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Showing 18 results for Risk Factor

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .


Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Despite the ever increasing use of oral contraceptives there is uncertainty about the stroke risk associated with their use. Some cases of pulmonary Emboli and stroke have been reported among women taking these pills. The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between taking contraceptive pills and the risk of ischemic stroke.

  Methods : In a case-control study, women with definite ischemic stroke were selected from Alavi Hospital in Ardabil who had no prior stroke. The control group was age-matched ( ± 3years) to cases and were selected from other wards of the same hospital. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information about prior exposure to various risk factors, including the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver. 12) and statistical methods such as chi-square, multivariate regression and ANOVA. The risk factor were estimated by odds ratio.

 Results: OCP consumption was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR=5.4 95% CI=1.1-5.3), and after adjustment for other risk factors of stroke it was OR=2.7 (95% CI=0. 95-7.2) with p=0.05.

 Conclusions: According to this study there was weak evidence for an association between ischemic stroke and OCP consumption. Extended studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk of stroke and the present/ past use of OCP.


Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.

  It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.

  The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.


Seyedhashem Sezavar , Nayere Aminisani , Seyedalireza Alavizadeh ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a major global health problem. Countries with low to moderate income contribute significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular disease accounting for 78% of all deaths and 86.3% of all disabilities. This study was an attempt to determine the factors contributing to premature myocardial infarction among young adults in Ardabil city.

 Methods: In this Case-control study 52 subjects, under 45, with myocardial infarction, admitted to Buali hospital in 2003-2004, were compared with 52 age and sex matched population based controls. Odds ratio and confidence interval of 95% were used to evaluate the risk factors such as smoking, physical activity, family history, history of diabetes and similar factors. Analysis of variance was used to compare the means.

 Results: The mean age of the subjects was 37.2 and 96.2% of them were male. The positive family history of cardiovascular disease with odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI=2.6-34.3) and current smoking with odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI=1.3-6.2) associated with myocardial infarction. Mean of the body mass index and mean of concentration of FBS, LDL and HDL were different in case and control groups. Physical activity with odds ratio of 0.4 had protective effect. (95% CI= 0.2-0.8). There was no meaningful relationship between passive smoking, total cholesterol, education and job with myocardial infarction risk.

 Conclusion: Family history, smoking, high Fasting Blood Sugar, high LDL, Low HDL and physical inactivity are the most important factors associated with acute myocardial infarction. Proper health interventions should be considered in order to lower the risk factors among young adults especially those under 45 years of age with a positive family history of myocardial infarction.


Kaviean Ghandhary, Mohammad Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Demographic and environmental factors are effective in the pathogenesis and prevention of Parkinson Disease (PD). Sex, family history of PD, farming, literacy, history of head trauma, smoking, well water consumption, overusing oil seeds and contact with herbicides and pesticides are apparently effective in this regard. This study set out to investigate the risk factors of PD.

 Methods: 100 patients with PD and 200 age matched controls refering to Neurology clinic of Birjand UMS were investigated in this case-control study during 2002-2003. PD was diagnosed by a neurologist and the demographic and environmental factors were recorded in a questionnaire. Student T and Chi-Squire tests were used for statistical analysis.

 Results: 68% of the cases and 53% of the controls were male. Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption were significantly more frequent in PD group(p<0.05). Smoking and overusing oil seeds were more frequent in control group (p=0.007, p=0.001 respectively). Frequency rate of contact with herbicides, pesticides and history of head trauma were not significantly different in case and control groups. Conclusion: Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption are risk factors of PD, while smoking and using oil seeds could be protective factors against PD.


Maziar Hashemilar, Daruoosh Savadi Oskoui , Mariam Jafaryani , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: The ischemic stroke is defined as cerebral dysfunction due to brain infarct which is induced by vascular obstruction. The related risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardioembolism and hyperlipidemia are investigated in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of cerebral infarction in young adults ( - year-olds).

 Methods: All the patients in the age rang of - admitted to the neurology ward of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between 2004 and 2005 with a diagnosis of cerebral infarction were included in this study. A questionnaire including demographic data, personal and family history of stroke and cardiac infarct, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and hyperlipidemia was filled out for all patients. Blood sugar, cholesterol, anticardiolipin antibody and beta- glycoprotein were examined. The patients underwent echocardiography. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release ).

 Results: The total number of the patients was , including females (71.1%) and males (28.9%). The mean age was (SD= ). The etiologic factors based on their frequency were: cardioembolism ( ), positive antiphospholipid antibodies (35.5%), hyperlipidemla ( ), smoking ( ), hypertension ( ), oral contraceptive use ( ) and diabetes mellitus (13.7%).

