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Showing 14 results for Northwest of Iran

Farhad Salehzadeh , Dina Emami , Aliasghar Zolfeghari , Abbas Yazdanbod , Shahram Habibzadeh , Bahman Bashardoost , Manoochehr Barak , Eiraj Feizy , Hormoz Azimi , Marina Jastan , Jafar Khalafi ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)
Abstract

 Background and Objectives: Familial Mediterranean fever which is the prototype of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes is common in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. Regarding the geographical position of the northwest of Iran, having Turkish originality and its vicinity to the Mediterranean Sea , the incidence of this disease is significant in Ardabil. The goal of this study was to introduce Familial Mediterranean Fever as a disease with significant outbreak in this area.

 Methods: This research is a descriptive study which has been done during one year from October 2004 to October 2005. According to the Tel-Hashomer criteria, the patients suffering from Familial Mediterranean Fever were collected from private clinics and pediatric rheumatology clinics records. Then from 112 patients only 74 ones were studied. All of the patients were interviewed and filled out a questionnaire.

 Results: Familial Mediterranean fever is common among children under 18 (76%) and more common in male than female. Abdominal pain has been the most common complaint (74%) and abdominal pain and fever (95% and 84% respectively) were the main clinical symptoms. The most common period of pain was 12-72 hours and the common recovery (attack free) period was from 1 week to 1 month (63/5%). Majority of the patients had hospital admission for diagnostic work up (85%) and some of them (32%) had been under surgical operation mistakenly. On the whole 92% of the patients had taken medications as a result of wrong diagnosis and 20% had positive familial history. 50% of the patients' parents were first degree relatives and in 59.5% delay in diagnosis was more than 3 years.

 Conclusion: Results of this study and introduction of this group of patients in a one-year research indicate that: Familial Mediterranean Fever is more common in the Northwest of Iran although physicians are not familiar with that. The common age for manifestation of this disease is under 18 and its presentation after the age of 40 is very rare.


Nayereh Amini Sani , Darioush Savadi Oskoui, Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran, Saeid Dastgiri , Mazyar Hashemilar, Maryam Jafariani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates have declined in some countries during recent decades. Changes in mortality rates over time could be attributed to changes in disease incidence or case fatality rate. Very few studies have provided information regarding survival after stroke. We aimed to determine the case-fatality rate (28 days) among patients with first-ever stroke from a population-based study in Ardabil province, Northwest of Iran.

  Methods: This study was conducted between May 2005 and February 2006, all individuals with an acute stroke who were residents in Ardabil province and hospitalized at Alavi Hospital, were registered prospectively and assessed according to standardized diagnostic criteria. The data were analyzed through SPSS, Chi square and variance analysis.

  Results: A total of 352 patients with first-ever stroke were registered, and 346 (96%) were followed up. 288 (81.8%) ischemic stroke, 16.2% (57) ICH and 2% SAH. By 28 days, 70 patients (20.3%) had died. Hypertension, diabetes and cardiac disease history were reported in 61.6%, 16.8% and 26.1% respectively and 19.8% of patients were smokers. Mean age of survivors was different from patients who died at 28 days after index event (64.2±12.9 VS 69.1±10.9, p=0.03). The proportion surviving 28 days varied from 16.2% among patients with ischemic stroke to 43% among ICH and SAH. For ischemic stroke, Survival rates were similar for men and women, whereas men with ICH had lower survival than women.

  Conclusion: Case fatality rate after first-ever stroke is substantial. Rates of mortality differ according to patients diagnosis, age, sex, and heart disease. These data highlight the importance of long-term secondary prevention.


Salman Alizadeh, Hamid Samvat, Mohammad Taghi Samadi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)
Abstract

 

Background & Objectives: One of the main areas of research in hot springs is to investigate the probability of the presence of gamma radiation resulting from the natural radioactivity substances in geologic combinations in volcanic regions. Meshkinshahr with a beautiful landscape is located in the northwest of Iran. Sabalan volcanic mountain has created many hot springs in its vicinity. One of the major ones is hot spring of Qotursui with PH= 2.5 n the north east, chainarja with an average temperature of 80 0c and Ilando and moillsui in the northwest of sabalan. This study was done to determine the environmental gamma and the annual absorption dose for the above hot springs and to compare it with that of world standard in Meshkinshahr in 2007-2008. 

Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, a Geiger Muller dose meter (Model: Smart Ion) was used to measure the amount of environmental gamma. Placing the dose meter in two different heights of 1 meter and 5 centimeter respectively, the mean of environmental gamma was obtained. The number of dosemetry in each season was at least 30 in the morning and in the afternoon. In each dosemetry, 3 points in the source of the dosemetry was repeated in the deposits. The dose meter in each height was kept on a stool for 10 minutes and it registered the information momentarily. The findings were analyzed through a T-test.

