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Showing 35 results for Pregnant Women

Mohammadreza Ghodraty , Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Firooz Amani , Shahnaz Rahimi , Nasrin Shahab ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Regional anesthesia is a method of choice in cesarean section. But in emergency cesarean sections general anesthesia is usually preferred. On the other hand, intravenous sedative drugs used in general anesthesia induction rapidly crosses the placenta and result in fetal depression. Because of higher prevalence of general anesthesia in Iran it is reasonable to conduct more researches in this field. This study set out to compare the effects of Propofol and Thiopental-Na as induction agents on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal hemodynamic status.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 60 pregnant women with ASA class I & II were studied. In a random way 30 patients received 2mg/kg Propofol and the rest of them were given 4mg/kg of Thiopental-Na. All these subjects had full term and normal fetus. Pre and post-induction status of the patients was monitored noninvasively after tracheal intubations and during 12 minutes after that. Also time intervals between induction and birth (cord clipping) and between uterus incision and birth were measured. Apgar score of neonates was evaluated through clinical examination in 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th minutes after birth. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi-square and ANOVA.

 Results: Apgar score in different times (1.5,10&15 minute) had no significant difference between two groups. (In the 1st minute Propofol was 7.1 ± 2.2 and Thiopental was 74 ± 1.8, in the 5th minute Propofol was 9.2 ± 0.7 and Thiopental was 9.1 ± 0.9) Maximum variation of heart rate and blood pressure in two groups were not significantly different. The time intervals between induction and birth (less than 8 minutes) on the one hand and uterus incision and birth(less than 130 seconds) on the other were similar in two groups.

  Conclusions : Thiopental-Na and Propofol can be used with similar results for induction of general anesthesia in cesarean section.

Soheila Rabiey Poor , Shohreh Afshar Yavari ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives : Smoking is one of the major problems in the world today. It threatens people ’ s health. Pregnant women are no exception in this regard. Today, it is found that smoker women bear low birth weight babies, but the studies don ’ t offer clear findings about passive smoking in pregnancy and its effect on weight and height of newborns. This study is an attempt to determine the effects of passive smoking on the weight and height of the newborn babies.

  M ethods : This was a retrospective cohort study. We studied 100 pregnant mothers who were exposed to cigarette smoke and 100 others who were not. A checklist was completed in order to select those who could enter the study. A questionnaire was then filled out for both groups including the information related to the newborns ’ physical specifications.

  Results: This study showed that the average age of the mothers, their education, their husband ’ s education, number of pregnancies and the sex of babies born weren ’ t meaningfully different between the two groups. In the case group the mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2.36 ± 2.28 hours on average and most of them (72%) were exposed to their husbands ’ cigarette smoke. The findings also indicated that difference in weight, height and head circumference among two groups ’ newborns were 11 grams, 0.15 cm and 0.02 cm respectively. The T-test indicated no significant difference between the two groups.

  Conclusion: The study showed that the newborns ’ of mothers exposed to the smoke had lower weigh, height and head circumference than the babies ’ of the control group subjects although the difference was not statistically significant.

Farnaz Moslemi Tabrizi, Soosan Rassooli , Simin Atash Khoii , Rasool Azarfarin ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Nitroglycerin is found to have vasodilatory effect. It has also a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of other organs including uterus. This study investigates the effect of intravenous nitroglycerin in emergency cesarean sections in which rapid and transient uterine relaxation for rapid and nontraumatic extraction of the fetus is necessary.

  Methods: Sixty pregnant women who were candidated for emergency cesarean and needed rapid uterine relaxation for different reasons were selected. These subjects underwent spinal anesthesia and at the time of uterine incision, 100 micrograms of nitroglycerin was injected to them intravenously. The time lapse between nitroglycerin administration and fetal extraction, the degree of uterine relaxation, the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage, uterine tone after fetal delivery and APGAR scores of the infants were all controlled and recorded. Also with regard to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin and probably its resultant homodynamic problems, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial O2 saturation were recorded before and after nitroglycerin injection and throughout the surgery.

