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Showing 593 results for Rat

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .

Khalil Rostami,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Hydatic cyst is caused by Echinococus worm, that involves any part of the body, sometimes it is presented in organs such as thyroid, breast and other organs. Axillary that may be consider adenopathy or metastasis and do biopsy, which so there is danger of leakage, anaphylaxis or relaps.

 The reported case was 39 years old female presented with painless axillary mass without inflammation since 19 years ago that slowly enlarged. Physical findings suggested hydatid cyst which was confirmed with ultrasonography and IHA for Echinococus granolosus and other diseases ruled out. She was operated and she had no relapses after 1.5 years follow up.

Saryeh Golmohammadlo , Farzaneh Bromand ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : One percent of emergency ward receptions are acute abdomen problems. Gynecological causes include 20%of them. Relation between physiology of women and abdominal pains challenges diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis in these cases have no substitution and studies about accuracy of diagnosis helps to correct future clinical diagnosis .

  Methods : A cross-sectional study conducted over 148 women whom admitted for acute abdomen causes and operation in Urmia Kosar Hospital during 1375-79. Data of history and Para clinical and also pre and post operation diagnosis Collected by related questionnaire and interpreted .

  Results : Ectopic pregnancy (39.9%), ruptured ovarian cyst (23.6%), ovarian cyst torsion(18.2 % ), abdomen masses unrelated to gynecological system (4.1%), were respectively common causes. Two cases were normal. Five appendicitis cases diagnosed after laparatomy. We observed 76% similarity of diagnosis before and after laparatomy, which coordinated with other studies. Ectopic pregnancy with 66 cases of diagnosis before and 53cases confirmation after operation was related to over diagnosis and 22 cases of ovarian cyst ruptures before operation and 36 cases of them after operation were related to under diagnosis .

  Conclusion : Considering the results, common causes of acute abdomen incur most frequent misdiagnoses. So keeping in mind that sometimes common cases appear atypically and on time using of paraclinic measures can help the surgeon to diagnose correctly before laparatomy .

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.

Mohsen Maroofi, Hosein49 Giahcheen ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : The diagnosis of psychiatric disorders are mainly made on base of clinical interview and physical mental examination of the patient. The clinical application of laboratory tests is limited to rejection of probable causes which may lead to emerge of mental manifestations. For assessing the efficiency of brain computerized tomography in this respect, a study was conducted.

  Methods : All of the hospitalized patients in psychiatric emergency unit of Isfahan medical school for six mounts were examined in the view of demographic characteristics, clinical diagnosis, and the number of performed brain computerized tomography and their results.

  Results : Brain computerized tomography was requested for 142 patients among the 408 hospitalized patient in psychiatric emergency unit. Among the performed scans only in one case (0.7 percent). Mild brain atrophy was reported and the remaining 141 scans were normal or at limit level of normal.

  Conclusion : According to limited diagnostic value of Brain computerized tomography in psychiatry and also techno economic problems, the accurate assessment of its actual application specially in our society, seems necessary.

Farnaz Ehdaivand ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease. The prevalence of endometriosis in the reproductive age of women varies between 3-10%. Cesarean scar endometriosis is a rare event and rare cases have been reported in gynecologic and surgical articles. The incidence of cesarean section scar endometriosis is not accurately determined but ranges from 0.03% to 0.15% and in some other articles the incidence up to 1% has been reported. Frequently the cesarean scar endometriosis is not diagnosed until before surgery (80%) and usually the patients are operated on the basis of some pre-operative diagnoses such as kelloid, hematoma, suture granuloma, incisional herina and neoplasm. The most common symptom is cyclic and periodic pains in the area of operation which appear approximately 1-7 years after cesarean section. The accurate diagnosis is made by pathology. In this article a patient with cyclic and severe pain in cesarean scar area for 8 years is reported. The patient had been treated with anti- inflammatory drugs for several years without any diagnosis. The patient was operated with diagnosis of subcutaneous mass and probably suture granuloma and the final pathologic report was Endometriosis. The choice treatment for cesarean scar endometriosis is surgery, and awareness about this unusual complication of it will increase the probability of preoperative diagnosis.

