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Showing 23 results for Ops

Khalil Rostami,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Hydatic cyst is caused by Echinococus worm, that involves any part of the body, sometimes it is presented in organs such as thyroid, breast and other organs. Axillary that may be consider adenopathy or metastasis and do biopsy, which so there is danger of leakage, anaphylaxis or relaps.

 The reported case was 39 years old female presented with painless axillary mass without inflammation since 19 years ago that slowly enlarged. Physical findings suggested hydatid cyst which was confirmed with ultrasonography and IHA for Echinococus granolosus and other diseases ruled out. She was operated and she had no relapses after 1.5 years follow up.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)
Abstract

  Temporal arthritis (TA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis with unknown etiology, which involves large and medium sized arteries. A wide spectrum of systemic, neurological and ophthalmological complications appears in the course of the disease the most serious of which is visual impairment leading to permanent blindness in 60% of the cases.

  TA is diagnosed through an elevated ESR (>60 mm/Hg) and pathological findings of arterial biopsy. It is considered as one of the urgent neurological cases in which the patient should be treated with corticostroid immediately after diagnosis. The subject of this research was a 62-year-old male who had had headache associated with fatigue, night sweats and low mood for four month. The diagnosis of TA was made considering an elevated ESR and temporal artery biopsy findings. Treatment with prednisolone was initiated and continued for 19 months resulting in complete recovery.


Alireza Hakemi, Marziyeh Mohajery ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

 Renal poly cystic sinus is a rare disease which is bilateral and has benign course. It usually breaks out after the fifth decade of life. The cysts in this disease are mainly of lymphatic origin. They can be associated with inflammation, stone or obstruction. Unlike the multicystic and polycystic kidney in which the cysts are formed in the cortex, in this disease they are seen in the sinus of the kidneys. What makes this case unique and necessery to report is its rareness and differentiation from other renal cystic lesions. The author could not find any previous report about the coexistance of edema of mons pubis with renal polycystic sinus. This study reports a bilateral poly cystic sinus which exists with intermittent edema of mons pubis. The patient is a 24-year-old female who complained of a mild pain in the flank area with intermittent edema of the mons pubis. The patient underwent urologic and gynecologic examinations which lead to the final diagnosis of renal bilateral poly cystic sinus disease. The disease had a benign course and the patient is under observation after the biopsy.


Nasrin Fazel , Mahin Tafazoli , Mohammad Ramezani , Habibollah Esmaili ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Flatulence is one of the most common postoperative disorders, which leads to abdominal distension, respiratory disorders and the openning of sutures. Some of the drugs used to alleviate the abdominal flatulence are associated with complications and harmful effects, which gives us a hint to adopt herbal medicine. The present study investigates the effect of supermint on the flatulence intensity after cesarean section.

  Methods: This double-blinded clinical trial study was conducted on 107 women (47 cases as placebo group and 60 cases as drug group) who had cesarean section in shahid Mobini hospital, Sabzevar. After stopping the administration of IV fluid, the subjects in both groups received 40 drops of drug and placebo every 20 minutes for 3 days.

  Results: The intensity of flatulence in the first 20 minutes (p=0.042), in second 20 minutes (p=0.001), in the third 20 minutes (p<0.001) and 120 minutes after intervention (p<0.001) was lower in drug group compared to before intervention.

  Conclusion: Supermint is effective in reducing the postoperative flatulence in cesarean section and is recommended to be used in these cases.


Ahad Azami , Abbas Yazdanbod, Nateg Abbasgolizadeh, Yegane Sadeghy,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: According to a recent report published by the ministry of health, Esophageal cancer is the second most common fatal cancer in Ardabil. This study investigated the relationship between anatomical sites and pathological features of Esophagus cancer with related risk factors.