  Results: The results showed that in 53 (88.3%) of the patients the uterus was acceptably relaxed and the fetus was delivered very easily. Only in 7 patients (11.7%) uterine relaxation was not acceptable. The mean decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after nitroglycerin administration compared with before injection BP was 12.97 mmHg (12.210 %) and 7.86 mmHg (12.208 %), respectively. There was not seen any prolonged effect of the drug such as uterus relaxation tone or abnormal bleeding. Also, none of the delivered infants had low APGAR scores. Besides, in patients with acceptable uterine relaxation the first and fifth minute APGAR score of infants were higher (p = 0.008, p = 0.000).

  Conclusion: This study shows that nitroglycerin can relax uterine smooth muscles very rapidly and transiently and in emergencies it can be an appropriate alternative to the other tocolytic agents with prolonged effect or onset time.

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Bahareh Rajaee Far , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active researches over the past many years, the etiology of this disorder in human pregnancy is an enigma. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C can scavenge free radicals inducing cellular damage. The present study was designed to investigate the plasma levels of vitamin C in patients with preeclampsia (case) and normotensive pregnant women (control).

  Methods: In this case-control study vitamin C as an antioxidant was estimated and compared spectrophotometrically in 40 preeclamptic and 80 normotensive pregnant women referring to Alavi Hospital of Ardabil province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The plasma levels of vitamin C were significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia (0.147 ± 0.030 mg/dl) compared to controls who were normotensive pregnants (0.347 ± 0.119 mg/dl).

  Conclusion: Attempts at prevent preeclamsia are justified but since no reliable screening test has been offered as yet for women at risk, assessment of plasma level of vitamin C in patients prone to preeclampsia is strongly suggested.

Gity Rahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during the pregnancy. Diagnosis of this disorder can prevent complications in mother and her fetus during pregnancy. This study was an attempt to determine GDM prevalence in pregnant women referring to Ardabil health centers.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 601 pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestational age were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) using 50 gr of oral glucose. GCT was considered positive if the serum level of glucose was larger than or equal to 140 mg/dl. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was done on GCT+ subjects with 100 gr oral glucose. The diagnostic criteria were these of National Diabetes Data Group.

 Also a questionnaire was used to record history, age, height, blood pressure, weight before pregnancy and other characteristics. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: From 601 pregnant women, 64 cases (10.6%) were GCT+. OGTT indicated that from these 64 cases, 8 cases had GDM (GCT +, OGTT+). GDM prevalence was estimated 1.3%. There was a statistically significant relationship between BMI, mean age and mean diastolic blood pressure on the one hand and GCT and GDM positivity on the other (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between increasing of BMI and the prevalence of GDM positivity GCT (p<0.05), but the relation was not significant between increasing of systolic blood pressure and gravidity with prevalence of GDM and positive GCT.

 Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of GDM in Ardabil is low and general screening is not necessary for all pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM showed an increase with the age of pregnant women, BMI and obesity.

Abbas Aflatoonian , Hajar Hojat , Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Background & Objective: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. 10% of maternal death is due to EP and only one-third of women with previous ruptured ectopic pregnancy could have a normal delivery in future. Research about prevalence and risk factors of this kind of pregnancy, could help early diagnosis and treatment of EP and improve the prognosis of fertility rate in the future.

Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, seventy-two patients with EP diagnosis admitted and treated in Yazd hospitals were studied. The data were collected using a questionnaire and hospital records. Sonography and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-Square test.

