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Showing 13 results for Practice

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.

Afsar Foroud , Afsaneh Foroud ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : In order to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity, midwives should be able to implement community cares for women and their families. The aim of this study is to investigate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery (COM).

  Methods : In this cross sectional study, all 280 midwives working in Kerman hospitals and health service centers were selected. The questioner for data collection had two parts. The first part intended to describe the characteristics of samples and the second part was used to evaluate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery. Correlation and chi - square tests were used to analyze the data.

  Results : Mean of knowledge score was 21.13 and 16.4% of the subjects had a good knowledge of COM. Mean of attitude score was 77.07 and 61.8% of the samples had a positive attitude towards COM. 79.2% of samples announced their readiness to practice COM.

  Conclusions : Based on the findings of this study it seems that the professional knowledge of midwives should be promoted, regarding COM.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Shahnam Arshi, Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Moharram Yusefisadat , Moharram Alimorad, Hosein Sadeghi , Hamid Jafarzadeh, Jafar Bashiri, Saeeid Sadeghiehahari , Firooz Amani, Roghaie Tafarrogi , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

  Background & Objectives: In modern civilization, community participation is considered to be the most important way of development in different parts of the society. Establishing social development and health promotion centers (SDHPC) is the first step which is taken in this regard. In these centers, social development is implemented along with health promotion. During some planned activities people practice participation and having sense of responsibility while they move towards development and health. They understand that the key for solving majority of health problems are in their own hands.

  Methods: In the framework of an action research, interventions based on dynamic, reevaluation activities, were done in two parts: Formation of activity committees and establishment of population laboratory. SDPHC set its programs based on a planned approach to community health and community mobilization was the first practical action in this plan.

  Aiming at presentation and evaluation of community mobilization model, different activities consisting of mobilization of heath volunteers, raising participation of regional stake holders, recognizing social literature to ensure effective and pervasive communication with people, propagation and call for participation along with general enumeration of society was done to find authoritative people.

  Results: Health volunteers helped to recognize 60 key persons. 53 of them accepted participation. Objectives of the center were explained to them in three meetings, and their opinions were collected. A study of community literature showed that this region had a moderate to high cultural behaviors, and moderate to low income level and education with suitable interest in participation. The Evaluation of provincial broadcasting organization, municipality and other organizations was not desirable except for education organization. Publishing a newsletter was not welcomed by people but it created a bright perspective among governmental authorities. 287 persons accepted invitations voluntarily and took membership. After regional census, it was found that 4355 households with a total population of 19652 were living in this region 9305 (48%) of whom were females. Mean age of population was 26 and mean household dimension was 4.5. 8352 persons (42%) were married. Majority of women were house wives and majority of men had self managed job.

  Conclusion : The process of community mobilization in this project was evaluated to be successful but for establishment and continuation of activities in SDHPC most of the organizations and different groups of people should be encouraged to participate.

Jafari Rahimi Panahi , Ata Mahmoudpour , Sohrab Negargar, Rasool Azarfarin ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

 Background & Objectives: One of the most common ways in intubation without muscle relaxant is using propofol and remifentanil. The common practice is injection of remifentanil and then propofol. This occasionally produces severe hemodynamic changes. The aim of this study is to inject propofol followed by remifentanil for evaluating the effect of the order of injection on decreasing these complications.

 Methods: 40 patients with American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) class I-II, who underwent minor elective surgery with airway mallampati class I-II entered the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups each with 20 patients. The first group received 2.5mg/kg propofol followed by 1.5 g/mg remifentanil while the second group received 1.5 g/mg remifentanil followed by 2.5 mg/kg propofol. Laryngoscopy and hemodynamic changes were compared in two groups.

 Resutls: There was no difference between two groups in laryngoscopy attempts (P=0.145) but the frequency of easy laryngoscopy in the first group (85%) was more than the second group (60%) (P=0.031). Systolic blood pressure changes after laryngoscopy in the first group (20 7.7 mmHg) was less than the second group (28 6.7 mmHg) (P=0.001). There was no statistical significant difference between two groups in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate changes (P=0.88, P=0.86 respectively).

 Conclusion: Administrations of propofol before remifentanil during anesthesia induction produces acceptable hemodynamic changes in patients.

Parvin Yavari, Uadollah Mehrabi, Mohammad Amin Pour-Hoseingholi ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Breast Cancer is among the most common types of cancer in women which in case of early diagnosis and treatment can increase women’s chance of survival. This study was performed in two case and control groups.

 Methods: This case-control study which was based on hospital records was conducted on 303 breast cancer patients and 303 control women. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-square.

 Results: The study revealed that there were significant differences between the cases and controls with regard to knowledge (p<0.001) and practice (p<0.001) of breast self-examination. 61% of the cases and 32% of the controls mentioned BSE as a necessary measure for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. 76% of the cases and 47% of the controls were not aware of the proper time for BSE (p<0.001). More than two-third of the subjects in each group did not know the proper time and the necessity of BSE in menopause and pregnant women and these was a statistically significant difference between two groups in this regard (p<0.001). Women in case group had done more frequently than controls (p<0.04). Moreover, the BSE intervals in two groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the reasons of refusing to do BSE in two groups (p<0.05). Subjects in neither group had regularly referred to a physician for examination and early diagnosis.

