 years of age (mean: 55.5 ± 11.4). About 61.6% of diabetic patients had hypertension (BP>140/ 90 mmHg) 76.7% of these patients were aware of their hypertension. Only 8.8% of these patients with hypertension had a well-controlled blood pressure and the rest of them (91.2%) had a poorly- controlled blood pressure (BP>130/80 mmHg). About 21.8% of hypertensive diabetics although aware of their hypertension were not on any anti- hypertensive agents.

 Conclusions: This study indicates poor control of hypertension in diabetic patients. It seems that reconsidering CME programs for the physicians, emphasizing the control of risk factors especially in high-risk groups and educating the diabetic patients will improve the control of hypertension in these patients.

Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.

  It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.

  The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : The role of circulating lipids in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains unclear despite 3 decades of research. Since ischemic stroke is one of the important causes of death or disability in the world. Finding its risk factors can play a crucial role in health interferences.This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between blood lipids and ischemic stroke.

  Methods : This wasa case-control study conducted in 2002. The case group were patients who were definitely diagnosed to have ischemic stroke for the first time. An equal number of control subjects (with the same age and sex) were selected from other hospital wards. These two groups were compared in terms of the blood lipids. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software (release 12) and statistical methods such as ANOVA and multivariate regression.

  Results : In this research 132 cases were compared with equal number of control subjects. The subjects in both groups were 64.1 years old on average. The mean level of total cholesterol was significantly higher in case group (p=0.001). The mean level of Triglycerides had no significant difference in two groups.

  Conclusions: Regarding the findings of the present research, offering strategies to lower the chlestrol level through primary prevention as well as drug interferences especially in the groups with other risk factors of stroke, seems to have a significant role in the prevention of ischemic stroke.

Shirin Lotfinejad , Touraj Rashidi , Mohammadjavad Eshghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Malignant skin tumors are highly prevalent cancers all over the world. Iran can be regarded as an area in which skin malignancies are so common because of severe sunlight, and occupational requirements of farmers with long exposure to sunlight. This study was an attempt to evaluate the frequency of malignant skin tumors in Urmia.

  Methods : In this descriptive and retrospective study 61496 pathological reports collected from pathology centers in Urmia between March 1991 and March 2001 were examined. Among these reports, 1099 cases with skin malignancies (including BCC, SCC and CMM) were identified and classified based on factors such as age, sex, job, the location of lesion and patient ’ s, residential area. In order to accomplish the incomplete data, the researchers referred to cancer registry center in health deputy of the province.

  Results : Among 1099 cases, 1076 patients (97.9%) had solitary lesion and 23 cases (2.1%) had multiple lesions. The ratio of male to female is 1.7:1 in all skin tumors. Most patients were farmers (28.02%). BCC was mainly observed on nose (26.2%), SCC was around mouth (36.78%) and CMM was mostly in extremities (45.09%). BCC was mostly on upper half of the face and SCC on the lower half. Most patients age ranged from 60 to 69 years. BCC was the most common histopathological type of tumors (71.62 %). 52.61% of patients lived in Urmia and the rest were from other cities. Comparing the first and second 5-Year periods of this research indicated a 25% increase in the frequency of tumors.

 Conclusions: According to the increased incidence of malignant skin tumors in this area some measures should be taken to prevent this disease, reduce the risk factors and diagnose these tumors earlier.

Rahim Masoomi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

Background & Objectives: Senile cataract is one of the most common diseases in the world and a common cause for reduced visual acuteness and blindness. It is due to many factors the most important of which is aging. Other risk factors include gender, smoking, sunlight, living environment, high risk professions, family history, systemic diseases, etc. The present study was an attempt to investigate this disease epidemiologically and draw a general profile for it in order to pave the way for further research.

 Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and retrospective study. The files of the patients who had received senile cataract surgical operation in Alavi hospital from March 1999 to February 2000 were investigated to collect the required data. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.

 Results: 218 patients were studied. The prevalence of this disease was found to be 83.9% which was observed among males more than females and was more common in the 6th decade of life. The disease was mostly seen in the left eye and reduced visual activity to the light perception was the most common clinical complaint among the patients. 29% of the patients were diabetic and 22.1% of them had hypertension.

  Conclusion: Because of high prevalance of cataract, it is necessary to have good medical care and management. Moreover, some training and guidelines seem necesarry.

Ahmad Daryani , Mohsen Sagha ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe illness when transmitting to fetus or when it is reactivated in immune-suppressed persons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in women referring to laboratory of health center for medical examinations before marriage.

  Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 504 samples collected from women in Arabil, Iran, in 2002. The samples were studied by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies to toxoplasma.

  Results: The seroprevalence of IgG antibody at a titer of ³ 1:20 was 34.7%. The highest antibody titer frequency was observed in 1:20 titer (11.7%) and the lowest belonged to 1:3200 (0.4%) and 1:6400 (0.4%) titers. 20 persons (4%) showed IgM antibody against Toxoplama gondii. No statistically significant differences were observed between the prevalence of antibodies on the one hand and age and history of contact with cat or domestic animals on the other.