Results: 11176 pregnancies were recorded in Yazd between March 1999 and March 2000 and seventy-two of these pregnancies were ectopic. So prevalence of EC in yazd was found to be 0.5%. Most of the patients (58 cuses) were 20 to 39 years old. 52.8% of the patients had primipar. 25% had a history of one to three times abortion. From 43 patients who used contraceptive, 19 ones used OCP (oral contraceptive). 39 patients had a history of previous surgery, 7 patients had a history of EP and 25 patients had a history of treatment of infertility. The most common symptom of patients was abdominal pain. Only 4 out of 72 patients were treated with a medical method using methotraxe and the rest of them were operated. Three out of these four patients were finally obliged to undertake surgery.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EP was 0.5%, which is lower than the national scale. 
Giti Rahimi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Hysterectomy is the most common surgery among nonpregnant women. A review of indications of hysterectomy can provide the specialists with new insights about these patients’ treatments. The aim of this study is to investigate the indications and methods of hysterectomy in patients referring to Alavi hospital.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Alavi hospital for two years (2002-2003). The data from 257 hysterectomized patients collected through interview and studying their records were entered into previously-designed questionnaires. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: The number of hysterectomies decreased 38.4% in 2003 compared to 2002. The mean age of patients was 45.8±8.09. The most common indication of hysterectomy was lyomyoma in 42.2% of cases. Abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal method were done in 93% and 7% of the cases respectively. In patients who were operated for pregnancy and delivery complications, the most common indication for hysterectomy was placenta increta (50%). The most common complication was hyperpyrexia (25.7%). The prevalence of complications of abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal method was 26.3% and 16.6% respectively.

 Conclusion: Lyomyoma is the most common indication of hysterectomy in patients referring to Alavi hospital. Besides, abdominal operation is the most prevalent method of hysterectomy in this hospital. Complications of vaginal method are less than those of abdominal method.

Fariba Kahnamoei Aghdam , Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Bahrooz Dadkhah, Firooz Asadzadeh , Melina Afshinmehr,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Unwanted pregnancy is a general and worldwide issue that has an impact on not only the women but the families and societies as well. It may be caused by a failure to use contraceptive methods and paying less attention to family planning methods. This may result in negative effects on community health. This study is an attempt in this regard.

  Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 600 pregnant women referring to health care centers in Ardabil were selected through cluster sampling (5 clusters). The data were collected in the form of questionnaires filled in by the researchers interviewing the subjects. These data were then analysed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The subjects ranged between 13 to 44 years old (Mean=25.13). Among them 93.5% were housewives and 18.5% were illiterate. Majority of them (72%) wanted to have two children. 30.8% of the present pregnancies were unwanted and 11.2% of the women had the experience before. Age average in unintentionally pregnant women was greater than that of intentionally pregnant ones (28.5 and 23.7 years old respectively). This difference was statistically significant. 75.7% of the unwanted pregnancies had happened despite using family planning methods. The rate of unwanted pregnancy among illiterate women was significantly greater than that among the educated ones (52.34% and 26.7% respectively). Also there was a significant relationship between the type of pregnancy on the one hand and the husbands’ education and the wife’s employment on the other (P<0.0001).

  Conclusion: With regard to 30.8% prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and irregular use of contraceptive methods, it can be claimed that training the pregnant women and providing them with necessary information have been insufficient. It seems necessary to teach them the methods of contraception and follow them up.

Sarie Golmohamadloo , Farzane Broomand, Mitra Asadi Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Despite abundant efforts by lranian family planning authorities during the last decade, unintended pregnancy and its consequences such as infected abortions is still a common problem. The aim of this descriptive study was to examine the causes of unintended pregnancy in Kosar Hospital, Urmia.

  M e thods : In this descriptive-analytical study the data were collected from 330 unintendedly pregnant women (out of 1830 pegnant women) visiting gynecology unit at Koshar Hospital in Urmia in 1999. These subjects were interviewed to fill out a questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS using t-test and Chi-square.

 Results: 83.6% of the cases were illiterate and 96.36% were housewives. 59.69% of the cases were above 30 79.09% had 3 or more children. The subjects used the following prophylaxy.

