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Showing 127 results for Prevalence

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .


Farnaz Ehdaivand ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease. The prevalence of endometriosis in the reproductive age of women varies between 3-10%. Cesarean scar endometriosis is a rare event and rare cases have been reported in gynecologic and surgical articles. The incidence of cesarean section scar endometriosis is not accurately determined but ranges from 0.03% to 0.15% and in some other articles the incidence up to 1% has been reported. Frequently the cesarean scar endometriosis is not diagnosed until before surgery (80%) and usually the patients are operated on the basis of some pre-operative diagnoses such as kelloid, hematoma, suture granuloma, incisional herina and neoplasm. The most common symptom is cyclic and periodic pains in the area of operation which appear approximately 1-7 years after cesarean section. The accurate diagnosis is made by pathology. In this article a patient with cyclic and severe pain in cesarean scar area for 8 years is reported. The patient had been treated with anti- inflammatory drugs for several years without any diagnosis. The patient was operated with diagnosis of subcutaneous mass and probably suture granuloma and the final pathologic report was Endometriosis. The choice treatment for cesarean scar endometriosis is surgery, and awareness about this unusual complication of it will increase the probability of preoperative diagnosis.


Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Mahdi Mohebali , Seyedhashem Sezavar, Arman Javanrozegar , Darioush Emdadi , Vahid Sepehram , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Backgrond & Objective: In recent years, malaria has been a serious problem in Parsabad (a north-western town in Iran). A lot of health-care funding has been allocated to malaria campaign program in this area. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical epidemiology of malaria during 1999-2000.

 Methods: The data collected through epidemiology forms filled for 509 malaria positive cases during 1999- 2000 was analyzed by EPI2000 software. Frequency tables, X2 test and one way ANOVA were used in this analysis.

 Results: All 509 Malaria cases diagnosed were P vivax. They belonged to the first seven-month of the year. 69.4% of malaria cases were related to the year 2000 and the others were related to 1999. The most frequent symptoms were chills in 488 cases (95.9%) and fever in 481 of them (94.5%). Sweating was found only in 3.9% of the reported cases. Mean age and standard deviation of patients was 22.9 + 15.6. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the distribution of fever and chills.

 Conclusions: The high prevalence of fever and chills was compatible with the findings of previous studies. If one of the two symptoms is positive in the residents of this area or those people traveling there, malaria should be suspected.


Manoochehr Barak, Nayereh Aminisani , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Hepatitis C Virus is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C in multiply transfused patients.

 Methods: 45 patients with B- thalassemia major, 4 patients with hemophilia and 1 patient with aplastic anemia were studied prospectively during 2000. An initial questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding age, sex, duration and interval of at blood translation family history and the type of blood product received and the date of first infusion and then a blood sample was taken for detection of antibody against HCV.

 Results: 62% of the subjects were male and 38% of them were female with the age range of 6 months- 29 years old. 92% of the patients used packed red blood cells. 27 patients had a positive family history of thalassemia and two seropositive patients (4%) had thalassemia. Duration and mean amount of blood transfused were significantly higher in patients with HCV infection. Data analysis showed now significant relationship among variables of the study and hepatitis C cases.

 Conclusions: It is concluded that multiply transfused thalassemic patients are at high risk for HCV infection. Thus, routine screening of blood and anti- HCV test in these patients is necessary.


Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Vahid Sepehram, Behrokh Mahmoodzadeh , Akbar Mortezazadeh , Masoud Shabani ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: The prevalence of pediculosis in communities is one of the criteria for individual hygiene and one of the important diseases among students. Pediculosis capitis is very important in boarding schools. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and relative factors among boarding school students.

 Methods: This study with a descriptive, analytic and cross - sectional method was performed upon 417 girl students from Ardabil boarding schools who were selected using systematic method. Pediculosis was diagnosed through direct observation by trained general practitioners. The data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed by EPI 2000 and SPSS10.

