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Showing 8 results for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Akbar Pirzadeh, Gholamhosein Ettehad ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Chronic otitis media infection exists among 1.5-2 percent of people and its purulent discharges can create some difficulties for the patients. Chronic otitis media is mainly due to pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous. Severe and irreversible damages should be expected unless follow up treatments are exactly performed in such patients. This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent microorganisms involved in otitis infection and their sensitivity to antibiotics.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 60 patients who referred to nose and throat clinics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences (2000-2001) were selected. Using applicator, some samples were taken from suppurative discharges of middle ear. These samples were then cultured in lactose broth and Nutrient broth. In order to isolate pathogenic microorganism, samples were also cultured in blood agar. Sensitivity of isolated pathogenic microorganism was determined against some antibiotics. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: 56 out of 60 patients were culture positive. Microorganisms isolated from suppurative otitis media were Staphylococcus areus (31.6%), pseudomonas aeuroginosa (26.6%), proteus (20%), candida albicans (6.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.6%), aeuromonas (1.6%) and others (6.4%) respectively. Sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was found to be Ciprofloxacin (94.6%), Co-trimoxazole (66.3%), Cloxacilin (64.3%), Chloramphenicol (64.3%),Cephalexin (64.3%), Erythromycin (60.7%), Amikacin (44.6%), Streptomycin (39.3%), Penicillin (5.4%) respectively.

 Conclusions: Since staphylococcus areus wasthe most prevalent micro-organism in otitis media infection, and isolated microorganisms were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, antibiogram test is necessary prior to the treatment of otitis media.

Mohammadreza Nahaei , Reza Bohloli Khiavi , Mohammad Asgarzadeh, Alka Hasani , Javid Sadeghi, Mohammad Akbari Dibavar ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)

  Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial pathogen that presents high antibiotic resistance.There are phenotyping and genotyping methods for epidemiologic study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as antibiotic resistance pattern and plasmid profile analysis. Plasmid analysis provides useful information concerning the source of the strains and number of clones present in the epidemies. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate antibiotic and plasmid profiles of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from in-patients of the Sina Medical Centre of Tabriz to clarify epidemyological correlation among isolated strains.

  Methods: During 13 months, 135 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different infections in hospitalized patients at Sina Medical Center of Tabriz. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using disc agar diffusion test. For plasmid DNA extraction and detection of open circular bands from supercoiled ones, modified alkaline lysis procedure and two dimensional electrophoresis were used, respectively. Enzymatic digestion of plasmids was carried out by EcoRI and HincII restriction enzymes.

  Results: Resistance rates of strains against antibacterial agents were recorded as: Aztreonam (77%), colistin (74%), ceftazidime (69%), pipracillin (67%), ofloxacin (62%), tobramycin (56%), carbenicillin (54%), gentamicin (51%), ciprofloxacin (22%), amikacin (15%), polymixin B (13%) and imipenem (2%). Plasmid profiles of our test strains revealed that only 67 strains harbored plasmid(s). Number of isolated plasmids ranged 1-6 in each strain with molecular mass of 0.5kb-21kb. When the isolated plasmids were digested using restriction endonuclease enzymes (EcoRI and HincII), in 32% of them similar digestion profiles were obtained by EcoRI indicating a unique source for them.

  Conclusion : Our findings suggest high antibiotic resistance and plasmid presence in P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different infections, and there were remarkable similarities among isolated plasmids. Since our test strains had been isolated from various wards in a short period of time, the results raise the possibility of unique source for some strains or high prevalence of genetic exchange among P. aeruginosa strains.

Abbasali Imani Foolad , Zahra Rostami , Reza Shapouri,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background and Objectives: Detection of TEM and SHV genes in ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their antimicrobial resistance pattern can provide useful information about the epidemiology and risk factors of associated infections. In this study we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and prevalence of ESBLs in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and genotypic methods.