 Methods: thads. Pills (40%), withdrawal (25.5%), IUD (10%), injection (6.4%), minipills (4.5%), condom (3.6%) breast feeding (2.7%), rhythmic (0.9%) and tubectomy (0.6%). The remaining 5.8% had not used any prevention methods. We found a significant correlation between aging and number of unwanted pregnancies (P<0.0001 r = 0.44) and a negative meaningful correlation between literacy and rate of pregnancy (P<0.0001 r = 0.39). Reasons for failure were irregular use of pills, minipills or condom (90% each), unfamiliarity with prevention affter forgetting to take the pill (0.77%), IUD extraction, interrupted use of DMPA method and incorrect use of breast feeding method.

 Conclusion: This study reveals that desptie available prevention methods, due to lack of knowledge irregular use and misconceptions about complications of prevention methods, the subjects used unreliable methods which are more likely to lead to failure. Therefore, new measures should be taken in family planning centers to increase awareness among women concerning risk of unitended pregnancy.

Parvin Yavari, Uadollah Mehrabi, Mohammad Amin Pour-Hoseingholi ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Breast Cancer is among the most common types of cancer in women which in case of early diagnosis and treatment can increase women’s chance of survival. This study was performed in two case and control groups.

 Methods: This case-control study which was based on hospital records was conducted on 303 breast cancer patients and 303 control women. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-square.

 Results: The study revealed that there were significant differences between the cases and controls with regard to knowledge (p<0.001) and practice (p<0.001) of breast self-examination. 61% of the cases and 32% of the controls mentioned BSE as a necessary measure for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. 76% of the cases and 47% of the controls were not aware of the proper time for BSE (p<0.001). More than two-third of the subjects in each group did not know the proper time and the necessity of BSE in menopause and pregnant women and these was a statistically significant difference between two groups in this regard (p<0.001). Women in case group had done more frequently than controls (p<0.04). Moreover, the BSE intervals in two groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the reasons of refusing to do BSE in two groups (p<0.05). Subjects in neither group had regularly referred to a physician for examination and early diagnosis.

 Conclusion:Since the knowledge and practice of women and their referring to a physician for breast examination is inadequate, it seems necessary to devise educational program about doing monthly BSE and hold educational courses to promote women’s knowledge concerning the early diagnosis of breast cancer as well as its appropriate and regular performance.

Seid Hadi Hakim, Gahanbachsh Samadikhah , Samad Gafari , Azin Alizadeh ,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Thrombosis with high mortality is a serious complication of prosthetic heart valves and requires treatment, which includes reoperation or using filbrinolytic medications. Regarding the importance of the issue and high mortality rate in reoparation, the present study was performed to determine the efficacy and pragnosis of fibrinolytic therapy on mechanical prosthetic valve.

  Methods: This prospective study was preformed on seventeen patients with PVT who had undergone treatment with streptokinase (SK). After the primary diagnosis, the response to treatment was echocardiography and TEE. Patients with large clots or equal to 1cm clots, pregnant women and patients who had been operated in a month prior to the study were excluded.

  Results: Of the 17 patients (9 female and 8 male, mean age= 43.8 ± 11) 14 had mechanical double-let prostheses (8 mitral & 6 aortic) and 3 patients had single-let prostheses (1 aortic and 2 mitral). 71.3% of the patients with a double-let prosthesis responded completely to the treatment with SK. In none of the patients with a single-let prosthesis the treatment was successful. Also treatment of acute thrombosis was more effective in aortic position (71.4%) than in mitral– valve (50%) (p=0.02). Mortality rate due to cerebral bleeding was 5.8%. Two systemic embolic events (11.8%) occurred (1 cerebral and 1 renal) with transient signs.

  Conclusion: The use of fibrinolytic agents was effective, relatively safe and available especially in patients with less than two weeks’ presentation, small clot and NYHA class I and II and in aortic-position thrombosis.