 Conclusion:Since the knowledge and practice of women and their referring to a physician for breast examination is inadequate, it seems necessary to devise educational program about doing monthly BSE and hold educational courses to promote women’s knowledge concerning the early diagnosis of breast cancer as well as its appropriate and regular performance.

Nader Pashapour, Ali Macooei , Vahid Sheikhi ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background&Objectives: Febrile convulsion is a disease with good prognosis but its mismanagement leads patients to serious complications. T his study was conducted to compare practice guidelines with current practices in the management of children with first febrile convulsion.

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of first febrile convulsion in Imam-Khomeni hospital of Urmia in 2004. The data were collected from their hospital records. Practice guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) were employed as reference. Current practices were compared with AAP recommended practice parameter about simple febrile seizure. Investigations performed included lumbar puncture, complete blood count, CRP, ESR, blood glucose, serum calcium, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, urinalysis, urine, and blood culture, chest X-ray, EEG and CT scan.

  Results: T wo hundred fifty one cases aged 6-60 months were studied. Complete blood count, ESR, CPR, blood glucose, serum calcium, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, urinalysis, urine culture, and blood culture in all cases (100%), lumbar puncture in 10%, chest X-ray in 24%, EEG in 1.4% and CT scan in 0.65% of cases were the measurements conducted.

  Conclusions: The present study showed that the use of unnecessary investigations was common. Investigations, though costly, proved to be of little diagnostic value. This problem can be alleviated through a well-organized national program or observing AAP practical guidelines.

Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaie , Alireza Nikniaz, Hosein Koushavar , Haleh Sadegie,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of society. Any qualitative and quantitative problem in offering health services to them is a main health and social problem. Cooperative health centers for the first time in Iran were established in East Azerbaijan as a proper strategy for solving health problems and limitations of expansion of government health centers. This study was conducted to evaluate their quality of services to children under one year old in comparison with governmental health centers.

 Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done on 7 cooperative health centers and 14 neighboring government health centers selected by convenience method. Data were collected by filling checklists obtained from observation of services offered to these children by healthcare personnel as well as studying the children's health records. Descriptive (absolute and percent frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation) and inferential (independent samples t-test) statistics were used for analyzing the data.

 Results: The findings showed that the quality of health care for children under one was good (85.71%) in cooperative centers and moderate (78.57%) in government health centers and their statistical difference was significant (P=0.002). In terms of services about growth monitoring of child, nutrition of infant and mothers' education, cooperative health centers had better practice compared to government health centers (P= 0.001, 0.007and 0.023respectively). Regarding the equipment both centers had good facilities (85.71%) and there was no statistically significant difference between them (P= 0.912).

 Conclusion: The results showed that, in most cases, the quality of health care given to children under one was good in cooperative health centers and moderate in government centers. This optimum performance of cooperative centers can encourage health care authorities to plan for the expansion of such centers to compensate for the deficiencies of health services especially in children under one year old.

Parnian Alizadeh Oskoee, Siavash Savadi Oskoee, Mahdi Abed Kahnamuee, Moharram Baghery Paridlu,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

  Background & Objectives: Vast usage of Amalgam and it's poisoning nature related to mercury necessited the hygiene aspects of mercury to be put in to consideration. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists towards the principles of mercury hygiene.

  Methods : In this descriptive analytic study, 116 dentists in their private clinic were selected randomly and were analyzed for the above parameters by questionnaire. Data were analyzed in spss.14/win software with descriptive statistic methods, t test and Pearson correlation test.

  Results : The mean of knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists were 45.74±13.28, 68.96±10.62 and 17.43±17.55 respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between the knowledge and attitude and practice of principles of mercury hygiene. Besides there was no significant correlation between sex, specialty and graduation time with those parameters.

  Conclusion: Despite positive attitude and knowledge, practice of Tabriz dentists is not favorable. According to the positive attitude and the willingness of the dentists for knowledge enhancement and optimizing the practice for mercury hygiene, appropriate programming for mercury hygiene instruction during the educational period and continuing educational program can be very advantageous.

Shafi Habibi , Jabraeil Farzi, Rasool Lotfollahzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2008)

  Background & Objective: General physicians require a number of different resources to cover the broad scope of their practice. A critical point in their medical practice is timely access to the wide variety of clinical information sources that contribute to patient care decisions. The aims of this study were to assess information seeking behavior of Ardabil general physicians and their approach towards electronic sources.

 Methods: This study was done using Questionnaire research method. A total of 191 questionnaires were distributed among GPs and 167 relevant questionnaires were gathered. Data were analysed applying SPSS.

