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Showing 9 results for Prematurity

Farnaz Ehdaivand, Masoumeh Rostamnejad , Effat Iranijam ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)


Background & Objectives: Hypertension is the most common medical problem in pregnancy, with  an incidence rate of 6-8%. The patients with preeclampsia are exposed to more maternal and fetal  complications. This requires more intensive prenatal cares. The diagnosis in early stages of disease has an important role in decreasing maternal and neonatal mortality and its comsequent complications. This study was an attempt to determine the epidemiological factors and complications of preeclampsia among patients admitted to Alavi hospital, Ardabil.

Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 176 women with preeclampsia. The data were collected using a questionnaire and medical records of patients. These data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: 75% of the patients had severe preeclampsia and 25% had mild preedampsia. Regarding the predisposing factors, history of preeclampsia was observed in 23.1% of the cases, mother's underlying diseases in 12.5%, twin in 2.3% and hydramnios in 4%. The method of delivery in 62.5% of the cases was cesarean section. 67.6% of preeclamptic patients had maternal and fetal complications (10.2% Maternal and 57.4% fetal). The maternal complications were: abruptio placenta, (44.4%), eclampsia (22.2%) and coma (11.1%). The fetal complications were: IUGR (42.4%), prematurity (39.6%) and  IUFD (9%).

Conclusion: In this study the incidence of severe preeclampsia was higher, which may be due to insufficient prenatal cares and delay in diagnosis. Further studies about the effect of prenatal cares on pregnancy outcomes in preeclamtic women are recommended.

Firooz Amani , Manoogehr Barak , Naiere Aminisani, Mohammad Hosein Dehghan ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Providing, maintainance and promotion of neonatal health as a special high-risk group has a special role in heath services. According to statistics, 4 million out of 130 million neonates, born every year, die in the first week of their life. 99% of this mortality takes place in developing countries. 38% of the deaths below the age of 5 belongs to neonatal deaths. To decrease this mortality, some factors such as mother condition (including health care both before and after pregnancy), perinatal factors and life-threatening factors in the first 28 days after birth. This study was performed in hospitals under Ardabil University of Medical Sciences to determine the related factors of neonatal mortality.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 160 neonatals (80 cases of neonatal deaths and 80 live births as controls). The demographic data of two groups were separately analyzed to obtain descriptive results. Also the most common causes of neonatal mortality were obtained through studying cases. Moreover, the parents of live neonates were asked questions to evaluate the effect of social factors. Finally all of these related factors were compared.

  Results: From 160 neonates under study, 71 (44.4%) were female and others were male. Neonatal mortality in males was 1.3 times as much as that in females. 16(12.1%) mothers had history of still birth. 18(11.3%) mothers were illiterate and 27 (16.9%) had college education. 31(19.4%) neonates were under 1500gr, 42 (26.3%) 1500- 2500gr and others above 2500 gr. 37 (46.3%) mothers in case group and 24(30%) in control had no access to transportation facilities. The most common causes for neonatal mortality were prematurity with 44 (55.1%) cases and aspiration, septicemia, asphyxia each one with 4 (2.5%) cases. There were statistically significant relationship between neonatal mortality rate on the one hand and birth weight, access to transportation facilities and mothers, living place (rural or urban) (p=0.023).

  Conclusion: According to the results, factors such as birth weight, access to transportation facilities as well as the mothers’ living location (rural or urban) were determining factors in the neonatal mortality. Some measures seem necessary to by taken in order to decrease the effect of thses factors.

Afshar Tamook, Farhad Salehzadeh, Naiere Aminisani , Goubin Moghaddam Yeganeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia disease is noticeable. Studying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its related factors is a step to reduce its incidence and remarkable treatment expenses. On the other hand, due to lack of on time recognition and suitable treatments, this disease can cause irreversible neuro-cerebral complications. This study was conducted to examine the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its associated signs, in order to provide on time and suitable treatment measures.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2003 on neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Ardabil Sabalan hospital. The data obtained from their conditions, clinical examination, and measurment of total and direct bilirubine was used to fill out a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (release 10).

 Results: From among 132 neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, 50% were male and others were female. 85.6% of these subjects were fullterm births and the rest were premature. 56% of these neonates were born by C/S. 6.8% of hyperbilirubinemia cases, which were considered as “pathologic”, occurred during 24 hours after birth. 72% were related to the second to seventh days of birth, 17.2% to second week of birth, and the rest (4%) had prolonged Icter. 65% of these neonates were the first children of the family. The average time of hospitalization was 4.8 days. 34.8% of these neonates had pathologic signs beside hyperbilirubinemia and had a clinically serious condition. About 23% of these neonates were born by C/S and only 11.8% of them were vaginal births. 46 cases (34.8%) had accompaynig pathologic problems in addition to Icter, among whom 33 children (25%) had evident infection. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia were Crigler-Najjar syndrome in one case, ABO in 11 cases (8.33%) and RH discord in 4 cases (2.8%). Generally speaking the precise cause of 36.89% of Hyperbilirubinemia was determined.