Mahzad Sadaghiani , Hale Ayatollahi , Fariba ; Nanbakhsh , Atoosa Mojahadieh,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Infertility affects approximately 10-15% of reproductive age couples. Intra Uterin Insemination (IUI) is a primary, simple and effective method of infertility treatment in ovulatory disorders, unexplained infertility, cervical factors and some cases of male factor. In this research, the success rate of IUI with regard to different causes of infertility was studied in Kowsar IVF centre.

  Methods: In this retrospective study, 404 infertile couples were studied using a questionnaire that included the demographic data, duration of infertility , sperm count and mobility, follicular diameter and count, situation of uterus and fallopian tubes and pregnancy results. The data were analyzed with SPSS.

  Results: Pregnancy rate was 11.1% for patients with ovulatory factors and 7.1% for male factors. There were no significant differences in sperm count and diameter of follicles in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

  Conclusion: With regard to different causes of infertility the best treatment results were achieved by IUI in ovarian factor. Patients over 35-40 did not have a good prognosis in COH-IUI cycles. Other methods of ART are recommended in such cases.

Farideh Mostafazadeh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Masoumeh Rostamnegad ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)

 Background & Objectives: Ceasarean section (CS) has increased in rate during the past years. Due to postoperative complications, long recovery time and high costs of surgery, normal delivery is recommended as a routine method. Regarding the increase in the number of CS and its acceptability on the part of the public, it seems that women’s as well as health personnels' attitudes play an effective role in selecting the termination method. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare pregnant women’s and health personnels' attitude toward termination procedures.

 Methods: This was a descriptive and comparative study. 84 health personnels and 300 pregnant women who referred to Ardabil health centers in 2002 were selected. These subjects' attitudes were collected through Likert questionnaire and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS, using t-test.

 Results: The findings showed that 30.1% of women and 50% of health personnels had positive attitudes towards normal delivery. The findings also indicated that there was a significant difference between pregnant women and health personnels in their attitudes toward normal delivery and cesarean (p=0.001).

 Conclusions: Since health personnels had a more positive attitude towards normal delivery than pregnant women did, it seems that the young as well as the pregnant individuals in society need more education and awareness to be able to change their attitudes towards delivery methods. Health personnel, due to their high positive attitude towards normal delivery, can play a more beneficial role in this regard.

Ali Nemmati , Soheila Refahi, Manoochehr Barak , Manije Jafari , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)

 Background & Objectives: 11% of all newborns in the developing countries suffer from low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight has an important role in individual health, family and society. Lower and higher birth weight from standard rate lead to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between some of maternal anthropometric measurements such as BMI, pre-gravida weight, height, age with birth weight.

 Methods: This is an analytical-descriptive study, in which there were 300 pregnant women who hard referred to Alavi Hospital, Ardebil for delivery. Maternal pre-gravida height, weight and birth weight were collected from their units. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the maternal pre-gravida weight in kg by height in m squared (kg/m2). The relationship between maternal anthropometric measurements and birth weight was analyzed by t-test.

 Results: Our study showed that 32 (10.7%) women had BMI<19.8, 185 (61.7%) BMI=19.8-26 and 83 (27.7%) BMI>26. 36.3% of women were under 55 kg, 48.3% between 55 to 70 kg and 15.3% over 70 kg. The relationship between maternal pre-gravida BMI, weight and birth weight was statistically significant (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between maternal age and neonatal birth weight.

 Conclusion: Pre-gravida body mass index (BMI) and weight could be two important anthropometric measurements associated with birth weight. Thus, it is recommended that women give adequate preconceptional and prenatal care to decrease the amount of LBW and HBW in population.

Nayereh Khadem , Ahmadshah Farhat, Nayereh Ghomian , Samira Ibrahimzadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Preeclampsia is an unknown disease. It was seen in 3.7% of live births and it is the cause of mothers' death in 18%. In addition to complications for mothers, fetal damage have also been seen. Also we sought to consider predictors of neonatal outcome in women with preeclampsia and normal women.

  Methods: It is a prospective and cross-sectional study that was performed on 127 preeclampsia pregnant women and 254 normal pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed by software SPSS/Win and was used X2 test for analysis of the results.