 Results: 116 students (27.8%) complained about itching of scalp.41.2% of the students never took a shower in school and only 45.2% of them took a bath in school once a week or more. 74.3% of the students said that there was a bathroom in their school and about the accessibility of these bathrooms, 53 students (12.7%) had previous involvement with head lice. 21 cases (5%) had previous treatment of pediculosis capitis. 119 of the students (28.5%) suffered from head lice. There was a significant relationship among suffering from head lice and previous illness and existence of bath in home. No significant relationship was observed among this disease and sharing devices such as comb or head scarf in school or home. Prevalence of the disease among rural students was more common than urban ones.

 Conclusions: some boarding school in Ardabil did not have enough hygienic facilities and the students of these schools were mostly from rural areas.


Mohammadbagher Saberi Zafarghandi , Raheb Ghorbani , Hamidreza Hafezi , Mehran Mahdavi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Self Confidence, is a continuous evaluation of an individual on himself. Hence it is important regarding the mental health and the personality balance. Due to the problems that low self-confidence brings about especially during the youth age and regarding the prevalence of this problem among adolescents, the present research was conducted in order to investigate the level of self-confidence among students.

 Methods: Self-confidence of 500 students was determined using Eysenck test. Multistage sampling was employed to select 7 out of 15 boys high schools randomly In each grade of study the required numbers were chosen randomly proportionate to the number of students in that grade. Scores more than 21 showed high self-confidence, 14-21 average and less than 14 indicated low confidence. To analyze the data, Chi- square and Mantel- Hanzel tests were used, with 95% significance.

 Results: 29.6% of students have had high self-confidence, 57.8% of them had average self-confidence while 12.6% of them had lower level of self-confidence. No significant relationship was seem among the rank of birth and the literacy of parents with the level of self-confidence. However there was a significant relationship between the number of siblings (P=0.0135) and study grade (P=0.0018) with the level of self-confidence. As a result, 11.5% of the students in the first grade, 6.6% in the second grade and 20.5% in the third grade had low self-confidence.

 Conclusion: The prevalence oflow self-confidence among third grade high school students, warns that they should be paid much attention by their parents and their school officials.


Mohammadhasan Namaei , Mohammad Nazem , Ali Sadeghian , Mahboobeh Naderinasab,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Tuberculosis is a diseases which is severely threatening the individuals health and is spreading quickly. Moreover, the appearance of new strains resistant to drugs has complicated the issue. Since there is no information available regarding the present drug-resistance situation of patients suffering from tuberculosis in Mashhad, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of this resistance in this city.

 Methods: To determine prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Mashhad, drug sensitivity of 75 M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis from 20 Feb. 2002 to 20 Aug. 2002 was studied using the indirect proportion method. Every strain was tested against Rifampicin (RMP), Isoniazid (INH), Ethambutol (ETM), and Streptomycin (STM). Medical records of the patients were reviewed. Patients with no or less than 1 month treatment were defined as new cases and those previously treated for more than 1 month were defined as previously treated cases.

 Results: Of 75 isolates, 70(93.33%) were from new and 5(6.66%) from previously treated cases. 68 patients (90.66%) were suffering from pulmonary and 7(9.33%) from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Of 75 isolates, 23(36%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. The highest rate of resistance was observed to streptomycin. Three of the 75 strains (4%) were resistant to all four drugs. 1.43% and 40% of strains isolated from newly and previously treated patients respectively were multidrug resistant.

 Conclusions: In this study new cases with MDR-TB were less prevalent compared to other studies. Most drug resistance and MDR-TB were associated with previous treatment. Continual evaluation of drug resistance following DOTS implementation seems to be necessary.


Adalat Hosseinian , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Mohammadtaghi Nikneghad , Farid Ghosseili, Zahra Mussavi , Eilnaz Mohammadi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Despite all improvements in diagnosis and treatment, one third of patients with Myocardial infarction lose their life. Different studies have shown that cardiac arrhythmia are the most common cause of death in MI, and cardiac blocks are one of the important groups of these arrhythmia, which are effective in prognosis, duration of hospitalization and hospital mortality of the patients.

  Methods : In this study, 630 patients with AMI, who were admitted in CCU of Bou-Ali hospital in Ardabil from January 1998 to January 2001 were studied and the data were callected with the help of questionnaires and secondary data analysis method. The data were analyzed with statistical methods.