 Conclusion: Some factors such as children by C/S, neonatal infection, prematurity, ABO discords and RH discords play an important role in hyperbilirubinemia incidence and severity.

Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Ali Abedi , Fatemeh Shahnazi , Hakimeh Saadati, Afsaneh Enteshari ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2008)

  Background & Objectives: Neonatal mortality rate is a main indicator of hygienic development and recognition of the mortality causes is the first step for reduction of the mortality rate and promotion of this indicator. Therefore, in this study, the causes of neonatal mortality have been investigated in Ardabil medical university related hospitals.

  Methods: This study is a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical one that has been done on the bases of admission's units and filling the medical record form for all neonates who have been admitted to Alavi and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Ardabil from September 2006 to September 2007. The questions of forms consisted of infant’s sex, birth weight, gestational age, cause and age of death. The data were analyzed by SPSS software with utilizing T- test and Chi-Squares.

  Results: During this study, there were 1881 admissions of which there were 148 deaths (7.86%). The causes of mortality were hyaline membrane disease (HMD) (52.02%), sepsis (14.86%), pneumonia (9.45%), congenital anomaly (12.83%), asphyxia (7.43%) and meconium aspiration (3.37%). Among the dead neonates, 54.72% were male and others were female. There were 550 LBW neonates and 111 deaths in this group result of our study showed that mortality rate in LBW neonates was 20.18%. There were 578 preterm neonates and 122 deaths in this group prevalence of mortality rate in preterm neonates was 21.10%.

  Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight are the most important and fixed cases of infant mortality. The most common causes of mortality were hyaline membrane disease and sepsis. Therefore, the prevention of preterm labor for reduction of prematurity and its related complication recommended which may lead to decreased rate of neonatal mortality.

Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Hakimeh Saadati, Manoochehr Barak , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Ahad Azami, Afsaneh Enteshari ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Birth weight less than 2500gr (as result of preterm delivery and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)) is a major cause of both neonatal health. Predominate cause of LBW in developed countries is premature birth, whereas in developing countries is more often IUGR. Different risk factors, including demographic and behavioral during and before pregnancy are effective in LBW incidences which can reduce LBW and neonatal mortality rate by identification and control of these risk factors. The present study has been carried out with purpose of identification and decreasing the LBW rate in Ardabil.

 Methods: In this case – control study all infants delivered in 2006 in hospitals in Ardabil were investigated. Every neonate whose weight was less than 2500gr was taken as a case (n=470) and 482 neonates whose weight was more than 2500gr was taken as a control. Data gathering was done through questionnaires, interviewing the mothers and physical examination. The data were analyzed statistically through SPSS.

 Results: In the present study, the presence of LBW amount is %6.4 in Ardabil hospitals. The results of our study showed that a significant relationship existed between prematurely and gestational age<37wk, mother’s age, mother’s job and maternal weight, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), maternal diseases, multiple births, bleeding during pregnancy, interval between pregnancies less than <2 years, prior history of low birth weight, use of drugs by mother in pregnancy, congenital malformation with LBW. In this study relation between parity, the use of Folic Acid, Fe, cigarette smoking and addiction of mother, living area (village or city), family marriage, health care and mother’s education were not significant with LBW.

  Conclusion: The LBW important risk factors in Ardabil hospitals were prematurity or gestational age <37wk, multiple pregnancies, PROM, mother’s age over 35 years, and mother weight <50kg, maternal diseases.

Mahin Kamali Fard, Raziyeh Alizadeh , Fahimeh Sehati Shafaei , Mortaza Gojazadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2010)

  Background & Objectives :Prematurity is still one of the main causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity that makes a lot of financial, psychosocial and emotional problems.

  Although the main cause of preterm labor is unknown but understanding of its risk factors is important for planning health policies for preventing and decreasing the rate of preterm labor. This study aimed to compare lifestyle of women with term and preterm delivery.

  Methods :This research is a case-control study. Subjects of this study were 132 women with preterm labor and 264 women with term labor that referred to Educational and Medical Center of Alzzahra. The subjects were selected by convenience method and matched in age and educational level. Data were collected by questionnaire containing two sections, demographic characteristics and woman's lifestyle including,nutrition, exercise, smoking and use of alcohol and substance abuse, social support, stress management and self care. Data were analyzed by SPSS with descriptive statistics and statistical tests of t Test, Man Witny U, χ 2 and Fisher's Exact Test.