 Conclusion: The most frequent etiologies of the cerebral infarcts in the young adults in this study were cardiogenic embolism and positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Other background factors were hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, oral contraceptive use and diabetes mellitus respectively. Most of these etiologies can be intervened and prevented. The identification of these factors before occurrence of cerebral infarction can prevent this debilitating event.


Rahman Parniya , Darioush Savadi Oskuei , Seyedabbas Mousavi ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Stroke is the third cause of mortality after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. It is also the most common debilitating neurologic disorder. Considering the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its mortality, it seems quite necessary to study the frequency of ICH risk factors and its mortality related to size and region of hemorrhage.

 Methods: 157 ICH patient units were studied to determine hemorrhage size and region via CT Scan reports. Patients were followed to record the mortality and a questionnaire was filled out for them. The data were analysed by SPSS version 13.

 Results: Females constituted 57.9% of the 157 patients and the rest were males. Mortality rate was 37.6%. Most of the patients were in 70-79 years age group. Hemorrhage had the highest frequency found in putamen (39.4%). Hemorrhage size less than 20 cm3 had the highest frequency among living patients and hemorrhage size in a range of 20-100 cm3 was most common among expired patients. There was a statistically significant relationship between mortality and hemorrhage size (P<0.05). Intraventricular hemorrhage was more frequent among expired patients (p<0.05). There was also a statistically significant relationship between a history of cardiovascular disease and mortality rate (P<0.05).

 Conclusions: Intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhage size were significantly related to mortality rate.


Khalil Rostami, Abbas Yazdanbood , Nayereh Amini Sani, Faranak Moharami ,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: One of the most common gastrointestinal diseases is gallstone and its complications, that leads to hospitalization and expensive cost. Since Causative factors in this disease are so many that some of them can be preventable and there has not been a study on the risk factor and gallstone, this study investigates the relationship between riskfactor and gallstone,

 Methods: This was a case-control. study A total of 150 patients with gallstone using the simple nonrandomized method were selected and were compared with 150 hospital controls with which they were matched. The risk factors for gallstone formation (age, gender, family history, parity, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia) were assessed in all of subjects. The association of gallstone with all these risk factor was evaluated with statistical tests including chi-square, ANOVA.

  Results: In this study, 117 cases (78%) were female and the other 33 cases (22%) were male. 42 persons (28%) were between 40-49 years old and about body mass index 63 persons (42%) were at the range of 25-299 (overweight). The mean serum level of triglyceride in women of case-group was 152.7 ± 7.5 in comparison with 117.8 ± 57.7 mg/dl in control group (p=0.001). Mean duration of oral contraceptive pills in case was 6.9 ± 4.9 in comparison with 3.1 ± 2.9 years in control group. There was a positive correlation between Goldstone, BMI and mean serum trighyceridz level in women (p=0.001, p=0.001). There was not any arelationship between the parity, smoking, hyper chlostrolemia, hypertriglyceride (in men), positive family history and gallstone.

 Conclusion: In this study, bidy mas index, the period of taking oral contraceptive pills and triglyceride play roles in gallstone formation. Since these factors can be interventional, it is essential that good plannings be devised to improve them.


Fariborz Akbarzadeh , Naser Aslan Abadi , Abdolrasool Safaiyan ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Many risk factors are important in genesis of coronary artery disease. Their effect and prevalence are different in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cardiac risk factors in hypertensive patients and compare those in normotensive patients.

  Methods: With descriptive cross sectional study and random sampling, 976 of 3000 patients’ units who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) during year of 2004 were studied. Demographic and angiographic data were collected. Data entry and analysis were done by SPSS 11.5 and EPI 6 statistical software.

  Results: Prevalence of patients who underwent CAG was 60.5%. Mean age of patients were 58.6 and 53.9 years and prevalence of CAD were 84 and 84.5 percent in hypertensive and non hypertensive patients respectively. Prevalence of two and three vessel disease was higher in hypertensive patients. Male gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and age were main predictors of CAD in hypertensive patients but in normotensive patients male gender, smoking, familial history and age were major predictors.

  Conclusion: Prevalence of HTN, RFs and CADare high in patients who underwent CAG and pattern of CAD in our country follows western country patterns. Male gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and age were main predictors of CAD in hypertensive patients, respectively regarding to high prevalence of cardiac risk factors and their severe effect on genesis of CAD in hypertensive patients rapid health measures are needed for control of HTN in general population.