  Results: Prevalence of preterm labor was 54.4% in women with preeclampsia and 25% in normal pregnancy. There was no statistical difference such as parity (P=0.157), age (P=0.256) and type of delivery (P= 0.226). There was a significant difference between two groups in gestational age (P<0.0001), birth weight (P<0.0001), neonatal mortality (P=0.013), neonatal Apgar score (P=0.005) and NICU admission (P<0.0001).

  Conclusion: It is clear that the difference between two groups is mainly because of preterm labor in preeclampsia group. Attention to exact control of illness and avoidance of making rash decision for terminating pregnancy in mild preeclampsia can improve outcomes of Neonates.

Farahnaz Seddighian , Haiedeh Samiai , Haiedeh Seddighian F, Bs1; Samiai H, Md2; Alaoddolehei ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2008)

 Background & Objective: During pregnancy, Hb and Hct are reduced, because of increase in maternal plasma volume. Pregnant women need more iron, because of the increase in blood volume, blood cells, the growth of fetus and placenta, iron supplementation is performed. This study, measured blood index after different doses of iron supplement prescribed in healthy pregnant women in order to prevent excessive iron intake.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional analytical study, 150 healthy pregnant women were selected who were divided in to two groups. One group took daily (as control) and the other intermittent (as case=3 times in week) iron supplement from the second trimester. Blood samples of all cases in the first second an third trimester were analysed for complete blood counts (CBC). The Data were analysed by SPSS.

 Results: The reduction of Hb, HcT and RBC at second trimester was significant compared to the first (p<0.05). This difference was not significant among two groups concerning the blood index.

 Conclusion: Since there was no significant difference in blood index among the case and control groups, so, to prevent the side effects of iron over load, it’s recommended, to use intermittent iron supplement in healthy pregnant women.

Roya Motavalli , Gity Ozgoli , Maryam Bakhtiari , Hamid Alavi Majd ,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2009)


 Background and objectives: Employed pregnant women have to do their jobs in addition to fulfill their house wife role and behavior, while changes physical and psychological change and needs of pregnant women in home and work place cause some problem for them. Marital satisfactions is one of the criteria’s of mental health, that employment and marital intimacy are it’s influential factors it is different in various societies and are influenced by personal and social characters of community. This study was conducted to compare marital satisfaction and intimacy in employed and unemployed pregnant women in Ardabil.

  Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 93 employed and 93 unemployed pregnant women referred to health and treatment centers of Ardebil University of Medical Science, and private clinics of Ardabil. We gathered data by an information form, Enrich Marital Satisfactions Questionnaires and Bagarozi Couple Intimacy Questionnaires. Validity of questionnaires assessed through validity of content and their reliability measured by Cronbach α . Questionnaires were filled by pregnant women. The data analyzed by SPSS 16 soft ware using T-Test, Man-vitny, chi-square, Correlation coefficient, variance analysis, and LSD tests).

  Results: There was no significant difference between mean of marital satisfaction and general intimacy in employed and unemployed pregnant women. p > 0.05. There was significant correlation between intimacy and satisfaction expect body intimacy (p < 0.01). There was significant difference between marital satisfactions of pregnancy in different trimester. This difference was significant between first and last trimester. It was not significant between first & second & third trimester. 69.9% of unemployed pregnant women and 66.7% of employed pregnant women had relative and medium marital satisfaction and 93.5% of unemployed pregnant women and 94.6% of employed pregnant women had medium intimacy.

  Conclusion: It seems that employment had no effect on marital satisfaction and intimacy. Considering that most samples had medium intimacy satisfaction, educational programs and consulting is recommended.