Results: Results during one year study show total average level of dose of environmental radiation for Hot springs of Ghainarjeh 26.3, Ilando 21.6, and Moill 22.04  msv.y -1.

Conclusion: Average dose of gamma rays in Hot springs is high in proportion to world standard which is more than 8-10 times and this region can be considered as high natural radioactive.


Mohsen Sokouti, Vahid Montazeri, Eiraj Feizi ,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Esophageal carcinoma has more prevalency in northwest of Iran. Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is one of the common delayed complication. It emerges due to technique of surgery. Reflux and or leakage in anastomotic area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and etiologies of dysphagea after esophagectomy and postoperative endoscopic dilation results.

  Methods: This is a retrospective discreptive study, during 2000-2005 at Imam Khomeini hospital, all patients who had esophagectomy because of esophageal carcinomas entered this study. Data collected from medical records, Primary tumoral diagnosis, operation endoscopy, dysphagea, histopathological findings, Postoperative complications, especially dysphagia and it’s etiology, and different methods of therapy, reoperation and or endoscopic dilatation were studied.

  Results: Among 324 patients 81 patients had esophagectomy for esophageal carcinomas. In eighteen patients (22.2%), dysphagea reappered after operation. Rate of dysphagea in patients with carcinoma of lower one third area was 5.3 times greater than middle third of the esophagus. Mean time between first hospitalization and second hospitalization due to relapsing dysphagea was 10.03 months. The main cause of relapsing dysphagia in 88.24%, was benign stricture in anastomotic area. 17 patients with endoscopic dilation and one patient with surgical stricturoplasty, were treated.

Conclusion: Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is common in our patients. This represents mostly benign strictures after esophagectomies for esophageal carcinoma. In benign anastomotic strictures, endoscopic dilation is an effective treatment and it is recommended.
Parviz Parvizi , Elnaz Alaeenovin ,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Based on isoenzyme typing of a few isolates from patients and domestic dogs, this parasite was considered to predominate in the Kaleybar focus of VL in northwest Iran. There is no report of sandfly infections in this region so this study was aimed to investigate the infection of the sandflies in the field.

  Methods: Sandflies were sampled using sticky paper and CDC traps. Morphological identifications were carried out based on characters of the head and abdominal terminalia. DNA extracted from sandflies abdomens and thoraxes. ITS-rDNA gene of parasite was detected and identified as Leishmania after sequencing.

  Results: Out of 146 sandflies 9 were found to be infected with Leishmania. For first time, three Leishmania species (L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major) were identified in sandflies simultaneously in the region. Among the all sandflies only one Phlebotomus perfiliewi (vector of VL) was found to be infected with L. infantum. All Isolates were confirmed by sequencing of ITS-rDNA gene.

  Conclusion: However, Leishmania tropica and L. major were found more than L. infantum in sandflies in Kaleybar but it could not conclude that these two species of Leishmania are causative agents of VL. Because many criteria should be considered to incriminate an agent or vector of the disease.


M Bonyadi , A Mohammadi , M Khalajkondori, S Taghavi ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined by two or more consecutive miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine salvage pathway and has two important isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2. The adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism (ADA*2) increases the level of adenosine. Adenosine may play a protective role against recurrent spontaneous abortions, since it regulates blood flow into the uterus and placenta. In consideration of the effect of decreased enzymatic activity of adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism on adenosine levels we evaluated the protective effect of ADA*2 allele against recurrent spontaneous abortions in north-west of Iran. 

Methods: A total of 100 women were recruited to form two groups. First one, with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (N=50), and the second one, without a history of abortions (N=50). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood with a commercial kit and PCR-RFLP analysis was used to identify the G22A genetic polymorphism. Fisher's exact test and odds ratio values were used to compare the proportions of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between women with and without a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (p<0.05). 
Results: The frequency of homozygotes (AA) was 2% in control group, whereas no homozygote (AA) was found in the case group. The frequency of heterozygotes (AG) was 20% in control group and 8% in the case group (p<0.05). The frequency of homozygotes (GG) was 78% in control group and 92% in the case group (p<0. 05). A significant increase in the frequency of AG genotype in controls (p=0.014, OR=0.348) relative to women with the history of RSA demonstrates the protective effect of AG genotype in controls.
Conclusion: The data suggest that women carrying the G22A polymorphism (ADA*2 allele) and AG genotype which is associated with the lower enzymatic activity are better protected against recurrent spontaneous abortions.

