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Showing 23 results for Oxidative Stress

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Bahareh Rajaee Far , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active researches over the past many years, the etiology of this disorder in human pregnancy is an enigma. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C can scavenge free radicals inducing cellular damage. The present study was designed to investigate the plasma levels of vitamin C in patients with preeclampsia (case) and normotensive pregnant women (control).

  Methods: In this case-control study vitamin C as an antioxidant was estimated and compared spectrophotometrically in 40 preeclamptic and 80 normotensive pregnant women referring to Alavi Hospital of Ardabil province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The plasma levels of vitamin C were significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia (0.147 ± 0.030 mg/dl) compared to controls who were normotensive pregnants (0.347 ± 0.119 mg/dl).

  Conclusion: Attempts at prevent preeclamsia are justified but since no reliable screening test has been offered as yet for women at risk, assessment of plasma level of vitamin C in patients prone to preeclampsia is strongly suggested.

Akram Kooskki, Mahdi Golafrooz Shahr ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Oxidative stress has a role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes due to increase in insulin resistance or disorder in insulin secretion and atherosclerosis. Food antioxadants including carotenoids protect against diabetes by preventing oxidation reactions. Therefore, this study was conducted in Sabzevar to study the relationship between carotenoids and blood sugar and lipids in type II diabetic patients.

 Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on type II diabetic patients who were randomly sampled. Their height and weight were measured and relevant data on nutritional intake and frequency in 3 successive days were collected through 24-hour recall. Measures were domesticated and converted to grams. Carotenoids of the intakes were calculated. Blood sugar, triglycerides and serum cholesterol after 12 hours fasting were measured through enzymatic procedures. Data analysis was carried out by descriptive statistics and partial correlation.

 Results: 75 type II diabetic patients with mean age of 54.05±14.2 years, mean BMI of 27.02±5.03 Kg/m2 participated in the study. Their mean blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol were 196.36±87.82, 262.84±147.89 and 243.98±60.76 mg/dl respectively. Mean daily intake of beta carotene was 1236.56±810.21 mcg, alpha carotene 878.170±149.04 mcg, lutein 1163.40±819.77 mcg, zeaxanthin and lycopen were 2195.77 ±988.70 mcg.

 Conclusion: Our results showed that most carotenoids negatively correlated though not significantly with their blood sugar and lipids.

Mohammad Mazani , Hasan Argani , Nadereh Rashtchizadeh , Mohammad Rohbaninoubar , Amir Ghorbanihagjo , Reza Mahdavi , Reza Razzaghi , Babak Rahimi Ardabily , Seyedjamal Ghaemmaghami ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

  Background and Objectives: A great amount of evidence shows that Oxidative stress is high among hemodialysis patients. The purpose of present investigation is examination of the effect of zinc supplementation on improvement of oxidative stress in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 65 chronic hemodialysis patients were studied in two groups Group one (35 patients) received placebo and group two (30 patients) received 100 mg elemental zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily for 2 months. The placebo and supplement discontinued in next 2 months. Then, the study continued for two other months in the cross-over from. The levels of serum zinc, total glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), total serum antioxidant capacity and the activity of whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined on 0th, 60th,120th,180th days, in fasting, predialysis samples. Food record was recorded for one day prior to dialysis in above-mentioned days and their dietary zinc was assessed.

  Results: Basal serum zinc levels in both groups were below 80 μ g/dl. The zinc upplementation led to significant increase in the levels of serum zinc in both groups .The levels of serum total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione and activity of whole blood SOD increased significantly during zinc supplementation period. The concentrations of serum MDA decreased significantly in zinc supplementation period in both groups. During the placebo period the levels of MDA in first group increased significantly, whereas the concentration of glutathione in second group decreased significantly. The body mass index (BMI) values did not change significantly during the study.

  Conclusion: It can be concluded that in patients undergoing hemodialysis the oxidative stress enhanced during nonsupplementation period (zinc sulfate). Low serum zinc levels are improved by zinc administration and zinc supplementation improves oxidative stress.