  Methods: This descriptive-cross-secional and prospective study was conducted on patients referring to GI clinic of Ardabil (Aras) between 2000-2003. Patients with suspicious upper GI symptoms underwent upper GI vide-endoscopy. At least five to six endoscopic punch biopsies were obtained from all the lesions and sent for pathology. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. Anatomical sites, demographic information of the patients (age, sex, educational state, residential area) smoking habit, alcohol and opium consumption were entered into the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the EPI 2000 statistical software.

 Results: The mean age of the patients with cancer was 59 ± 11.64 years and the male to female ratio was 1:1. Villagers constituted 117 (77%) of the patients. 93.4% of these patients were illiterate. The cancers were of the following types: 126 (82.9%) SCC, 25 (16.4%) adenocarcinoma and 1(0.7%) in situ carcinoma. The most common site of esophageal SCC cancer was middle third of esophagus with 73 (48%) patients. In contrast the most common site of adenocarcinoma in 31 (20%) patients was lower third of esophagus. No meaningful relationship was found between esophageal cancer and smoking drinking or opium consumption.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated that unlikewestern countries esophagus cancer had no relationship with smoking or alcohol consumption in Ardabil. Other studies are recommended to be performed to find out more about relationship between known esophageal risk factors including nutritional habits, nitrosamines, soil contents, agricultural products and genetic background.


Abbas Yazdanbod , Manoochehr Iran Parvar , Firooz Amani , Reza Malekzadeh , Saeid Salavati ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)
Abstract

 Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in terms of mortality in the world. Ardabil province, in northwestern Iran, has the highest rate of gastric (predominantly cardia) Adeno carcinoma in Iran. The most common site of upper gastrointestinal cancer in Ardabil is cardia region (its right-side wall). Therefore this study aimed to investigate comparatively histopathology of right and left side of cardia and z-line considering the incidence of inflammatory and precancerous lesions.

 Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed on one hundred adults who referred to Aras clinic for endoscopy. Endoscopy was done with video endoscope and a single biopsy was taken from right and left side of cardia and z-line respectively and one from antrum for H.Pylori. All the samples of the biopsy material were fixed in formalin in separate bottles and pathologic study of the samples with regard to inflammatory and precancerous lesions were done according to Sydney classification of gastritis. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.

 Results: 61 (61%) patients were male and 39 (39%) female. The age range of patients was 19-80 years old (standard deviation 53±16.2). Mild to severe inflammation in left and right side of cardia and z-line was 82.6%, 84%, 97.1%, 93%, mild to severe atrophy in 22.8%, 28.7%, 26.5%, 24.4% and metaplasia type 1 to 3 in 2.2%, 6.4%, 2.9%, 12.2% respectively. Suspected dysplasia in cardia and z-line was only in one case. Analysis of these variables with McNamara, Wilcoxon and Lambda tests showed no statistically meaningful difference considering the histopathological findings in left and right side wall of cardia and z-line

 Conclusion: This study showed no statistically meaningful difference between right and left wall of cardia and z-line considering the incidence of inflammatory and precancerous lesions. This observation is not consistent with high incidence of right sided cardia cancer. Further study with multiple biopsy sample and more sensitive methods is recommended for the diagnosis of precancerous lesions.


Afshar Tamook , Fereidoon Ashenaie, Joobin Yeganeh Moghadam , Mahdi Chiniforush , Nayereh Amini Sani, Shahram Habibzadeh ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Visceral leishmaniasis is a reticulo endothelia system and it is known as 'black fever' by Indians. According to WHO every year there are 500 thousand new cases of it in the world. The province of Ardabil, with 25-40% from all the country's leishmaniasis has a major part in the country and is considered as one of the main focuses in Iran. Due to its importance, this study was done to identify clinical signs and demographic characteristics of the patients.

 Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done retrospectively 110 children who were hospitalized in three different active hospitals between 1375-1382 entered in this study. Disease definition include parasite detection in bone marrow aspivation or special clinical signs (fever, spleenomegal, pansytopenia and weight loss) in addition direct agglutination test was positive. The samples were investigated in terms of demographic information. Place of living, clinical signs and the length of time between the symptoms of the disease and its diagnosis. To get to the results, simple descriptive statistics was used. 37.8% of the patients were diagnosed from the beginning of symptoms with in a month.