Mehrdad Biriya, Shahnam Arshi, Homayoun Sadeghi, Niloofar Malekpoor,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (4-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objective: one of the most important challenges during the recent century will be to decrease the global burden of accidents. In Iran although respiratory infections and diarrhea were major reasons of mortality rates, Accidents have come to be one of the main causes of child mortality. In rural areas of ardebil province burns constituted 75% of home
injuries in preschool aged children.
Methods: The study was conducted as a case-control study which included rural children of Ardabil under 6. Number of cases were 145 & controls were 289. Data analysis was done using SPSS 11 ver.
Results: 6.8% of case group mothers and 12% of control group mothers had academic education. Difference of mean for sill of kitchen and the ratio of sill of kitchen on sill of house and also difference of mean for sill of house per person were not statistically significant between case and control groups. No statistically significant difference was found in fuel type used cooking or heating between case and control group. No statistically significant
difference was found in heating device between Them. only in one third of houses in both groups separate place was available for cooking purpose and cooking was done in rooms.
Child presence in kitchen while cooking was 76.7% in case and 70.9% in control group. Child access to flamers like lighters and matches was 80% in case compared to 69% in control group. The difference was shown to be statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was found in using Valor's and picnic gas for cooking between case and control group.
Conclusion:chance of burn injury in preschool aged children in those houses that keepmatches and the lighters out of children reach was 1.8 times lower.
Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaei , Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksariie, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Zhila Mohamadrezaei,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (4-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence especially in child-bearing women. This study was done to determine relationship between postpartum depression and its various risk factors.
Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study on 600 women referring to health centers in Tabriz. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including 5 parts: demographic characteristics, mother-newborn characteristics, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Holms stress scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. These data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods in SPSS 14/win software.
Results: In this study 34.7% of mothers were depressed (scores>12). Significant risk factors for postpartum depression were: Marital dissatisfaction, relationship with mother, mother-in law and husband's family, job dissatisfaction, house condition, having an unpleasant
pregnancy experience, unplanned pregnancy, baby care stressors, infant feeding method, nursing problems, mother's self-esteem and stress level.
Conclusion: Concerning high prevalence of postpartum depression in this study and other similar studies and effects of some factors in this disorder, it seems to be necessary to improve the knowledge of mothers and health care staff about this risk factors for reducing effects of this disorder on physical and psychological health of newborns, mothers and
community.
Seyed Hashem Sezavar , Maryam Valizadeh , Mazyar Moradi , Mohammad Hosein Rahbar,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2010)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : In spite of effective advances in diagnosis and management, ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a major health problem in industrialized world and an increasingly important problem in developing countries. Considering the role of age and gender in Myocardial Infarction (MI) and socioeconomic and cultural changes in Iran in recent decades which can affect the epidemiology of the disease, we aimed to determine trend of changes in age and gender of patients with first STEMI in recent decade.

  Methods :This observational cross-sectional study was based on completing check lists for patients with first STEMI in Rasul-e-Akram Hospital from 1998 to 2007. The Data were analyzed with ANOVA, chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests at = 0.05 using SPSS 14.

  Results :Out of 1829 patients with first STEMI, 76.4% were men and 23.6% women who had mean age of 59.09 ± 12.7 years totally. The mean age of men (56.9 ± 12.2 years) was significantly lower than women (66.1 ± 11.6 years) (p < 0.001) ­.

  Trend of change in mean age for men, women and overall had no specific patterns of change in 10 years. Premature MI occurred in 15% of patients without any particular change during study period. No statistically significant change in proportions of gender and risk factors was seen in a period of 10 years. The most common risk factors were smoking (43.7%) and hypertension (32.8%) respectively. 23 . 7% of patients had hyperlipidemia and 18.8% were diabetics.

  Conclusion: Trend of changes in age and gender of mentioned patients had no significant change over 10 years which can indicate main role of biologic factors. Although this was an observational study unchanged major risk factors in a decade may mark out inadequate primary prevention.


Mohammad Sahebalzamani, Saeid Mehri, Davar Altafi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

  Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with multifocal areas of demyelination. Genetic and environmental factors could be involved in etiology of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate important risk factors for MS progression in patients admitted in Alavi hospital, Ardabil.

  Methods : The present research is an analytical, case-control study in groups with or without MS with same age and sex (80 subjects in each group). A self-made questionary including demographic characteristics and risk factors used as a data compilation instrument which validity reliability were confirmed by content and α-Coronbach tests respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: Factors such bachelorship (p=0.037), accidental head and back traumas (p=0.003), smoking (p=0.035), smoke exposures (p= 0.0001), meat regimen (p=0.0001), contact with birds (p=0.032), inadequate sunlight exposure (p=0.034), occupational pollution (p=0.002), menarche age (p=0.016), family history (p=0.029), being third born in family (p=0.034), were found as significant risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

  Conclusion : The present study demonstrates that factors such as smoke, trauma, environmental pollution, touching birds and family history of MS are important risk factors for onset of multiple sclerosis.