Akbar Pirzadeh, Gholamhosein Ettehad ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Chronic otitis media infection exists among 1.5-2 percent of people and its purulent discharges can create some difficulties for the patients. Chronic otitis media is mainly due to pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous. Severe and irreversible damages should be expected unless follow up treatments are exactly performed in such patients. This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent microorganisms involved in otitis infection and their sensitivity to antibiotics.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 60 patients who referred to nose and throat clinics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences (2000-2001) were selected. Using applicator, some samples were taken from suppurative discharges of middle ear. These samples were then cultured in lactose broth and Nutrient broth. In order to isolate pathogenic microorganism, samples were also cultured in blood agar. Sensitivity of isolated pathogenic microorganism was determined against some antibiotics. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: 56 out of 60 patients were culture positive. Microorganisms isolated from suppurative otitis media were Staphylococcus areus (31.6%), pseudomonas aeuroginosa (26.6%), proteus (20%), candida albicans (6.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.6%), aeuromonas (1.6%) and others (6.4%) respectively. Sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was found to be Ciprofloxacin (94.6%), Co-trimoxazole (66.3%), Cloxacilin (64.3%), Chloramphenicol (64.3%),Cephalexin (64.3%), Erythromycin (60.7%), Amikacin (44.6%), Streptomycin (39.3%), Penicillin (5.4%) respectively.

 Conclusions: Since staphylococcus areus wasthe most prevalent micro-organism in otitis media infection, and isolated microorganisms were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, antibiogram test is necessary prior to the treatment of otitis media.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.

Farhad Salehzadeh , Shahnam Arshi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Control of TB is regarded as a health priority program in underdeveloped countries, and Iran in no exception in this regard. Annual risk of infection (ARI) is an important index in this program. This index shows the percentage of people in a society who have been contaminated, and consequently their skin test has changed from negative to positive. In this study, Tuberculin skin test is conducted on Ardabil primary school students and its changes, if any, after one year have been regarded using renewed skin test in order to show ARI in this age group.

 Methods: 780 students were selected from among 17 primary schools using simple random sampling method. They were 8-14 years old, (mean 9.92). Tuberculin skin test was performed on all subjects two times with a one- year interval (May 1998-1999). The test results were recorded and analyzed. In this study PPD over 10 mm was considered positive.

 Results: In 55 (7.1%) students the test was positive in both tests, and in 33 (4.2%) students, PPD changed from negative (first time) to positive (second time) and in 78 subjects the results were doubtful. 765 students (98.1%) had history of BCG vaccination.

 Conclusions: This study indicated that, firstly, over the time, BCG has little effect on Tuberculin skin test, and secondly, the high rate of tuberculin skin test changes from negative (first time) to positive (second time) represents probability of severe contamination in this area.

Mahnaz Norouzi , Heidarali Abedi , Maryam Farmahini-Farahani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

  Background & Objective : Desire for using a contraceptive method depends on individual general attitude and perception about it as well as individual understanding, needs and other people ’ s expectation about using that method . This research is conducted to determine reasons for mothers ’ desire in choosing a specific type of postpartum contraceptive method .

  Methods : This research is a cross- sectional study. The subjects were 384 lactating mothers who referred to Isfahan Health Centers for family planning services for the first time after delivery. The data were collected using questionnaires filled out through interview. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to analyze the data .

  Results : The results indicated that the most commonly used contraceptive method in lactating mothers was coitus interruptus (27.4%). The most common reasons of mothers for selecting this method was its safety (45.3%) and effectiveness (25.1%) .

  Conclusions : Because of the high failure rate of coitus interruptus, health personnel should present proper and enough training to lactating mothers and their husbands about different contraceptive methods. They should also present the application of different contraceptive methods in breast feeding and increase couples ’ ability in making proper decisions as well as choosing safe and suitable contraceptive methods .