 Results: There were 56.4% boys and 43.6% girls of all the 110 children. DAT test was done in 97 patients which was positive in 91 cases (minimum positive titer 1/400). In 42 patients biopsy and bone marrow aspiration was done which was positive in 26 cases (lishman body detection). The age of the patients was 4 months -14 years. The most common findings were fever 97.3% and anorexia 97.1%. There was anemia in 90% thrombocytopenia in 60.8% and leukopenia in 24.8%. There was death in 6 patients (5.5%) and unresponsiveness to the treatment in 3 cases (2.7%).

 Conclusion: The results of the present study nearly corresponds to those of other studies. The main vulnerable community of visceral lieshmaniasis are mainly children. In order to decrease the mortality and morbidity its early diagnosis is essential. It is necessary that the physicians working in endemic regions be familiar enough with the disease.


Afagh Amirabi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

  Kikuchi is a benign inflammatory and self-limited disease which was first and reported in Japan. Females are more commonly affected, in their third decades usually presents itself as a single lymph adenopathy, in the cervical region. The recurrence occurs approximately in 3% of the cases. The subject is a 22 year old female presented with skin rashes and multiple adenopathy one month before admission .The peripheral blood smear shows moderate leukocytosis, with atypical lymphocytes. The ESR show moderate elevation. Finally after lymph node biopsy, the diagnosis of KFD was confirmed.


Mohammadhosein Somi, Sara Farhang , Taher Eftekhrsadat, Eiraj Gorbani Golzari ,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives:Barrett’s esophagus is the most severe complication of gastroesophageal reflux which may lead to Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The epidemiologic aspects of this condition is not completed studied in Iran. The aim of this study is to appraise short segment Barrett’s esophagus in patients which are evaluated due to their reflux related symptoms in a university endoscopy center.

 Methods:During this cross-sectional study, short segment Barrett’s esophagus was investigated in 100 consequent patients with reflux symptoms (heart burn and/or acid regurgitation) for at least one year. After obtaining their consent for upper endoscope, they were studied interms of short barrett esophagus Four biopsies from esophageal side of gastroesophageal junction for histologic evaluation, and one from antrum for rapid urease test used for Helicobacter pylori were obtained. Barrett’s esophagus was confirmed by appearance of intestinal metaplasia by two pathologists.

  Results: Among 100 eligible subjects, 39 patients were male and 61 were female with a mean (±SD) age of 42.31±15.12 years. Prevalence of short segment Barrett’s esophagus in this study was 8%. Barrett’s esophagus was not related to gender, symptoms and their severity but was significantly more frequent in patients experienced their symptoms for more than 5 years. Barrett’s esophagus was not related to the presence of esophagitis. Infection with Helicobacter pylori was related to less esophagitis but was not related to presence of Barrett’s esophagus.

 Conclusion:According to the high prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus in subjects with reflux related symptoms in our region, upper gastroesophageal endoscopic evaluation of patients with symptoms more than 5 years is recommended even before age 40. Patients may benefit from Concentration the attention of the endoscopist for taking biopsies.


Peyman Azghani , Alireza Samarbafzadeh, Ahmad Farajzadeh, Fransva Feval , Alireza Khorramifar,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Mycobacterium leprae is the cause for leprosy which is a contagious disease in many developing countries. These diseases have always been a dreadful one for its unpleasant clinical symptoms and the disabilities it causes. It has the most prolonged cell division time of all bacteria (12-14 days). Its incubation period is long (3-5 years) even 40 years has been reported. The complications which it leaves are irreversible and it bears a heavy socio-mental burden on the individual and the society. WHO has listed 91 countries with leprosy. The goal of the present study was the early diagnosis of the disease before the emergence of unpleasant clinical symptoms and popularizing molecular method of PCR in place of the conventional method of slit skin smear which is not a precise or reliable method.