Mohammad Aghaeishahsavari , Masoud Noroozianavval, Peghah Veisi , Hasan Argani , Nadereh Rashtchizadeh , Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Sima Abedi-Azar, Amirmansoor Vatankah,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2008)

 Background & Objective: As renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity could affect the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers the effect of enalapril and losartan on these markers in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) with RAS polymorphisms was assessed.

 Methods: After determination of RAS genotypes including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE I/D), Angiotensinogen (AGT M235T) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1 A1166C) by PCR, seventy-six RTRs recruited to four groups randomly: first group (17 patients) and second group (24 patients) were treated with E (E+: 10mg/daily) and L (L+: 50 mg/daily) alone, respectively. The third group (17 patients as positive control) received E+L (E+L+: 10mg/daily + 50 mg/daily) and the 4th group (18 patients as negative control) received no medication (E-L-). Hs-CRP and total anti-oxidant (TA) as inflammatory and anti-oxidative markers were measured after 2 months. After 2 weeks as washout period, E group changed to L and vice versa as a cross-over design. They were followed for another 8 weeks and hs-CRP and TA were retested.

 Results: Following up the patients (after 2, 4 months of treatment) in treated groups revealed that hs-CRP and TA levels were significantly decreased and increased (consequently) in E+L+, L+, E+ groups (P<0.05). On analyzing the relationship between RAS polymorphisms with baseline hs-CRP and TA levels, CC genotype of ATR1 had lower hs-CRP levels (P=0.04). But none of the RAS polymorphisms could predict the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory response rate to the drugs (P>0.05).

 Conclusion: E and/or L reduce hs-CRP and increase TA regardless of the RAS genotypes.

Mohammad Mazani , Shabnam Javadi , Jafar Bashiri , Abbas Naghizadeh, Amir Mansoor Vatankhah,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is the most incident disease in Iran that leads to death. This study was designed to evaluate the oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with gastric cancer by detecting paraoxonase 1 and arylesterase activities together with the level of malondialdehyde. The purpose of the present investigation was determination of Paraoxonase /Arylesterase activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum of patients with Gastric cancer.

  Methods: In a case-control study, 20 subjects who diagnosed as gastric cancer individuals that referred to Ardabil Aras Clinic were selected from 2008 up to 2009. The case groups were matched with control group (30 subjects). Arylesterase and paraoxonase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), MDA levels and lipid profile were determined spectrophotometrically in serum of subjects.

  Results: Upon matching of case and control groups, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with gastric cancer showed to be significantly lower than healthy subjects (190 ± 68.95 IU/L vs 258 ± 68.59 IU/L, 30.5 ± 28.4 U/L vs 284.23 ± 163.2 U/L respectively, P ≤ 0.001). Standardized activities of paraoxonase and arylesterase of case group were lower than controls (P ≤ 0.001). MDA levels have revealed significant increasing in cases than controls. In present study, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were found to decrease in patient sera too, but the levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol didn’t show to be different between two groups.

  Conclusion: It was concluded that in patients with gastric cancer, oxidative stress was raised by attenuation of antioxidant system and oxidant levels rising.

Reza Mahdavi , Ali Nemati , Eiraj Feizi, Mojtaba Amani , Hosein Alimohammadi Asl, Mohammad Mazani M, Phd4; Nagizadeh Bagi , Abbas , Ali Shadman , Reza Alipanah Mogadam, Asghar Pirzadeh, Mousa Ghayour Nahand,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Consumption of ω3 fatty acids supplementation inhibits oxidative stress injury, increases activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreases lipid peroxidation in gastric cancer patients. In this study, we examined effects of ω-3 fatty acid intakes on oxidative stress in gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  Methods: This double blind clinical trial study was conducted on 30 adult patients (15 cases and 15 controls) with gastric cancer during chemotherapy in Ardabil city in 2010. Case and control groups were selected by randomized allocation. Three grams ω -3 fatty acid supplementation (1.8 g EPA & 1.2 g DHA in 10 g fish oil) and placebo were given case and control groups for 45 days, respectively. Anthropometric indices (weight, height & BMI) were measured. Blood samples were taken and then biochemical factors including triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, MDA, and total antioxidants were evaluated at the beginning, middle and end of the study . The data were analyzed by using Paired sample t-test, Independent sample t-test and repeated measures test.