Hasan Ghobadi, Afshan Sharghi , Jila Sadat-Kermani,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is considered as one of the top five cancers in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for lung cancer in Ardabil.

  Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Ardabil province since May 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were evaluated from two sources the first group was selected from patients of the Imam Khomeini hospital of Ardabil. These patients were underwent bronchoscopic biopsy in this center and their pathological reports were positive for primary lung cancer. The second group included the patients were reported in Ardabil cancer registry center with diagnosis of primary lung cancer and their samples have been sent to the other centers for analysis. We collected the data in a data sheet for each group separately and analyzed through the use of SPSS (ver. 16) statistical package.

  Results: A total of 124 patients with lung cancer enrolled in this study (79% in the first group and 21% in second group). The male gender was dominant among the patients (82.3%) and the mean age of 64.23±9.99 years. In the first group more than half of the patients (54.1%) were urban, 90.8% had a history of smoking (mean 38.67±25.70 packs of cigarettes per year) and the history of opium abuse was high among subjects (34.7%), the positive family history of cancer was 17.3%, and the most common chief complaint at the time of diagnosis was bloody sputum (32.7%). Right upper lobe was the most common site of cancer in bronchoscopy of this group (27.64%) and squamous cell carcinoma was the most common form of malignancy (61.3%).

  Conclusions: This study showed that unlike developed countries and in line with domestic studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common lung cancer, and adenocarcinoma was less common. Lung cancer among the men was seen 4.6 times more than women, and smoking was the most important risk factor.


M Parsian, K Hashemian, Kh Abolmaali, M Mirhashemi ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Substance abuse is one of the worst humanitarian issues in recent years which undermines the base and foundations of human society. Its prevention requires the application of multiple theories in various disciplines together with diverse methods and techniques. Several studies have been emphasized on the role of personal and familial variables as risk factors for substance use . However, this study was done in order to predict drug addiction attitude in adolescents according to the family training risk factors to prevent substance abuse and to design a model for the prevention of addiction .

  Methods: This study is a descriptive and survey research performed on a sample of 373 male and female students selected randomly among the five high school students in Ghaemshahr city. Then a questionnaire including parenting styles, attitude to addiction and social problem solving skill as well as a socioeconomic questionnaire distributed among the students. For data analysis, the statistical method of descriptive statistics and path analysis has been used.

  Results: Results of this study have shown that the component of parenting styles has a direct and positive impact on attitudes to drug addiction. In addition, there was a direct and positive non-significant relationship between the adaptive social problem solving skills and attitude to drug addiction and also direct and negative significant relationship between the non-adaptive social problem solving skills on this attitudes. A direct and negative significant relationship was also seen between parenting styles and attitude to drug addiction.

  Conclusions: Based on the results of present study, the components of parenting styles have a direct and negative impact on attitudes to drug addiction. Also there is a direct and significant relationship between the components of non-adaptive social problem solving skills and the variable of social attitude in adolescents . But the component of adaptive social problem solving skill has a direct and non-significant impact.


Hasan Boskabadi, Maryam Kalateh Molaee ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract


Background & objectives: Weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration is a common problem in infants with inadequate nutrition. Determination of risk factors and clinical characteristics of these neonates may help to prevent or early detection of hypernatremia. This study designed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs and risk factors for hypernatremic dehydration.

Methods: This study is a sectional descriptive study that conducted on 418 newborns during 1385 to 1393 AHS that referred to Ghaem hospital in Mashhad. The hypernatremic group consisted of 197 neonates with serum sodium level higher than 150 mg/dl and 221 isonatremic newborns with sodium level less than 150 mmol/L were included as controls. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical symptoms of dehydration and maternal risk factors. All data were recorded and coded. Data analysis performed using paired T test and chi square tests by SPSS 16 software.

Results: In the present study, 2.8% of infants were hypernatremic. The most common symptoms were neonatal jaundice (62.2%), hyperthermia (25.8%), lethargy (23.6%), agitation (20.8 %) and mucous membranes dryness (17.2%). Problems in pregnancy (p=0.002), inappropriate feeding techniques (p=0.000), the first lactation duration (p=0.022) and frequency per day (p=0.000) had statistically significant difference between case and control groups.

Conclusion: Prevalence of hypernatremic dehydrationis considerable in our study and identifying the risk factors may help to reduce its incidence or exacerbation. Weight loss, especially in newborns having jaundice, hyperthermia and irritability, may be helpful in the early diagnosis of hypernatremic dehydration



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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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