Firooz Amani , Saeid Sadeghieh , Ahad Azami , Habib Ojaghi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

 Background & Objective: In order to avoid amblyopia, the welfare organization of Iran performs a special program every year. Since there was no research regarding the mistake rates made by the educators, this study was conducted to determine the probable differences between educators and optometrists in terms of their mistakes in examining amblyopia. The study aimed also at decreasing the amount of this difference and programming for the better performance of amblyopia examination in the future.

 Methods: This study was performed on 260 children in 22 nursery schools of Ardabil using systematic sampling method. These children were first examined by the educators and after some time they were examined for a second time by optometrists using retinoscopy and the fingertip. The data was collected using a questionnaire filled out by both the educators and the optometrists. This data was then analyzed by X2 tests and ANOVA using SPSS program.

 Results: 51.2% of the subjects were male and the rest of them (48.8%) were female. 63.5% of the nursery schools (day- care centers) were private and the others were run by the ministry of education. 13.8% of the subjects used eye glasses and 8.1% were under the control of a physician. 36.4% of the centers did not observe the standard interval. 18.8% of the educators were not skillful enough. 17.7% of the children suffered from astigmatism and 5.3% of them had a weak eyesight. Because of these factors, there was a 17.7% difference between the examination of educators and that of the optometrists.

 Conclusions: It seems necessary for the authorities to have better and more careful programs in the future for examining amblyopia.

Manoochehr Barak, Nayereh Aminisani , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

 Background & Objective: Hepatitis C Virus is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C in multiply transfused patients.

 Methods: 45 patients with B- thalassemia major, 4 patients with hemophilia and 1 patient with aplastic anemia were studied prospectively during 2000. An initial questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding age, sex, duration and interval of at blood translation family history and the type of blood product received and the date of first infusion and then a blood sample was taken for detection of antibody against HCV.

 Results: 62% of the subjects were male and 38% of them were female with the age range of 6 months- 29 years old. 92% of the patients used packed red blood cells. 27 patients had a positive family history of thalassemia and two seropositive patients (4%) had thalassemia. Duration and mean amount of blood transfused were significantly higher in patients with HCV infection. Data analysis showed now significant relationship among variables of the study and hepatitis C cases.

 Conclusions: It is concluded that multiply transfused thalassemic patients are at high risk for HCV infection. Thus, routine screening of blood and anti- HCV test in these patients is necessary.

Zahra Tazakori , Maryam Zare, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Diabetes is one of the most important world health problems and a chronic disease that needs continuous care. Therefore, these kinds of patients should take self- care education. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of nutritional education on blood sugar level and macronutrients intake in IDDM patients.

  Methods : 24 IDDM patients under 20 were selected for educational program on nutrition. The data were collected two times using food questionnaire (24- hour recall) and blood sugar level before and after education was estimated. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, using SPSS and Food Processor.

  Results : There was not statistically significant relationship between blood sugar level before and after education. Also the results showed that there was statistically significant relationship between macronutrients intake before and after education (P=0.35). After education, macronutrients were similar to WHO recommendations. HbA1C level in most of the patients was 9-12% which refers to the moderate control of this diseases and hypoglycemia decreased from 4.2% to 3%.

  Conclusions : There were no remarkable changes in blood sugar but the amount of HbA1C and Macro Nutrients showed that education had a positive effect on patients.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi , Naser Mozafari , Abdollah Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

Background &  Objective: Burning is a problem that occurs quite frequently every day, and brings about a lot of psychophysical problems for both the burnt individual and his  family. Hospital infection,burn infection and lack of the precsie care on the part of nursing staff is one of the hospital insufficiencies.This increases the duration of hospitalization and leads to the wastage of costs and as a result is very life threatening. This study was conducted to determine the quality of burn wound dressing in burn ward of Fatemi hospital.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, 100 cases of burn wounds were selected using simple sampling method, and were studied in terms of dressing quality.The data were collected using questionnaire and observation cards. The questionnaire included 9 questions regarding demographic specification and the observation card had 14 questions about the patient, 20 questions for attentive persons and 16 questions regarding equipment and solutions and 16 questions about the environment.This collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential test.