  Results: MDA, Weight and BMI of omega group after intervention were significantly more than control group at the end of the study (p<0.05). Weight and BMI were decreased but serum MDA was significantly increased in control group during the study (p<0.05). Weight, BMI , and total antioxidants were significantly increased in omega group during day 30-45, (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in other biochemical factors at the end of study.

  Conclusion: The present investigation shows administration of ω3 fatty acid supplements to gastric cancer patients during chemotherapy increases the total antioxidants capacity and prevents the enhancement of oxidative stress.

Reza Alipanahmogadam , Mohammad Mazani , Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi, Ali Nemati, Mojtaba Amani , Bahman Bashardoost, Amir Mansour Vatankhah , Shahab Bohlooli,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Several evidences show that oxidative stress is high among patients with hemodialysis . This study was aimed to investigate the oxidative stress and serum level of zinc and copper in patients with non-diabetic hemodialysis .

  Methods: In a case-control study, 60 patients with non-diabetic hemdialysis referred to hemodialysis section, Ardabil Bou-Ali hospital, and 60 healthy individuals, matched by age and sex, were selected. In each group, lipid profile, blood glucose, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, zinc, copper, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were measured. The results were analyzed statistically by using Pearson correlation coefficient and Student-t test.

  Results: The amount of zinc, blood sugar, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, high density lipoprotein-C and low density lipoprotein-C were significantly lower in patients with hemodialysis in comparison with those in normal individuals. T he activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells and serum total antioxidant capacity were significantly high in patients in comparison with those in control group. However, serum concentrations of copper and malondialdehyde in two groups were not statistically different.

  Conclusion : The results of this study show that increase of antioxidant enzymes activity reduces the oxidative stress status in patients with non-diabetic hemodialysis . Zinc deficiency was also observed in these patients.

Sara Rahbar, Naser Ahmadiasl,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the effects of acute resistance exercises on the structure and the function of heart, but little works done on effects of chronic resistance exercises. So, the objective of current study was to investigate the long term effect of regular exercises on cardiac function and oxidative stress.

  Methods: Forty male Wistar rats in the weight range of 250- 300 g were used in this study. They were divided in 2 following groups: The 3 months exercises test group and control group which remained without exercises. Regular resistive exercise was carried out according to the model proposed by Tamaki et al. Test group rats exercised for three months. Finally the hearts of 10 rats in each group were taken for homogenization, oxidative stress measurement and the other ten were examined for heart function. Malondialdhyde as an index of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxides and catalase as an indicator of antioxidant capacity with special kits were specifically measured.

  Results: Regular resistive exercise didn't significantly affect the rats' weight, but heart weight in exercise group showed a significant increase (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in heart rate in exercise group (p<0.05). Left ventricle contraction strength and coronary flow had a significant increase in exercise group in comparison with control group (p<0.05). There was not any significant difference in Malondialdhyde and antioxidant enzymes activity.

  Conclusion: This study showed that, heart efficiency had a significant improvement under effect of regular resistive exercise. Meanwhile, regular resistive exercise didn’t have any significant effect on oxidative stress and heart antioxidant defense capacity.

Ali Shadmanfard, Ali Nemati , Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi, Mohammad Mazani,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (11-2012)

 Background & Objectives: The intake of antioxidant supplementations can have key role in prevention of oxidative stress in healthy individuals. Pomegranate has antioxidant effects and may play a role in reduction of oxidative stress in healthy males. Therefore, this study examined the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on oxidative stress in young healthy males.

 Methods : In semi-experimental study, 14 healthy students living in Dormitories of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences were included. Subjects were given one cup of pomegranate juice supplementation per day for two weeks . Fasting blood samples were taken both at the start and the end of 2-week period to measure the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase , glutathione peroxidase , paraoxonase - 1, aryl esterase , and the values ​​of serum total antioxidant capacity , glutathione, and lipid profiles . Data were analyzed using descriptive and paired t - test s.

 Results: T he level of serum total antioxidant capacity and activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, arylesterase, and standardized arylesterase activity were significantly increased at the end of two weeks (p<0.05). The serum level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased after intervention (p<0.05). Changes were not significant, although the serum levels of glutathione and HDL- cholesterol increased and LDL- cholesterol decreased at the end of two weeks period.

 Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the pomegranate juice supplementation had beneficial effects in helping body's antioxidant defense system and reduction of oxidative stress in young healthy males . This study suggests that the pomegranate juice supplementation can be useful against oxidative stress included in dietaries of young healthy males.

Mohammad Reza Nasirzadeh , Mohammad Heykalabadi , Alireza Nourazar ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by derangement in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Most of hypoglycemic agent used in medicine for diabetes treatment are reported to have side effects for long run. On the other hand, increase in oxidative stress is effective in the genesis of diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia cyparissias on serum glucose and antioxidant enzymes level in diabetic male rats.

  Methods : In this study, 40 adult male Wistar rats weighting 250±20 grams divided into four groups randomly: control, diabetic animals, treatment 1 and treatment 2 which received 500 and 250 mg/kg of E.cyparissias extract for 21 days by gastric gavage, respectively. At the end of the treatment, level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX and also blood glucose were determined in animal's serum.

  Results : The blood glucose levels were significantly lowered in the group of treatment 1 compared to diabetic group (p<0.05). Results showed that MDA level of serum was increased significantly in diabetic group in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the TAC, SOD and GPX level were increased significantly in the group of treatment 1 compared to diabetic group (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : This study showed that oral administration of E.cyparissias extract has antidiabetic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Mostafa Nachvak , Sheida Ahani Kamangar , Ali Nemati , Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Background & Objectives: Epidemiological and experimental evidences suggest that oxidative stress is elevated in children with Down syndrome (DS). Some studies show that consumption of diets with a high content of fruits and vegetables results in a significant reduction in markers of oxidative stress. We investigated the frequency of fruits and vegetables intake in children with DS and the influence of variations in the level of this consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress .

  Methods: Frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables by children with DS were recorded by interview with the children’s parents. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were also measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Data analysed using ANOVA and Student’s t-tests .

  Results : Mean consumption of fruits and vegetables was 4.6 and 0.74 servings per week, respectively. No significant relationships were found between consumption of fruits and vegetables with markers of oxidative stress. Based on our findings, the 65.9 % of the children did not eat any vegetables and the rest of the children consumed less than one serving per day. There was a significant correlation between the frequency of fruits and vegetable consumption (r=0.212 p <0.04).

  Conclusion : There wasn’t any significant relationship between fruits and vegetables consumption and indicators of oxidative stress in children with DS. This lack of correlation could be due to low consumption of fruits and vegetables in children with DS.

Farnaz Seifi-Skishahr, Arsalan Damirchi , Manoochehr Farjaminezhad , Parvin Babaei ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (4-2015)

  Background & objectives: The “redox” state represents the oxidation/reduction potential within the cell in a way that more “redox” is the marker of health, while the more oxidized reflects predisposition to diseases. Different types of exercise training may change the thiol/disulfide ratio of redox couples such as glutathione and represent a shift in redox balance. This study was assessed the influence of high-intensity aerobic exercise on glutathione redox state in red blood cells in professional, recreational athletes and nonathletes.

  Methods: Ten voluntary well trained (WT), moderately trained (MT) and untrained men subjectswere randomly selected for this semi-experimental study (mean ages of 21.10±1.72 21.70±1.88 and 20.10±1.44, respectively). Blood samples were collected before, immediately, 10 min and 30 min after acute aerobic exercise with 75%VO2max. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and (GSH/GSSG) in red blood cells (RBCs) as well as serum levels of cortisol and creatine kinase (CK) were measured.

  Results: The results showed reduction, elevation and no changes in RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio in UT, MT and WT groups, respectively. The lowest levels of GSH/GSSG ratio in RBCs and the highest one were detected in the WT and MT groups, respectively. The serum levels of cortisol and creatine kinase were increased following the exercise in three groups.

  Conclusion: It is concluded that acute aerobic exercise with high intensity does not change redox balance in well trained subjects, however it is capable to shift redox balance towards more reducing environment in moderately trained subjects and also to more oxidizing one in untrained subjects.