  Results : 9.4% of cases in this study had AV block and 30.2% had bundle branch block. 40.5% of men and 37.6% of women had at least one kind of block(in AV node or bundle branch), but no significant relation was found between sex and these blocks. Also, 62% of in-hospital mortalities of patients with AMI were in association with blocks (AV or bundle branch) and only 38% of mortalities were without blocks. This showed a meaningful relation between hospital mortality and these kinds of blocks (p <0.05 ).

 Conclusions: The total frequency of AV and bundle branch blocks due to AMI, was 39.6% which is similar to other studies, but what is remarkable in this study, is the higher prevalence of bundle branch blocks due to AMI.


Manoochehr Iranparvar, Abbas Yazdanbod , Firooz Amani, Shabnam Sohrabi ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Palpable thyroid nodules are found in almost 5% of the adults. Regarding the high prevalence of this condition, recognizing and evaluating them are important for physicians. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is the first easy and cost-effective way for recognizing pathologic nature of the nods. The present research was an attempt to investigate the epidemiology and evaluate the pathological findings among patients using FNA.

  Methods : This is a descriptive study conducted on all 145(113 female and 32 male) patients referring to the endocrinology clinic of Ardabil in the period between October 1999 to October 2002. The data were collected using a questionnaire, the physical examination of the patients, noting down the clinical finding, doing FNA and its report presented by a pathologist. The data were then analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency tables using SPSS software.

  Results : Most of the patients (36.5%) were 30-40 years old. FNA of 115 patients (79.4%) was reported as benign and that of 6 patients (4.1%) was malignant, 16 patients (11%) had a doubtful FNA, and in 8 patients (5.5%) the sample was not enough. Among patients with benign FNA, 102 cases (70.6%) had nodular goiter, 8 cases (5.5%) had colloid cyst, 3 cases (2%) had follicular adenoma and 2 cases (1.3%) had thyroiditis. Among patients with malignant FNA 1 case (0.7%) had follicular carcinoma and 5 cases (3.4%) had papillary carcinoma.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that most of the malignant lesion is papillary carcinoma, which has a lower prevalence compared to similar studies. Regarding the higher prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in middle ages it seems necessary to investigate the thyroid nodules in this age- group.


Mohammadreza Ghodraty , Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Firooz Amani , Shahnaz Rahimi , Nasrin Shahab ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Regional anesthesia is a method of choice in cesarean section. But in emergency cesarean sections general anesthesia is usually preferred. On the other hand, intravenous sedative drugs used in general anesthesia induction rapidly crosses the placenta and result in fetal depression. Because of higher prevalence of general anesthesia in Iran it is reasonable to conduct more researches in this field. This study set out to compare the effects of Propofol and Thiopental-Na as induction agents on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal hemodynamic status.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 60 pregnant women with ASA class I & II were studied. In a random way 30 patients received 2mg/kg Propofol and the rest of them were given 4mg/kg of Thiopental-Na. All these subjects had full term and normal fetus. Pre and post-induction status of the patients was monitored noninvasively after tracheal intubations and during 12 minutes after that. Also time intervals between induction and birth (cord clipping) and between uterus incision and birth were measured. Apgar score of neonates was evaluated through clinical examination in 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th minutes after birth. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi-square and ANOVA.

 Results: Apgar score in different times (1.5,10&15 minute) had no significant difference between two groups. (In the 1st minute Propofol was 7.1 ± 2.2 and Thiopental was 74 ± 1.8, in the 5th minute Propofol was 9.2 ± 0.7 and Thiopental was 9.1 ± 0.9) Maximum variation of heart rate and blood pressure in two groups were not significantly different. The time intervals between induction and birth (less than 8 minutes) on the one hand and uterus incision and birth(less than 130 seconds) on the other were similar in two groups.

  Conclusions : Thiopental-Na and Propofol can be used with similar results for induction of general anesthesia in cesarean section.


Ziyaaddin Ghorashi , Hasan Sultani Ahari ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Most of the acute poisonings are mild with no complication but in some rare cases they can be life threatening. About 70% of acute poisoning happens in children. More than 90% of these toxic exposures are incidental and easily preventable. The factors leading to acute poisoning are variable based on cultural and socioeconomic differences among the population. The increasing production and distribution of new drugs and chemicals change the etiologic factors. This study was conducted to investigate common acute poisonings and their victims in Tabriz.