 Results: 75% of general physicians had access to internet. The majority of them were in search of information for Keeping themselves up-to-date and solving medical problems (78.4%). General physicians' first priority was text books, and the second priority was continuing medical education courses for meeting information needs. They used mostly books followed by medical journals as formal channels, and updated their information taking part in continuing medical education courses followed by congresses and seminar as informal channels. As obstacles to finding necessary information they reported lack of adequate time (61.7%), near to half of them (47.3%) reported lack of sufficient information resources in libraries, and unfamiliarity with medical databases (40%).

 Conclusion: General physicians are aware of the importance of internet in accessing information, but they did not use it as an important tool to answer questions rising in practice. The majority of general physicians used books to access information followed by continuing medical education courses, and used internet in the sixth rate. The majority of them used low rate the internet, electronic resources, and medical databases because of inadequate familiarity with them. General physicians need training in internet, web search tools and search methods, and medical databases.

Ali Mohammadian, Mojgan Khanbabazadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

 Background and objectives: Every organization which is a provider of service or a product is always responsible for seeking clients, comments as feedbacks so to identify the shortcomings and on the basis of their comments, plans can go through the growth and improvement. The present study, from the view of client tendency, is aimed at measuring the rate of Ardabil University of Medical sciences students’ satisfaction with the practices of faculties, educational management, student-cultural management and the counseling unit.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 705 students from all faculties were questioned. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire in which, in order to assure the adequacy of the concept in, measurement, content validity was used and it was applied according to the comments of some instructors. To confirm the reliability of the questionnaire, 10 subjects were chosen and the questionnaires were distributed and then collected. After 15 days of interval from the first administration, the readministration on the same group was done and the reliability of the test became 0.86 using Alpha cronbach. The data in the first stage were investigated through descriptive statistical methods SPSS 13 and in the next stage in order to determine the difference between group comments, the independent T-Test and ANOVA were used.

 Results: None of the units of the university got scores above average and the two units of education in the faculties and education management got an average score from student satisfaction and the mean of other units was below average. Native students of the university were more satisfied with the faculties and educational management whereas the mean of nonnative students, satisfaction was higher in student-cultural management and the counseling center.

 Conclusion: Student dissatisfaction with the func? of student-cultural management and the counseling unit is a shortcoming which requires the people in charge to take necessary measures to improve the quality of affairs.

Mirmehdi Chinifroush Asl , Mohammad Bagher Sootode , Amir Jameeii , Samira Shahbazzadegan,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Lymphadenopathy refers to the disease of lymphatic nodes. Any immune response against foreign antigens is often associated with lymph node enlargement (lymphadenopathy) and lymphadenitis. Most pathologic studies of neck lymph nodes indicated TB as the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy. Approach to a neck lymphadenopathy as the main complaint of the patients or the only clinical finding is usual events which physicians encounters frequently during their practice. M anagement of these patients depends on the physician experience and knowledge. This study aimed to investigate etiology of cervical lymphadenopathies in admitted patients.

  Methods : In this cross-sectional study, one hundred patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who referred to Fatemi hospital from 2002-2006 and underwent excisional biopsy with pathologic results were included. Demographic data ' age and sex', and pathologic findings were obtained using the patients' file . FNA results and non lymphoid samples were excluded . All findings were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results: A total number of 100 subjects were studied of whom, 52 (52%) were male and 48 (48%) were female. On the basis of pathologic findings, tuberculosis was the most common cause of lymphadenopathy (36%) . Reactive changes including follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis and other forms of lymphadenitis, metastatic carcinoma, Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma were found in 34%, 13%, 9% and 8% respectively. In patients aged under 15, reactive changes were seen in 11cases (57%), and in age group of 16- 55 years tuberculosis was found in 31 cases (44.2%), and metastatic carcinoma was diagnosed in subjects aged over 55 years with 5 cases (45.4%).

Conclusion: In our study tuberculosis is the most common cause for cervical lymphadenopathies in both sexes (especially between 15 to 55 years). This findings emphasis about the TB prevalence in Ardabil. Under the 15 years old reactive change of lymph nodes and over the 55 years metastatic carcinoma were the most common causes.
Elahe Gozali , Mostafa Langarizadeh , Farahnaz Sadooghi , Maliheh Sadeghi ,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (4-2014)

  Information technology can increase the quality of medical care and is a target for many of the pioneers in the development of clinical or medical information. Electronic medical record (EMR), one of such technologies, is a well-known and valuable system to access patient information in hospitals. Electronic medical records which are used for the purpose of providing basic health care are available through a network of computers. All units of the hospital such as examination room, conference room, emergency, patient care units, nursing stations, operating rooms, recovery units, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy and medical records should have access to it. Among its advantages are improved quality of care provided to patients, better organized information, improvement in the timeliness of the process, accuracy and completeness of documentation, patient access to electronic copies of records, prevention of medication errors and allergies, reduced medical errors, immediate access to information in different places, decision support technology and improvement in the process of doing . S urely the use of electronic medical records has created a new dimension to patient care and clinical practice and will provide a comprehensive system to support people in the community and enhance the quality of services provided to them.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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