  Conclusion: since 65.3% of these women in Ardabil were seronegative, health education is required to omit the risk factors, especially during the pregnancy.

Seyedhashem Sezavar , Nayere Aminisani , Seyedalireza Alavizadeh ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a major global health problem. Countries with low to moderate income contribute significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular disease accounting for 78% of all deaths and 86.3% of all disabilities. This study was an attempt to determine the factors contributing to premature myocardial infarction among young adults in Ardabil city.

 Methods: In this Case-control study 52 subjects, under 45, with myocardial infarction, admitted to Buali hospital in 2003-2004, were compared with 52 age and sex matched population based controls. Odds ratio and confidence interval of 95% were used to evaluate the risk factors such as smoking, physical activity, family history, history of diabetes and similar factors. Analysis of variance was used to compare the means.

 Results: The mean age of the subjects was 37.2 and 96.2% of them were male. The positive family history of cardiovascular disease with odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI=2.6-34.3) and current smoking with odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI=1.3-6.2) associated with myocardial infarction. Mean of the body mass index and mean of concentration of FBS, LDL and HDL were different in case and control groups. Physical activity with odds ratio of 0.4 had protective effect. (95% CI= 0.2-0.8). There was no meaningful relationship between passive smoking, total cholesterol, education and job with myocardial infarction risk.

 Conclusion: Family history, smoking, high Fasting Blood Sugar, high LDL, Low HDL and physical inactivity are the most important factors associated with acute myocardial infarction. Proper health interventions should be considered in order to lower the risk factors among young adults especially those under 45 years of age with a positive family history of myocardial infarction.

Abbas Aflatoonian , Hajar Hojat , Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Background & Objective: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. 10% of maternal death is due to EP and only one-third of women with previous ruptured ectopic pregnancy could have a normal delivery in future. Research about prevalence and risk factors of this kind of pregnancy, could help early diagnosis and treatment of EP and improve the prognosis of fertility rate in the future.

Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, seventy-two patients with EP diagnosis admitted and treated in Yazd hospitals were studied. The data were collected using a questionnaire and hospital records. Sonography and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-Square test.

Results: 11176 pregnancies were recorded in Yazd between March 1999 and March 2000 and seventy-two of these pregnancies were ectopic. So prevalence of EC in yazd was found to be 0.5%. Most of the patients (58 cuses) were 20 to 39 years old. 52.8% of the patients had primipar. 25% had a history of one to three times abortion. From 43 patients who used contraceptive, 19 ones used OCP (oral contraceptive). 39 patients had a history of previous surgery, 7 patients had a history of EP and 25 patients had a history of treatment of infertility. The most common symptom of patients was abdominal pain. Only 4 out of 72 patients were treated with a medical method using methotraxe and the rest of them were operated. Three out of these four patients were finally obliged to undertake surgery.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EP was 0.5%, which is lower than the national scale. 
Kaviean Ghandhary, Mohammad Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Demographic and environmental factors are effective in the pathogenesis and prevention of Parkinson Disease (PD). Sex, family history of PD, farming, literacy, history of head trauma, smoking, well water consumption, overusing oil seeds and contact with herbicides and pesticides are apparently effective in this regard. This study set out to investigate the risk factors of PD.

 Methods: 100 patients with PD and 200 age matched controls refering to Neurology clinic of Birjand UMS were investigated in this case-control study during 2002-2003. PD was diagnosed by a neurologist and the demographic and environmental factors were recorded in a questionnaire. Student T and Chi-Squire tests were used for statistical analysis.

 Results: 68% of the cases and 53% of the controls were male. Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption were significantly more frequent in PD group(p<0.05). Smoking and overusing oil seeds were more frequent in control group (p=0.007, p=0.001 respectively). Frequency rate of contact with herbicides, pesticides and history of head trauma were not significantly different in case and control groups. Conclusion: Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption are risk factors of PD, while smoking and using oil seeds could be protective factors against PD.

Javad Mikaeli , Mortaza Khatibian , Zohre Movahhedi, Hosein Gorbani Behrooz , Reza Malekzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the biliary tract epithelium. Although it is not a common tumor, it has a high mortality rate so that the five-year survival of the patients is only 5%. Most patients are found to have irresectable tumor on initial presentation. These have led to an emphasis on the role of palliative treatment.

 Methods: 43 patients with Cholangiocarcinoma (from 1996-2003) based on ERCP were included in this study. Demographic aspects, clinical and Para clinical manifestations as well as the risk factors were investigated and survival rates of the patients were compared with or without stenting of the biliary tract.

 Results: 27 patients (62.8%) were male and 16(37.2%) were female with mean age of 65. Ulcerative colitis accompanied with PSC was diagnosed in just one case. Jaundice, weight loss and pruritus were the main complaints of the patients. Twenty-seven cases received stent in biliary tract through ERCP while no treatment was performed in other patients due to technical failure or patients’ disagreement. Mean survival time for all patients was 125 days. There were no statistically significant difference between survival rate of the patients with stent and without it.

 Conclusion: In this study cholangiocarcinoma in our patients was less frequently seen to accompany UC and PSC. Curative surgical resection is not possible in the majority of cases, and palliative treatment only decreases the severity of the symptoms but has no significant effect on survival.