 Methods: In this retrospective study 306 cases of acute poisoning were reviewed from April 1999 to March 2002, in Tabriz Pediatric Medical Center. The factors that were considered included: age, gender, manner (incidental versus intentional), agents route of intoxication, residential area (rural versus urban), duration of admission, clinical presentation, date of first admission and mortality.

 Results: 306 patients (53.3% male and 46.7% female) were studied in this research. Most of the cases (31%) were 1-2 years old, and the fewest (1.3%) were under 6 months of age. About 95% of the cases were incidental, and 5% intentional suicide attempts among children above 10 years of age. 63% of the subjects were living in Tabriz, 29.5% of them were from rural areas and the rest (7.5%) were dwelling small towns. Poisons in the order of prevalence included: drugs (45.5%), hydrocarbons (26%), organo phosphates (7%), atropinic material and datura intoxication (6%), Rodenticides (3.6%), Opiates (2.9%), Carbon monoxide (2.2%) and alcohol, mushrooms, animal bites, acids & alkalines (6.8%). Average duration of hospitalization was 2 days and the total mortality rate was 3 cases.

 Conclusions: The most common etiologic factor was drug poisoning followed by hydrocarbons as the second most prevalent factor in this regard. It seems that mass media especially TV programs can play a key role to increase the public knowledge about this issue.


Ahad Azami , Saeid Sadeghieh, Habib Ojaghi , Firooz Amani , Manoochehr Barak ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: The nationwide amblyopia prevention program is performed by prevention deputy of welfare organization every year. In this analytic report practical results of screening program in 1998-2001 were presented and compared with similar findings in other countries. The results were also compared with the findings of previous similar researches in Iran.

  Methods : The amblyopia screening program was performed on all 3-65 year-old children in day-care centers as well as those referring to the visual acuity measuring centers. The first examination was accomplished by trainers. In the second step doubtful cases were referred to optometrist by trainers and amblyopia was diagnosed by an optometrist and confirmed by an eye specialist after excluding organic causes.

 Results: 608 out of 8427(7.21%) children examined by trainers in 2001 were referred to an optometrist because of suspected visual disorders. The prevalence of amblyopia in different cities of Ardabil province was 2%-15%. The figures in 2000-2001 were 10% (Rangs=1%-13%), respectively. In 1998 it was 11% (Range =5%-13%). In the second phase of amblyopia plan the prevalence of visual problems was estimated about 21%, 45%, 47%, and 74% in 1998-2001, respectively. In the third phase of the plan the amblyopia prevalence for children examined by eye-specialist in 1999-2001 were 1.6%, 1.41% and 1.25% respectively.

 Conclusions: In this research the prevalence of amblyopia was found to be 1.42% which has a conformity with the findings of other countries. Moreover, the higher variation in the estimation of the prevalence of visual disorders in this province requires further comparative researches.


Ahmad Daryani , Behzad Abyar , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)
Abstract

  Backgrand & Objective: Enterobius vermicularis is a common helminthic infection and its prevalence in Iran is 25 to 92 percent.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among children going to daycare centers in Ardabil.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2003 on 400 children who were selected from 10 daycare centers using Graham's scotch adhesive tape technique. A questionnaire was filled for every subject and the results were analyzed by Chi-square test.

  Results : The prevalence of enterobiosis in the children under study was 18.3%. The highest rate (21.62%) was observed among 3-4 year-old children and the lowest rate (16.19%) was seen among 5-6 year-old ones. The infection rate of males and females were 16.4% and 21.2%, respectively. Prevalence of enterobiosis in children of illiterate mothers (54.5%) was higher compared to literate mothers (12.4%) (p< 0.05).

  Conclusions : In order to prevent this infection, health education especially for illiterate parents or those who have lower level of education is necessary.


Shirin Lotfinejad , Touraj Rashidi , Mohammadjavad Eshghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Malignant skin tumors are highly prevalent cancers all over the world. Iran can be regarded as an area in which skin malignancies are so common because of severe sunlight, and occupational requirements of farmers with long exposure to sunlight. This study was an attempt to evaluate the frequency of malignant skin tumors in Urmia.