  Methods: In this analytic-descriptive study, 110 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens were used. The pattern of antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion (Kirby-buer) method. The ESBL production was determined by combination disk method using disks containing ceftazidim and cefotaxim alone and in combination with Clavulanic acid. SHV and TEM types of ESBL producing genes was detected by PCR.

  Results: In this study Co-trimoxazole and Amoxicilin with 96.4% and 92.7% and Amikacin with 17.3% showed the highest and lowest resistance against isolates respectively. According to PCR results 37.5% and 12.5% of isolate were carried SHV and TEM genes respectively and 12.5% of isolate were carried both the SHV and TEM genes.

  Conclusion: According to the results most of the isolates are drug resistant and among the ESBL producing strains the frequency of SHV type is higher than TEM . The isolate ceftazidim resistance was contains SHV (37.5%) and TEM gene (12.5%), that showed SHV and TEM genes play more important role in create of ceftazidim resistance than cefotaxim resistance.

Mahshid Talebi Taher, Masoumeh Abasi , Mitra Barati ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background and objectives: Because of diminished inflammatory responses to microbial invasion, the identification and diagnosis of diabetic foot infections remains a complex problem. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents of diabetic foot infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Additionally the percent of infections that were lead to amputation was determined.

  Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on a cross sectional basis at two teaching hospitals. Documents belonging to patients with diabetic foot infections in stages III and IV were studied. All demographic information, clinical manifestations, culture results, outcome of infection and other necessary data were recorded in special data sheets. The SPSS 13 statistical software was used for analyzing data. Statistical significance was assayed by Student’s t-test and chi2. The differences were considered to be significant at the p<0.05 level.

  Results: Fifty two patients were selected, 36 patients (69.2%) were male. The mean age of patients was 60±12.8 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 17±10.6 years. Amputation was done in 29 patients, and a significant correlation was found between duration of diabetes and amputation (p=0.04). The most frequently isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (38.46%) E. coli (15.4%), coagulase negative staphylococci (13.5%), and proteus spp (13.5%). Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 55% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin. All the Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococci isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. 100% and 87.5% of E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime respectively. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime.

  Conclusion: More than half of patients with diabetic foot infection were under amputation and there was significant correlation between amputation and duration of diabetes, so prevention of foot ulcer is very important in those patients. The results showed that the most isolates were resistance against common antibiotics and antibiogram is the best way to choose appropriate therapy in these patients.

Jalal Solati, Azar Sabokbar, Jalil Vand Yousefi , Nasrin Kalkhorani ,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background & Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated that selected probiotic bacteria elicit beneficial effects in animals. Probiotic bacteria inhibit pathogens growth in the gut, improve lipid metabolism and activate immune system of animals. In the present study Enterococcus spp were isolated from Iranian traditional cheese and their effects on intestine pathogens (Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium) growth, serum lipids level and activation of immune systems in mice were studied.

  Methods: Iranian cheese samples were collected from Ardabil province. Enterococci spp were isolated using selective culture mediums and identified using API kites. Inhibitory effects of isolated Enterococci on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intestine pathogens (Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) were tested using agar well method . In order to study probiotic activities of isolated bacteria in live animals, NMRI mice were divided into different groups and Enterococci was administrated orally (1 ML/mouse) with doses equal to 2 (6×108 cfu/ml) 3 (9×108 cfu/ml) and 4 (12×108 cfu/ml) MacFarland standard for 2 weeks. After two weeks continues treatment, blood samples were collected from retroorbital sinus and serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL measured using enzymatic method. Interleukins (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10) levels were measured using ELISA kites.

  Results: Results of this study demonstrated that treatment with faecium species decreases serum cholesterol and increases serum IL-10 level, while it has not showed significant effects on serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, IL-2 and IL-6 (p<0.05). Administration of faecalis species have no significant effects on lipid levels of serum ( p <0.05). Moreover, results revealed that treatment with faecalis species increased IL-6 and IL-10 ( p <0.05). None of the species affected pathogens growth significantly ( p <0.05).