Rasool Javanamani, Babak Nakhostin-Roohi ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (4-2015)

  Background &objectives: Glutamine has antioxidant properties and can be used to treat some diseases. This study was conducted to assess the effect of one-week glutamine supplementation on oxidative stress indices in young healthy men.

  Methods: Nineteen active healthy men volunteered for this study. This study was conducted in biochemistry lab of Ardabil branch of Islamic Azad University in Spring 2014. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled method into two groups: Glutamine (n = 9) and placebo group (n = 10). The participants took supplement (0.15 g/kg glutamine + 15g sweetener + 250ml water) or placebo (15g sweetener + 250ml water) daily for 7 days before main trial.Fasting blood samples were taken before and after supplementation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, reduced glutathione (GHS) level of serum, and malondialdehyde (MDA) of plasma were measured.

  Results: GHS significantly increased after treatment compared with pre-treatment in Glutamine group (p<0.05). There were no other within and between group significant differences in any indices (p>0.05).

  Conclusions: These results showed that one-week daily oral supplementation of glutamine has been able to increase GHS probably because of greater glutamine availability .

K Tahmasebi, M Jafari, F Izadi,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)

 Background & objectives: Diazinon (DZN) as an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agriculture is associated with reducing the antioxidant capacity of the cell. Use of thiol compounds such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant decreases oxidative stress in the cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NAC as an antioxidant against DZN- induced oxidative stress in rat brain and heart. 

Methods: In present experimental study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including: control group (corn oil as DZN solvent), DZN group (100 mg/kg), NAC group (160 mg/kg), and NAC+DZN, all of which were given intraperitoneally. 24 hours after injection, animals were anesthetized by ether, and the brain and heart tissues were quickly removed. After tissues hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by biochemical methods. 
Results: DZN increased SOD and GST activities and MDA level and decreased LDH activity and GSH content in brain and heart. Also, DZN increased CAT activity in the heart and increased it in the brain. Administration of NAC inhibited the change in these parameters.
Conclusion: DZN through free radical production leads to enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, depleted GSH content and oxidative stress induction in the brain and the heart. Administration of NAC as antioxidant decreases the DZN-induced oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals and GSH synthesis, but its protection is not complete.

H Panahpour, M Golmohammadi, S Mohamadnejad,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. The use of herbs and medicinal plants in different countries is increasing. Today, herbal medicine is used as alternative or complementary therapies with a fewer side effects. Nigella sativa has a rich medical and religious history. Oxidative stress has important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. As Nigella sativa has antioxidant effects, its administration may produce a protective effect against complications of this disease. We examined the effects of the treatment with Nigella sativa oil on the cerebral infarction and edema.

Methods: 48 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, sham, control ischemic and Nigella sativa oil treated (2 ml/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly selected and used for two projects: (i) Measurement of the infarct volumes and neurological outcome (ii) investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method.

Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with impaired motor functions and severely brain edema. Treatment with Nigella sativa oil significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved the motor functions. The water content in the left (lesioned) hemisphere was considerably elevated in the control ischemic group. Administration of the Nigella sativa oil significantly lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere.

Conclusion: Treatment with Nigella sativa oil can noticeably decrease the ischemic brain injury, attenuate edema formation and improve motor disabilities.

Amirabbas Rashidi, Piraste Norouzi, Hamid Kalalianmoghaddam, Mehdi Khaksari, Mehdi Bagheri,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)

Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus mediated by oxidative stress, creates serious metabolic disorders in testis. Kudzu root with an isoflavonin and saponin contents is often used as antidiabetic and antioxidant. This study aimed at preventing the oxidative effects of diabetes using Kudzu root.

Methods: In this study, 32 male Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups: control, diabetic and diabetic rats treated with Kudzu 50 and100 mg/kg. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 55mg/kg streptozocin. One week after injection, the rats started to receive Kudzu at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for five weeks by gavage. Testicular damage was examined by using hematoxylin-eosin staining protocol. Hormonal and blood biochemical factors were measured.

Results: The results of this study showed that diabetes causes a high blood sugar levels and reduces the spermatogonia and Sertoli cells with decreased spermatogenesis,sperm count and function. These effects were improved in the treatment groups. Decrease in blood sugar and increase in the number and motility of sperm cells and spermatogonic cells were also observed together with enhanced seminiferous tubule diameter and lower basement membrane thickness.