  Methods : In this descriptive and retrospective study 61496 pathological reports collected from pathology centers in Urmia between March 1991 and March 2001 were examined. Among these reports, 1099 cases with skin malignancies (including BCC, SCC and CMM) were identified and classified based on factors such as age, sex, job, the location of lesion and patient ’ s, residential area. In order to accomplish the incomplete data, the researchers referred to cancer registry center in health deputy of the province.

  Results : Among 1099 cases, 1076 patients (97.9%) had solitary lesion and 23 cases (2.1%) had multiple lesions. The ratio of male to female is 1.7:1 in all skin tumors. Most patients were farmers (28.02%). BCC was mainly observed on nose (26.2%), SCC was around mouth (36.78%) and CMM was mostly in extremities (45.09%). BCC was mostly on upper half of the face and SCC on the lower half. Most patients age ranged from 60 to 69 years. BCC was the most common histopathological type of tumors (71.62 %). 52.61% of patients lived in Urmia and the rest were from other cities. Comparing the first and second 5-Year periods of this research indicated a 25% increase in the frequency of tumors.

 Conclusions: According to the increased incidence of malignant skin tumors in this area some measures should be taken to prevent this disease, reduce the risk factors and diagnose these tumors earlier.


Firooz Amani , Bahram Sohrabi , Saeid Sadeghieh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objective :Depression is one of the most common disorders which can affect every individual. However some individuals (including the students of medical sciences) who are involved in health issues are more vulnerable in this regard. The early diagnosis of this disorder among the students can lead to primary prevention and avoid any further progression and deteriration. This in turn can result in mental health among these students as well as the society. The present study set out to investigate the rate of depression among the students of Ardabil university of medical sciences.

  Methods : This research is an analytic-descriptive study conducted on 324 students from Ardabil University of Medical Scinces. A questionnaire including two sections was used to collect the data. The first section was about the demographic information and the second section included questions about depression based on Beck depression test. The data were analyzed by SPSS soft waire using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Results : The results showed that 57.4% of total subjects (186 students) suffered from various degrees of depression. 128 of these students were suffering from clinical depression. The prevalence of depression among midwifery students was 21.4 %. Chi- square test showed a significant relationship among prevalence of depression in these students with their educational semester , the number of their siblings, any kind of major physical disorder in the subject or, a serious psychological problem among their family members , as well as any significant event during the previous year.

  Conclusions : According to obtained results there was a high degree of depression among medical university students and serious measures should be taken in the future in order to prevent this social concern.


Shahnam Arshi , Ali Majidpoor , Homayoun Sadeghi , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Reza Gasemi Bargi , Darioush Emdadi , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Parvaneh Naftchi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Ardabil province is the main area of Iran affected by relapsing fever (RF) for which Borrelia Persica is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease, and the frequency of infection among ticks in this region in order to take necessary measures to decrease it is incidence and increase awareness about the characteristics of this disease.

 Method: In this study a total of 391 patients who were diagnosed to have been effected by tick borne relapsing fever were investigatated in terms of clinical epidemiology between 1998 and 2001. The kind of Borrelia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease were observed. The kind and prevalence of Borrelia infection was determined in 1,421 ticks collected from 130 indoor and 14 outdoor sites. The ticks were crushed and the suspension obtained was injected into the peritoneum of two mice and two guinea pigs to determine the frequency of infection among the ticks living in this region. Data including the tick species determination were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Chi-square and ANOVA tests.

 Results: The most prevalent clinical manifestations were fever, chills and headache. Other findings included nausea, vomiting, sweating, abdominal pain, arthralgia, cough, photophobia, eosinophilia, hematuria, jaundice, petechiae and sclera congestion. Laboratory tests performed on 60 patients showed leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anemia. Of the 1,421 ticks collected, 45.9%, 40.3% and 13.8% were infected by Ornithodoros lahorensis Ornithodoros tholozani and Argas persicus species, respectively. The prevalence of ticks was highest in Khanadabil village. The ticks collected from three villages were found to be infected with Borrelia.

 Conclusions: The clinical manifestations were similar to those reported in other studies. Petechiae occurred less frequently in our study compared to louse-borne RF. The high frequency of anemia in this region, which was not stated in other reference articles, requires further investigation.