  Results : The results of this study showed significant differences in nutrition, smoking, use of alcohol, substance abuse, social support, stress management and self care between two groups, but the mean score of exercise in term and preterm birth was not statistically significant.

  Conclusion: The findings of our study suggest that there is a relation between lifestyle in pregnancy and preterm birth. Lifestyle is changeable and achieving this aim is possible by efforts to increase health education .

Maryam Nematollahzade , Raziyeh Maasoumi , Meynoor Lamyian, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background & Objectives: Pregnancy accompanies with physical and psychological alternation during woman's life. These changes effluence the overall dimensions of couple’s life especially sexual relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the women’s attitude and sexual function during pregnancy.

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 329 healthy pregnant women aged 15-45 years. The attitude and sexual function of the cases were studied based on their gestational age (the last fourth weeks of each pregnancy trimester) in three groups. Data were collected using an instrument. The instrument has three parts including demographic characteristics, attitude assessment and Arizona Sexual Scale Experience (ASEX). One way ANOVA, Post hoc, chi square and Spearman correlation were used for data analysis and the differences were considered to be significant at the p<0.05 level.

  Results: The results showed that the score of sexual dysfunction, sexual desire disorder and orgasmic disorder increase with gestational age development. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant relation between total score of sexual function disorder and decrease of sexual attraction in all three trimesters (p=0.01, p=0.04, p=0.03 respectively) and fear of prematurity in the second trimester (p=0.01).

  Conclusion: According to the results sexual function disorder has a high frequency in pregnancy. The findings emphasize the need for educational programs to improve the Sexual functions during prenatal care.

Manoochehr Barak , Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Firouz Amani , Gholamreza Asadi, Gity Rahimi , Elham Khadem,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (11-2012)

  Background & Objective: Currently, migration of rural population to cities and developing slums around them are main problems in population settlement that lead to imbalance in health standards such as difference in age groups death. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with infant mortality in slums of the Ardabil city.

  Methods: This was a case- control study. All infants’ deaths from 2008 to 2010, which occurred in slums as a case, were included. For each case, tow controls, were chosen. Controls the ones who survived and were living in non marginalized area and years of birth and sex were matched in two groups. Information collected from health centers through questionnaires, interviews with parents and child death files.

  Results: The majority of mortalities (74.6%) were in neonatal period and 25.4% was in post- neonatal period. The most important causes of deaths in neonatal were prematurity (57%), and in post neonatal period were congenital abnormality (35.4%). Analysis of effective factors showed that birth weight, parents age and education, family income and occupation and smoking of father were highly associated with mortalities.

  Conclusion: Infant mortality of the family that their father is a smoker and they have low income, and low parental education level is significantly higher and should be taken into serious consideration to reduce the mortality.

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin , Hannane Javanpour Heravi , Mohsen Arzanlou, Mohammadreza Sarvi ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background & objectives: Candidiasis is a fungal infection which is caused by Candida spp. Candida albicans is the most common agent of candidiasis. This infection may cause various side effects during pregnancy including prematurity, chorioamnionitis, candidal pneumonia, and systemic candidiasis of infants. This research was conducted for determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Candida spp, collected from pregnant women admitted to health centers in Ardabil, Iran.

Methods: Totally, 408 subjects were included in this study. Demographic data and risk factors were recorded using a questionnaire. Two swab samples were taken from vulvovaginal mucus. One swab was used for preparing smear and direct microscopic examination and the second one used for cultivating the specimen. After identification of Candida spp., antimicrobial resistance pattern was determined by disk diffusion method against Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Nystatin and Amphotericin B. Results were interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. The data were analyzed by χ2 and t-test using SPSS-19.

Results: Out of 408 subjects, 143 cases (35%) were positive for candida spp. The Candida albicans with 119 (83.2%) cases was the most prevalent species followed by Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parpsilosis and Candida tropicalis.According to disk diffusion test, overall 116 (81.1%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, 100 (69.9%) to Ketoconazole, 67 (46.9%) to Clotrimazole and 25 (17.5%) to Amphotericin B. Candida spp. had a highest sensitivity (118, 82.5%) to Nystatin. For Candida albicans 97(81.5%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole and 99(83.2%) isolates to Nystatin. For Candida glabrata 10 (90.9%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, and 9(81.8%) sensitive to Nystatin.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, vulvovaginal candidiasis is prevalent among pregnant women in Ardabil and isolates were significantly resistant against commonly used antifungal drugs. Nystatin was the most effective against Candida spp. As antibiogram for fungal agents is not routinely performed, the similar periodical studies could be useful for choosing appropriate antibiotics in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. 

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