Conclusion: Kudzu with the ability to reduce blood sugar, improves diabetic-induced testicular damage and can have a therapeutic role in diabetes.v

Hamdollah Panahpour, Mohammad Nouri, Mohammadghasem Golmohammadi, Nooshin Sadeghian ,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2016)

Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. Several experimental studies have shown that combination therapy with drugs that act via different mechanisms can produce amplified protective effects. We examined the effects of combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol against cerebral ischemia.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=24): sham, control ischemic, candesartan treated (0.3 mg/kg), alpha tocopherol treated (30 mg/kg) and combined treated ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly used for measurement of the infarct volumes and investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method.

Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with severely impaired motor functions and edema formation. Combined treatment with candesartan and alpha tocopherol significantly reduced the infarct volume and lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere. These effects on brain edema and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly more than the monotherapy with candesartan.

Conclusion: The combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol can noticeably decrease ischemic brain injury and attenuate edema formation likely via increasing the antioxidant activity.

Bahador Karimi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background & objectives: Zinc as one of the most important trace elements is needed for proper functioning of the nervous system and homeostasis. Many studies show that stress causes memory impairment through various mechanisms, including oxidative stress induction and some mechanisms which are directly effecting brain function. So, in this work we assessed the effect of zinc chloride on passive avoidance memory and oxidative stress following acute stress in male rats.

Methods: In this study, 50 male Wistar rats were used in five groups: control, sham, stress, zinc chloride treatment and zinc chloride treatment before stress induction. For stress induction, rats were restrained (not immobilized) for 6 h/day, 7 days in a Plexiglas restrainer, and treated rats received an oral dose of zinc chloride 32 mg/kg/day by gavage for 6 days. At the end of the experiment, passive avoidance memory was avaluated by shuttle box and some oxidative damage markers were determined in all groups.

Results: Results of this study showed that animals which were exposed to stress showed a significant decrease in passive avoidance memory compared to control group (p<0.01) and the oxidative stress parameters in this group showed significant changes compared to the control group (p<0.05). While passive avoidance memory and oxidative stress parameters in group treated with zinc chloride were nearly closed to control group.

Conclusion: According to our results, zinc chloride with antioxidant properties can have a protective effect on memory impairment and oxidative stress induced by stress.

Mohammad Amani,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia in elderly people that is accompanied by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. The pathologic hallmarks of AD are synaptic and neuronal degeneration together with extracellular senile plaques containing amyloid-beta (Aβ) and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus and other cortical regions. Amyloid-beta peptide is believed to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD as a major component of the senile plaques. It acts as a trigger key of AD and is considered as the principal toxic factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ), a main component of the senile plaques, in the brain initiates a cascade of events that ultimately lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Other proposed mechanisms for AD include impairment in cholinergic function, oxidative stress, inflammatory agents and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. AD is characterized neuropathologically by impaired cholinergic function, increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, synapses loss, cortical atrophy, deficiencies in steroid hormones and appearance of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity.

Taktam Sadat Vafa , Mojdeh Emadi , Seyed Damoon Sadoughi,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (4-2018)

Background & objectives: Curcumin has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of curcumin on bax, bcl-2, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of sperm after freezing procedure.
Methods: In this experimental study, semen samples were collected from four mature Holstein bulls, twice a week in eight innings. Semen samples were divided into four groups. Zero (control), 10 (Experimental group one), 20 (Experimental group two) and 30 (Experimental group three) mg/ml of curcumin with diluents were added to the semen samples. After thawing, Bax, Bcl-2 and malondialdehyde levels as well as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes were measured in sperm samples using ELISA.
Results: According to the results, Bcl-2, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels  in sperm samples treated with 20 and 30 mg/ml curcumin significantly increased and Bax and malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased compared to control groups (p<0.05). This difference was not significant for sperm samples treated with 10 mg/ml curcumin.
Conclusion: Dose-dependent administration of curcumin decreased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and increased anti-apoptosis proteins in freeze-thawing sperms.

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