Maziyar Hashemilar , Nayereh Aminisani , Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Mahzad Yosefian ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Studying the epidemiology and impact of headache can help improve patient care, estimation of burden of disease and classification systems. Migraine is common worldwide and has a geographically variable prevalence in the world. Moreover, its peak of incidence is the age of 20-30. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of migraine among the medical students in order to plan for future health interferences.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 631 students filled out a questionnaire designed according to the criteria of the international headache society. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release 12) and descriptive statistics.

 Results: 76.6% of the subjects were female and 23.4% of them were male. The females were 20.6 and males were 21.4 years old on average. The total prevalence of migraine was 7.3% (1.6% with aura, 5.4% without aura and 0.3% with both of them). Moreover, females, single subjects and students of medicine, except the migraine with aura that was more prevalent among students of associate degrees. A positive family history of headache was found in 45.6% of the students. 65.2% of those suffering from migraine had not referred to a physician and were unaware of their headache.

 Conclusions: Compared to similar researches there is a low prevalence of migraine among the students but most of the students do not take measures to cape with and treat them in the proper manner. This requires necessary health interferences.


Rahim Masoomi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Senile cataract is one of the most common diseases in the world and a common cause for reduced visual acuteness and blindness. It is due to many factors the most important of which is aging. Other risk factors include gender, smoking, sunlight, living environment, high risk professions, family history, systemic diseases, etc. The present study was an attempt to investigate this disease epidemiologically and draw a general profile for it in order to pave the way for further research.

 Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and retrospective study. The files of the patients who had received senile cataract surgical operation in Alavi hospital from March 1999 to February 2000 were investigated to collect the required data. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.

 Results: 218 patients were studied. The prevalence of this disease was found to be 83.9% which was observed among males more than females and was more common in the 6th decade of life. The disease was mostly seen in the left eye and reduced visual activity to the light perception was the most common clinical complaint among the patients. 29% of the patients were diabetic and 22.1% of them had hypertension.

  Conclusion: Because of high prevalance of cataract, it is necessary to have good medical care and management. Moreover, some training and guidelines seem necesarry.


Mohammad Narimani , Parvin Nakhostine Ruhi , Mahnaz Yosefi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression, as a mental disorder, is seen in some women and can threaten their mental health as well as their infants. At least 7% of mothers suffer from this problem after parturition. Studies indicate that many variables are associated with this disorder during and after the gestation period. The aim of this study was to achieve the rate of postpartum depression and its relevant variables among women who referred to the parturition ward of Buali and Emam Hossein hospitals in Tehran.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study a questionnaire construced by researchers as well as Beck 21- item depression inventory were used to collect the data. The subjects (100 cases) responded to the questions individually in the hospitals. According to the type of variables, X2 nonparametric test was used in the data analysis.

 Results: The results of this study indicated that 17% of the subjects were suffering from moderate and severe depression and among the 14 predictive variables of the postpartum depression four variables, namely, matrimonial dissatisfaction, unwanted gestation, unemployment and low economical status of family have significant relationship with the postpartum depression.

 Conclusion: In comparison with the previous studies, the prevalence of postpartum depression is in higher level therefore, it is necessary to increase the information of parturition ward staff about this disorder and inform them to refer any cases of depression to the counseling centers.


Ahmad Daryani , Mohsen Sagha ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe illness when transmitting to fetus or when it is reactivated in immune-suppressed persons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in women referring to laboratory of health center for medical examinations before marriage.

  Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 504 samples collected from women in Arabil, Iran, in 2002. The samples were studied by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies to toxoplasma.

  Results: The seroprevalence of IgG antibody at a titer of ³ 1:20 was 34.7%. The highest antibody titer frequency was observed in 1:20 titer (11.7%) and the lowest belonged to 1:3200 (0.4%) and 1:6400 (0.4%) titers. 20 persons (4%) showed IgM antibody against Toxoplama gondii. No statistically significant differences were observed between the prevalence of antibodies on the one hand and age and history of contact with cat or domestic animals on the other.

  Conclusion: since 65.3% of these women in Ardabil were seronegative, health education is required to omit the risk factors, especially during the pregnancy.



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