Shahram Habibzadeh , Mohsen Arzanlou , Elham Jannati , Mahdi Asmar, Mahnaz Azari , Zahra Fardiazar,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2010)

  Background & Objectives : The early-onset form of GBS (Group B Streptococci) disease typically occurs in the first 24 hours of life, with fulminant sepsis or pneumonia and has associated to high mortality (5-20 %) and morbidity. In prenatal infections GBS is transmitted vertically to the newborn during labor and delivery from the vagina of a typically asymptomatic colonized woman. Preventive strategies can be done with screening program and this study has been done for determination of carriage prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of GBS in pregnant women of Ardabil.

  Methods :For determination of carriageprevalence 420 pregnant women selected stratified proportionally from 11 clusters of obstetric clinics of Ardabil. Sampling was done in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation with a vaginal and rectal swab for culture. Swabs were inoculated into a selective broth medium (Todd-Hewitt broth with colistin, 10mg/L and nalidixic acid 15 mg/L = LIM broth), incubated overnight at 35-37°C, and subcultured onto sheep blood agar. Isolated bacteria identified by standard microbiological tests.

 Results: Out of 420 subjects 62 positive cultures were established (14.8%), 19 of them (4.5%) from anus, 19 of them (4.5%) from vagina and 24 of them (5.8%) from both.

 All of isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin and Vancomycin. There were 1 case of resistance 15 case of semi sensitivity and 46 cases of sensitive versus Erythromycin, these pattern also checked for Clindamycin, and results were respectively 11, 5, 46. All isolated GBS were sensitive to penicillin among them 3 (4.83%) isolates showed reduced susceptibility.

  Conclusion: Because of high prevalence rate we recommend screening of all pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus at 35-37 weeks' gestation with a vaginal and rectal swab. Based on antibiogram drug of choice for treatment is Ampicillin, and in cases of drug hypersensitivity Vancomycin may be choice.

Maryam Nematollahzade , Raziyeh Maasoumi , Meynoor Lamyian, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background & Objectives: Pregnancy accompanies with physical and psychological alternation during woman's life. These changes effluence the overall dimensions of couple’s life especially sexual relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the women’s attitude and sexual function during pregnancy.

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted among 329 healthy pregnant women aged 15-45 years. The attitude and sexual function of the cases were studied based on their gestational age (the last fourth weeks of each pregnancy trimester) in three groups. Data were collected using an instrument. The instrument has three parts including demographic characteristics, attitude assessment and Arizona Sexual Scale Experience (ASEX). One way ANOVA, Post hoc, chi square and Spearman correlation were used for data analysis and the differences were considered to be significant at the p<0.05 level.

  Results: The results showed that the score of sexual dysfunction, sexual desire disorder and orgasmic disorder increase with gestational age development. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant relation between total score of sexual function disorder and decrease of sexual attraction in all three trimesters (p=0.01, p=0.04, p=0.03 respectively) and fear of prematurity in the second trimester (p=0.01).

  Conclusion: According to the results sexual function disorder has a high frequency in pregnancy. The findings emphasize the need for educational programs to improve the Sexual functions during prenatal care.

Fatemeh Ranjkesh , Shokouhosadat Abotorabi , Jamileh Kajinebaf , Fereshteh Abbasi ,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Background & objectives: Pre-eclampsia, as a idiopathic disease, is one of the most important causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Deficient or excessive level of trace elements can be considered as an unfavorable factor in pregnancy.The aim of this study was to evaluate copper status in pre-eclamptic women .

 Methods: 95 pre-eclamptic and 92 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in a case - control study .The sera and 24-hour urine copper of two groups were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically by using t-test, X2, and pearson's correlation .

 Result: Copper concentration of serum and 24-hour urine in pre-eclamptic patients were significantly higher than normotensive ones (p<0.000). Intensity of pre-eclampsia did not correlate with copper concentration in the serum and 24-hour urine .

 Conclusions: The results suggest that the high level of copper in maternal serum and urine is in correlation with pre-eclampsia but pre-eclampsia intensity have not significant effects on copper levels. However, further studies would be helpful for this test to be used as a prognostic method for pre-eclampsia.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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