Results: The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound regarding the patients was weak (73%),average (27%) and good (0%). The equipment and solutions used were weak (52%), average (35%) and good (13%). In relation to environment weak (92%) average (8%), good (0%) and regarding attentive person weak(73%), average (27%), good (0%). There was a signnificant correlation among working experience, marital status and age of attentive personnel, and quality of burn wound caring.

Conclusions:The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound caring was weak. It is also recommended that more attention should be given to caring burn wounds by nursing staff.
Alireza Zohoor , Masoud Bozorgmagham ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Head trauma is one of the most common causes of death in accidents and it is irreversible. More than 10000 cases of brain death occur annually in Iran and less than 10% of them are donors. That is why the number of organ transplantation in Iran is much lower than Europe and America. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of 20-60 year-old citizens of Tehran about organ donation in brain death.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed on 730 subjects (384 females and 346 males ( in 2000. The questionnaire and multi-stage sampling methods were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Chi-square tests.

  Results : about 44% of the subjects believed that the brain death is virtually irreversible and 93% of these subjects agreed with transplantation. 88% of those who agreed with transplantation accepted to fill out special donation forms. Humanitarian considerations and heavenly rewards were two main reasons mentioned by these people.

  Conclusions : According to this study, it is necessary to train people in order to increase their knowledge regarding brain death and create a positive attitude about organ donation. meanwhile passing some laws in this regard which are in accordance with Islam is recommended.

Effat Mazaheri , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Adalat Hosseinian , Nasrin Fooladi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Today, with changes in health care systems, most of the patients, receive occupational and special cares at home after being discharged from hospital . The aim of this study was to assess the effects of follow up on physical and emotional status of the patients with recent myocardial Infarction .

  Methods : This experimental study was done on 60 patients with acute myocardial infarction, who referred to Boali Hospital during 2000-2001.The patients were chosen randomly and were set in two different groups with 30 subjects in each group . Then, a home care program was designed for case group. but there was no intervention for control group . This home care program was completed and one week later the physical and emotional status of the patients in two groups were analyzed by Spilbergar and Beck tests and finally the results were compared in two groups using X2 test.

  Results : The X2 test showed that there is a significant difference between resting heart rate of two groups with P<0.05 but the difference among systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, anxiety and depression was not statistically significant in two groups.

  Conclusions: Regarding the effects of follow-up on the physical and emotional status of the patients, nurses can improve the quality of the patienys life through active home - care and rehabilitation programs along with social supports.

Nayereh Aminisani , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and accounts for the majority of their deaths due to the cancer. Hence, diagnosing its risk factors is of great importance. In this study the association between abortion and breast cancer risk was investigated.

  Methods : In this Case- Control study in Mashhad, 105 patients with confirmed breast cancer were compared with 105 healthy women who were living in their neighborhood and were the same age. A questionnaire including demographic information as well as same questions regarding the factors associated with conception and emphasising abortion were used to collect the data, which then were analyzed using SPSS ver 9.

  Results : the findings indicated a relationship between breast cancer and history of abortion, compared to women with no history of abortion (OR=2.09 95% CI=1.18- 3.69). Also there was a significant relationship between the frequency of abortion and breast cancer (P=0.008 ). but odds ratio was not higher among women whose age at first abortion was less than 20 years. Also abortion before first full- term pregnancy increased breast cancer risk (OR= 5.97 95% CI=1.18-19.6). But the age at the time of abortion did not have any effect on the breast cancer risk.

  Conclusions : The findings suggested that the risk of breast cancer has a positive relationship with frequency of abortion and the risk is even higher if the abortion occurs before the first full-term pregnancy. Thus, health interventions seem to be necessary in this regard.

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.

Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.

  Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.

  Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.

  Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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