Morteza Bonyadi , Saba Ahmadpournazm, Simin Taghavi, Farzam Ajamian ,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) occurs in 1–3% of couples attempting to bear children. Thrombophilia is one of the suspected causes of recurrent miscarriage. The factor XIII makes the clot stable at the end of coagulation cascade. The polymorphism G103T of factor XIII gene is the most common polymorphism that affects F XIII activity. We aimed to study the possible association of FXIII gene polymorphism (V34L) with recurrent miscarriage among patients in Northwest of Iran.

Methods: The study groups consisted of 70 patients with two or more consecutive miscarriages. The control group included 50 women with at least two successful deliveries and no history of pregnancy loss.  DNA from both groups analyzed for carrying mutation of FXIII by PCR-RFLP. The  test used for statistical analyze.

Results: Two patients (%2.85) in the case group were homozygote (TT) for 34 Leu mutation whereas no homozygote (TT) was found in control group (p>0.05). 19 patients (%27.1) in the case group and 13 women (%26) in the control group were found to be heterozygote for G103T polymorphism (p>0.05). No significant difference was observed between patients with RPL and healthy women for G103T mutation.

Conclusion: No statistically difference was observed between case and control group.


Farhad Salehzadeh, Morteza Eslami,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: FMF is an auto-inflammatory and hereditary periodic disorder. The symptoms can occur in more than 80% during the first decade of life. With regard to high prevalence of FMF in northwest of Iran, this study was conducted to introduce especial features of FMF in this area.

Methods: This is a descriptive study performed on 403 patients with diagnosis of FMF according to the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Information obtained from patients' file and entered in the questionnaire. Data analyzed by SPSS v20 using simple descriptive statistical analysis.

Results: In this study 228 (56.6%) patients were male, and the mean age of patients was 21.03 years. The common symptoms were abdominal pain in 93.3% and fever in 88.1% of patients. Abdominal pain was the main complaint(49.6%), the average duration of pain was 43.3±34.5 hours and the average attack-free period was 36.5±29.6 days. 15.1% of patients had positive family history and 12.7% had history of appendectomy. Delayed diagnosis was more than three years in 52.3% of patients. Genetic analysis has been done in 239 patients in which 21.33% had no mutations, 39.7% were compound heterozygous genotype, 25.52% heterozygote and 13.38% had compound homozygous mutations. The most common mutations were M694V/V726A (10.46%) and the most common alleles were M694V (20.9%) and V726A (12.7%). The M694V-V726A genotype (12.7%) was the most common combined mutations in male and the common mutations in female was M694V/M694V (10.4%). Among the patients with abdominal pain M694V/V726A (12.5%) was more common. The genotypes of M680I/V726A (13.9%), M694/V726A and M694V/R761H (16.7%) and the M694V/M694V (33.3%) had the common mutations in patients with fever, chest pain and joint symptoms respectively.

Conclusion: First decade is usual age to presentation of FMF. M694V is the most common mutation and M694V-V726A is the common compound heterozygous mutation. MEFV mutations in this study are similar to Arabs results. It seems that clinical criteria still are the best way in diagnosis of FMF in spite of the fact that erysipelas like skin rash  is not common as a clinical criteria in this area


Esmaeil Babaei, Vahid Montazeri ,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: According to the new theory of cancer stem cells, interruption in the self-renewal pathway of tissue stem cells can cause cancerous tumors. Current work has evaluated the role of self-renewal Oct-4 gene in thyroid tumors.

Methods: In this case-control study, the expression of Oct-4 gene has comparatively assessed between cancerous specimens, marginal tissues of tumors and non-tumoral nodules of thyroid using RT-PCR technique.

Results: Statistical analysis of data by one-way ANOVA showed that Oct-4 gene is significantly expressed in thyroid papillary carcinomas in comparison with tumor margin and non-tumoral nodules (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the dominant expression of Oct-4 gene in thyroid tumoral cells not only demonstrates the cancer stem cell theory but also shows its role in thyroid cancer appearance that can be used in differentiating thyroid papillary carcinomas from non-tumoral nodules as well as demarcation of tumors.


Tannaz Fat-Hi , Morteza Bonyadi, Alireza Javadzadeh, Mohammadhossein Jabbarpoor Bonyadi ,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease affecting the central vision and causing irreversible blindness in aging patients. AMD is a complex disease caused by the actions and interactions of multiple genes and environmental factors. Genomic region at chromosome 10q26 may have a bigger role in susceptibility to AMD. Age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (LOC387715/age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2(ARMS2)) gene at 10q26 is associated with the risk of AMD. Here we studied (A69S) rs10490924 polymorphism of LOC387715 gene in AMD patients from East Azerbaijan province of Iran.