  Conclusion: The results obtained from current study demonstrate that continues treatment with both species can affect immune functions of animal by altering the cytokines profile and treatment with faecium species decreases serum level of cholesterol.

Abbasali Imani Foolad, Maryam Hosainzadeh, Seiyed Fazlollah Mousavi ,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium. Exotoxin A is one of the important toxins produced by the bacterium and it is the main cause of mortality. About 90% of P. aeruginosa strains produce this toxin. Biofilm is a functional consortium of microorganisms attached to the body surfaces and bacteria are embedded in extracellular polymeric substances produced by the microorganisms. This bacterium is nontoxic in the planktonic form, but as a biofilm is highly toxic. In this study, we examined the association between the presence of exo-A gene and antibiotic resistance patterns with biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

  Methods: In this study 110 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various infections with defined antibiotic resistance patterns were used. The PCR method was used to detect the presence or absence of Exotoxin A gene (exo-A). Ability of biofilm formation was evaluated by spectrophotometry. Association between exo-A gene and antibiotic resistance patterns with biofilms formation was analyzed statistically by Fishers and Chi-square tests.

  Results: exo-A gene was detected in 93 strains (84.5%). Sixty two strains were multidrug resistant and they produced broad spectrum beta-lactamase enzyme. Results showed that, exo-A positive strains had significantly higher ability to biofilm formation in comparison with exo-A negative strains (p<0.05). Also the biofilm formation was significantly higher in multidrug resistant and ESBL producing strains (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is a significant association between exo-A gene as well as antibiotic resistance pattern and ESBl producing with biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because of importance of biofilms in the pathogenesis of this bacterium, our study could open a new window for investigation of the molecular processes involved in the formation of biofilms.

Maryam Adabi, Mahshid Talebi Taher , Leila Arbabi, Mastaneh Afshar , Sara Fathizadeh, Sara Minaeian, Niloofar Moghadam-Marageh, Ali Majidpour ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (4-2015)

  Background & objectives: Wound infection is a predominant cause of death in burned patients who are clearly at increased risk of nosocomial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of burn infections and is difficult to treat because of having high level of resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to perform isolation, identification and determination of antibiotics resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounds of hospitalized burn patient.

  Methods: Biochemical and molecular tests were used for identification of the P. aeruginosa and antibacterial susceptibility test was performed using disk diffusion (Kirby- Bauer) methods. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed for four representatives of different groups of antibiotics.

  Results: Among 94 evaluated strains of P. aeruginosa, 83 isolates (88.3%) were multi drugs resistant. Based on Kirby-Bauer method, the most resistance was seen to cefepime (89.5 %) and among the antibiotics studied to determine the MIC, the most resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin (89 %).

Conclusion: These results indicate high range of resistance to different antibiotics among strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds of patients. So, the fast and accurate measurement and evaluation of antibiotic resistance for appropriate antibiotic therapy of burned patients is imperative.

Roqiyeh Nouri, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee , Alka Hasani, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Morteza Ghojazadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2016)

Background & objectives: Fluoroquinolones have important role in treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. The main mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in P. aeruginosa is mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these mutations in ciprofloxacin resistance in different clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.

Methods: A total of 75 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different university-affiliated hospitals in Tabriz. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were evaluated by Etest assay. DNA sequences of the QRDR of gyrA and parC were determined by dideoxy chain termination method.

Results: From 75 isolates, 77.33% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. No amino acid changes were detected in gyrA or parC genes of the ciprofloxacin susceptible isolates. Thr-83→Ile substitution in gyrA was observed in all ciprofloxacin resistant isolates. About 90% of them had Ser-87→Leu substitution in parC. Geometric mean MICs of ciprofloxacin were different for various clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa which had the same situation in type and location of gyrA and parC mutations. Moreover, the geometric mean MIC in isolates from urine was significantly (p<0.05) higher than isolates from tracheal aspirates.

Conclusion: Mutations in gyrA and parC genes are the major mechanisms for ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the role of different effective factors in fluoroquinolone resistance can be different in various clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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