  Methods: In this study 40 slit skin smear and the same number of skin biopsies were taken from patients referring Bababaghi Hospital and samples from ear lobes and eyebrows were taken. Slit skin smears were stained with Zeihl-Neelsen method and examine microscopically. At the same timy biopsy specimens were extracted.

 Results: Of 40 samples, three slit-skin specimens (7.5%) had positive smear result, while 14 (35%) biopsies had PCR positive result. The rest (11 cases) probably had TT or borderline forms of BB, BT, BL).

 Conclusion: The results showed that SSS is not a precise and reliable method for diagnosing leprosy especially in TT form which is always negative direct smear. Also direct smear method and clinical symptoms are not accurate or reliable methods in estimating the rate of disease prevalence.


Hosein Ghamari Givi, Somayeh Ghasem Nejad,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Clock drawing test is a neuropsychological test and has simple scoring and administration. It is a visual-spatial task and therefore can be useful for assessment of the right parietal lobe, constructional apraxia and executive function in schizophrenia.

Methods: this research was a descriptive-analytical study. The samples of this research were 80 inpatient male persons with schizophrenia in Razi Hospital of Tabriz in the fall of 2007. The sample size was 28 patients that were randomly selected. 28 normal persons that have been matched in age and educational level as comparison group were assessed with the test. The raw data were analyzed by independent t-test and the analyses were done by SPSS13.

Results: The results indicated that there is a significant difference in two groups on two phases of research (p=0.01). In particular, the error scores in group with schizophrenia on two phases were higher than normal group. Furthermore, error scores of group with schizophrenia did not show any difference in the second phase.

Conclusion: On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the clock drawing test can diagnose differentially between persons with schizophrenia and normal population. On the other hand most frequent errors on drawing the test in persons with schizophrenia was the place assignment of numbers in clock face. This failure is due to visual-spatial disorder. Visual-spatial ability is affected by the object centered system and the viewer centered system.      


Mirmehdi Chinifroush Asl , Mohammad Bagher Sootode , Amir Jameeii , Samira Shahbazzadegan,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Lymphadenopathy refers to the disease of lymphatic nodes. Any immune response against foreign antigens is often associated with lymph node enlargement (lymphadenopathy) and lymphadenitis. Most pathologic studies of neck lymph nodes indicated TB as the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy. Approach to a neck lymphadenopathy as the main complaint of the patients or the only clinical finding is usual events which physicians encounters frequently during their practice. M anagement of these patients depends on the physician experience and knowledge. This study aimed to investigate etiology of cervical lymphadenopathies in admitted patients.

  Methods : In this cross-sectional study, one hundred patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who referred to Fatemi hospital from 2002-2006 and underwent excisional biopsy with pathologic results were included. Demographic data ' age and sex', and pathologic findings were obtained using the patients' file . FNA results and non lymphoid samples were excluded . All findings were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results: A total number of 100 subjects were studied of whom, 52 (52%) were male and 48 (48%) were female. On the basis of pathologic findings, tuberculosis was the most common cause of lymphadenopathy (36%) . Reactive changes including follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis and other forms of lymphadenitis, metastatic carcinoma, Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma were found in 34%, 13%, 9% and 8% respectively. In patients aged under 15, reactive changes were seen in 11cases (57%), and in age group of 16- 55 years tuberculosis was found in 31 cases (44.2%), and metastatic carcinoma was diagnosed in subjects aged over 55 years with 5 cases (45.4%).