Masuood Parish, Soosan Rassoli, Mohammad Reza Afhami, Farnaz Moslemi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Oculocardiac reflex (OCR) is presented with bradycardia and other arrhythmias, is induced by mechanical stimulation and therefore, encountered during strabismus surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and risk factors of cardiac arrhythmias during strabismus surgery in children and adults.

  Methods: In this prospective, randomized and double-blind study, 46 patients ASA class I and II underwent elective strabismus surgery with general anesthesia and were allocated to one of the two groups: children under 12 and adults over 12. All patients received standard general anesthesia based on their age. Demographic data, type of involved muscle, the incidence, (type and frequency) and the cause of arrhythmias and skillfulness of the surgeon (professor-assistant) were recorded.

  Results: There were 26 patients in children group and 20 patients in adult group. The overall incidence of arrhythmias was 91% with 96.15% in children and 85% in adults. There was not any significant difference in the incidence of arrhythmias, and the mean rate of occurence between two groups. Most of the arrhythmias were due to external ocular muscles traction. Conjunctival traction and pressure on the globe were the other causes. Stimulation of median rectus muscle as the most important arrythmogenic factor was seen in 13 children and 12 adults. Bradycardia and tachycardia were among common arrhythmias, but there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05) in terms of their incidence.

  Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of arrhythmias during strabismus surgery is high in both children and adults. This reflex does not often lead to hemodynamic compromise, however, for its early diagnosis and treatment, close and continuous monitoring of the patient as well as cooperation and communication between anesthesiologist and surgon is needed.

Eabbas Yazdanbod, Fateme Samadi, Reza Malekzade, Masuood Babaie , Manoogehr Iranparvar , Ahmad Azami ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Recent studies in Ardabil province indicated that upper GI cancer is the most common kind of cancer in this province. Due to the lack of any study concerning the survival rate of the patients in this province, the present research set out to evaluate the effect of demographic features of GI cancers, risk factors, histopathology type, the site of tumor and treatment on the survival rate of these patients.

  Methods: In this descriptive-analytical and prospective study, we followed up 420 upper GI cancer cases (141 esophagus cancers and 279 stomach cancers) who were initially diagnosed in the only subspeciality GI clinic of Ardabil province during four years from 2000 to 2003.

  Results: The information related to 299 patients was recorded. The dates of death of 55 cases were found referring to the provincial death registration program while the addreses of 67 cases were not found. The 1-4-year survival rates in the patients with upper GI cancer in Ardabil province were 25.9%, 11.1%, 4.5% and 1.8% respectively. In this study men had a lower survival rate than women and patients with esophagus cancer had a longer survival rate. In the patients with stomach cancer "Signet ring cell type" histopathology had the lowest survival rate. The patients who had undergone surgery survived longer than other patients with no resectional surgery treatment. Histopathology grading, age at first diagnosis, positive familial history of GI cancer, as well as cigarette, alcohol and opium consumption had no effect on survival rate of these patients.

  Conclusion: Overall survival rate of our patients is very low this condition might be related to late diagnosis and less treatment facilities in Ardabil province.

Ahmad Daryani, Golam Hosein Ettehad,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Intestinal infestation is among the most common infections in the world, being responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal infestation and related risk factors among students of primary schools in Ardabil.

  Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 24 primary schools of Ardabil in 2003. A total of 1070 school children between 7-13 years of age (527(49.3%) boys and 543(50.7%) girls) took part in this study. Fecal specimens were collected by random sampling and were examined for ova, larva and cysts of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration methods.

  Results: A total of 1 0 species were identified, Giardia lamblia (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (10.2%) and Entamoeba coli (4.1%) were the most common parasites, respectively, the over all prevalence rate for at least one parasite was 27.7%. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of parasites by sex, age, class grade and rate of infection (p>0.06).

Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a high rate of intestinal infestation rate among primary school students. So health education about personal hygiene is necessary for the students and their parents, especially mothers.
Aligholi Sobhani , Mohammad Akbari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Anatomical position is the base for normal posture evaluation. Any deviation from this posture can create problems for an individual. Common faulty postures appear at the head, vertebral column, shoulder girdles, pelvis and other parts of the body. High flexibility of the primary school children’s skeleton increases the chance of faulty postures. Limited athletic activities of Iranian girls can lead to postural deficiencies among them, which can be followed by some irreversible complications. This study evaluated the rate of faulty postures and their risk factors among primary school girls and recommended some procedures for prevention and physical treatment of them.

  Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on all 261 students of Ghaem Motlagh primary school. The subjects ranged between 7 and 11 in age. The data were collected through physical examination carried out by an anatomist and a physiotherapist. These data were analysed using SPSS softwere (ver.6).

  Results: The finding showed that, 8.8% of the cases had abnormal rotation of the head. In lumbar region 1.5% involved hypolordosis and 6.9% hyperlordosis. Our results showed that there is a significant relationship between scapula winging and dominant hand (p=0.001).

  Conclusion: According to the results, it is suggested that sport activities under the guidance of a physical therapist, which involve all the body parts should be encouraged especially in girls schools.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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