Conclusion: In our study tuberculosis is the most common cause for cervical lymphadenopathies in both sexes (especially between 15 to 55 years). This findings emphasis about the TB prevalence in Ardabil. Under the 15 years old reactive change of lymph nodes and over the 55 years metastatic carcinoma were the most common causes.
Sadegh Hazrati , Seiyedhosein Sabery , Hadi Peeridogaheh , Roghaiyeh Alizadeh , Hadi Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (4-2012)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Different factors increase risk of disease transmission in women's barbershop and disinfection of instruments, as a major preventive measure, plays an important role in the control of disease transmission . Therefore, present study was conducted to investigate the quality of barber tools disinfection in women salons in Ardabil in 2009.

  Methods : In a cross-sectional study , 96 women salons were randomly selected. Data were compiled using a questionnaire, observation, and recording results of microbial cultures from barbering tools and analyzed using χ 2 and descriptive statistics.

  Results : Personal shaving kits were being used only in 5.2% of barbershops and 56 % of barbers applied Micro 10 as a disinfectant of barbershop tools. 64.6 % of samples were microbiologically positive and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 53 % of positive samples. Positive results were significantly higher in barbershops that did not follow standard procedure of tools disinfection ( p<0.0001).

  Conclusion: As a result of our study we suggest the following points to improve population health in the barbershops : training on proper disinfection techniques, promotion of Micro10 application and avoid of unhealthy behaviors in barbershops.


Hasan Ghobadi, Afshan Sharghi , Jila Sadat-Kermani,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is considered as one of the top five cancers in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for lung cancer in Ardabil.

  Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Ardabil province since May 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were evaluated from two sources the first group was selected from patients of the Imam Khomeini hospital of Ardabil. These patients were underwent bronchoscopic biopsy in this center and their pathological reports were positive for primary lung cancer. The second group included the patients were reported in Ardabil cancer registry center with diagnosis of primary lung cancer and their samples have been sent to the other centers for analysis. We collected the data in a data sheet for each group separately and analyzed through the use of SPSS (ver. 16) statistical package.

  Results: A total of 124 patients with lung cancer enrolled in this study (79% in the first group and 21% in second group). The male gender was dominant among the patients (82.3%) and the mean age of 64.23±9.99 years. In the first group more than half of the patients (54.1%) were urban, 90.8% had a history of smoking (mean 38.67±25.70 packs of cigarettes per year) and the history of opium abuse was high among subjects (34.7%), the positive family history of cancer was 17.3%, and the most common chief complaint at the time of diagnosis was bloody sputum (32.7%). Right upper lobe was the most common site of cancer in bronchoscopy of this group (27.64%) and squamous cell carcinoma was the most common form of malignancy (61.3%).

  Conclusions: This study showed that unlike developed countries and in line with domestic studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common lung cancer, and adenocarcinoma was less common. Lung cancer among the men was seen 4.6 times more than women, and smoking was the most important risk factor.


Akbar Pirzadeh , Mirmehdi Chiniforush , Asghar Pirzadeh , Susan Barari ,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (4-2014)
Abstract

  Extramedullary plasmacytomas are rare solitary soft tissue tumors that arise from proliferations of malignant transformed monoclonal plasma cell. Though they are closely related to multiple myelomas, they have better prognosis. The tumor is eradicated by surgery or local radiation therapy. This is a case-report study of solitary plasmacytoma tumor which involved left side maxillary sinus and underwent excisional biopsy confirmed by IHC.


Fariba Kahnamuie Agdam , Haleh Shahlazadeh , Mina Ataee ,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2014)
Abstract

  Primary Extra nodular non-Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy is rare with occurrence rate of 0.8 in 100000 pregnancy. In this report, the case of a 19-year-old woman during week 14 of her intrauterine pregnancy with primary extra nodular non-Hodgkin lymphoma is described. The staging consisted with thyroid open biopsy. After induced abortion the subject underwent chemotherapy with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 6 cycles.


Sm Rezavian, R Shapouri ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Yersiniosis is created by Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 and causes problems in the world especialy in cold and mild countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 oligopolysaccaride (OPS) conjugate to diphtheria toxoid (DT) as a vaccine candidate.

  Methods : After cultivation of bacteria, the LPS were isolated by modified hot phenol method. Then dialysis and concentration were done and the OPS were extracted by acetic acid 2%. To conjugate with diphtheria toxoid, ADH was used as a spacer molecule and EDAC as a linker. Conjugate was purified by gel filtration. Then 4 groups of female BALB/c mice were selected (15 mice in each group). Injection was performed intraperitoneally in three doses with two weeks interval. Then serum samples were collected and antibody response against OPS was measured by indirect ELISA method for detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3.

  Results: After second and third doses, OPS-DT recieved group showed significant increase in all types of antibodies titer in anti-OPS in comparison to group that recived nonconjugated OPS. The increase in titer of antibodies was as: OPS-DT>OPS>DT. A remarkable increase was shown in total IgG and IgM titers (with total amount of 3204 and 670, respectively). In IgG1 subclass the amount was 920 and in other subclasses of IgG (IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b) the amounts were 910, 110, and 99, respectively.

  Conclusion: The results shows that OPS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 increases the anti-OPS antibodies in the form of conjugate with diphtheria toxoid and could be considered as an appropriate vaccine candidate.


S Bakhti, S Latifi-Navid, S Zahri, A Yazdanbod,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Several studies have described VacA and CagA as the two important virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori, which are associated with gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU). The aim of present study was to determine the associations of the i and d regions genotypes of H. pylori vacA gene and cagA status with GU and DU risk.

Methods: A total of 177 isolates were cultured from the biopsies of Iranian patients with different geographic origins and genotyped. Data were collected and analyzed.

Results: Frequency of the vacA i1, i2, i1i2, d1, and d2 alleles and cagA in all patients was 42.9%, 55.4%, 1.7%, 41.8%, 58.2% and 68.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of vacA i1 in isolates from GU than those from non-atrophic gastritis (p<0.05). When the GU was considered as a dependant factor by the multiple logistic regression analysis, the vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with the age- and sex-adjusted risk for GU (p=0.006, odds ratio [OR]=3.56 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45–8.75). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between vacA d genotype and digestive diseases. After controlling for age and sex variables, the cagA genotype remained in the final model when the DU was considered as a dependant factor by the the multiple logistic regression analysis (p=0.021, OR=3.77 95% CI=1.22-11.60).

Conclusion: We have proposed that the H. pylori vacA i1 and cagA genotypes could be considered as benefit biomarkers for prediction of risk of GU and DU in Iran, respectively.


A Houshiyar, N Fouladi , F Ghorbani, R Mohammadi, H Alimohammadiasl ,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2015)
Abstract

Background &objectives: Celiac disease is a gastrointestinal disorder that genetic factors have a role on its pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine HLA alleles encoding HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 in patients with celiac disease.

Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted on 105 patients with IBS whom referred to the gastroenterology unit in Ardabil, Iran. The patients with positive celiac serology of IgA anti-tTG test were done an endoscopic duodenal biopsy. HLA DQ2 and DQ8 testings were performed on patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics together with Mann-Whitney U and Fisher&rsquos exact tests by SPSS-16.

Results: 14 patients were found positive for IgA antibodies against tTG. From these 14 patients 2 (14.3%) were male and 12 (85.71%) female. All of 14 patients (100% of case) had also abnormal intestinal pathology according to the modified Marsh classification and 10 patients had type IIIC. 11 patients had only HLA DQ2, 2 patients had only HLADQ8, and one patient had both HLADQ2 andDQ8.

Conclusion: Most of patients had positive HLA D Q2. The present study emphasizes that HLA genotypes are an important background to CD development.


Zahra Hesami, Maryam Ayatollahi, Bita Geramizadeh, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Akbar Vahdati ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats.

Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham) intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4) intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1) at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT) tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p&le; 0.05.

Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p&le; 0.001) decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (&alpha;-SMA) as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats



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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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