Methods: In this case-control study, the association of G>T in LOC387715/ARMS2 (A69S) rs10490924 polymorphism was investigated in 63 patients suffering from AMD and 150 healthy age, sex and ethnicity matched unrelated people as control group from northwest of Iran by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Results: Statistical analysis showed high frequency of TT genotype in AMD patients (34.92%) compared to those of control group (6.67%), (p value=0.000 OR=11.9). The frequency of heterozygotes (GT) was 32.67% in control group and 38.1% in the case group (p=0.422). The frequency of homozygotes (GG) was 60.66% in control group and 26.98% in the case group (p=0.000). Genotype analysis of LOC387715 like other studies in Chinese, Japan and a population in Iran revealed significant association in distribution between patients and controls.

Conclusion: The data suggest that individuals from East Azerbaijan carrying TT genotype in LOC387715 have 11.9 times more risk of developing AMD compared to those carrying non-TT genotypes.


Rana Alizadeh Hajikhajehlu , ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Infertility (abortion & stillbirth) is one of the most common medical problems during pregnancy. Approximately 10-15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are lost before the birth. Pregnancy loss is a multifactorial phenomenon. This study was an attempt to analysis the cytogenetic abnormalities of the parents with frequent spontaneous abortion and stillbirth.

Methods: In this study, the samples were analyzed by GTG-banding technique.

Results: From a total of 200 reviewed blood samples, 188 persons (94%) had natural karyotype and 12 persons (6%) had chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal aberrations were found in 5 (2.5%) females and 7 (3.5%) males. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was as follows: 5(41.6%) pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, 3 (25%) polymorphism 15p+, 1(8.3%) translocation, 1 (8.3%) polymorphism 15ps+, 1 (8.3%) polymorphism 1qh+ and 1 (8.3%) unknown chromophil band on the short arm of chromosome 21.

Conclusion: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions and stillbirth, and genetic counseling helps to make a correct decision on further options of reproduction.


Hafez Mirzanejad-Asl ,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis (CE and AE) are caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granolosus, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the spread of human AE and CE diseases among the tribes and livestock breeders and farmers in the Moghan plain. The prevalence of infection (CE and AE) significantly increases with a rise in age.
Methods: In this study, using ELISA and HCF-Ag (raw liquid antigen of hydatid cyst) was used for the first time to perform screening, and then the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis was evaluated by specific anti-genes Ag-5 and EM2+, respectively. A total of 2003 serum samples were collected randomly from normal populations of five different areas of Moghan plain. In the first stage, serum screening was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and HCF-Ag. After that, the serology of all sera was evaluated by ELISA and specific antigens for alveolar and cystic Echinococcus.
Results: From 2003 samples, 24 serum samples were (1.19%) AE-positive. Infection was higher in men than women (2.1% vs. 0.6%). The age group of 5-19years had the lowest infection rate and the age group 40- 59 years had the highest infection rate (2%). In the case of cystic ecinococcosis, 164 serum samples were positive for Ag-5 specific antigen, i.e. 7.6% infection, and 156 serum samples were positive for Ag-B-specific antigen.
Conclusion: The findings showed that the highest infection rate was found in the Boran and Eivazlou (Palanglou) regions of Moghan plain and the lowest level of human infection was reported in Parsabad region (Nadar-kandi and Agh-ghabagh). In areas with higher contamination, the risk factor associated with CE and AE were the type of water used, the method of washing edible and wild vegetables, occupation and having or not having knowledge of hydatid disease. The infection of Moghan region dogs is one of the main indicators and potential risk factors for human infection.
Farhad Salehzadeh, Afshan Sharghi, Atena Moteyagheni, Saeid Hosseini Asl, Mahsa Mottaghi, Sepehr Sarkhanloo,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2019)
Abstract

Background & objectives: MEFV gene has a major role in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) as an auto-inflammatory disorder. FMF is most often seen in the people of the Mediterranean area. Considering the significant role of the MEFV gene in many rheumatologic diseases and even non-rheumatologic disorders, it is necessary to identify different variations of these mutations in the healthy and normal population of this area.
Methods: 224 healthy people entered into this study. The blood samples were screened for the 12 most common MEFV gene variants according to manufacturer’s instructions. (FMF Strip Assay, Vienna lab, Vienna, Austria)
They filled a questionnaire containing the required information. All patients were initially evaluated for the FMF symptoms and signs in themselves and their first-degree relatives based on clinical criteria. Chi-squared test and t-test were employed for statistical analysis using SPSS ver.24.  
Results: Among 224 cases, 113 cases (50.4%) were male, and 111 cases (49.6%) were female. MEFV mutations were detected in 57 patients (25%) of them, 28 cases were male (49.1%) and 29 cases were female (50.9%). The most frequent mutations were E148Q (18.3%, 41cases), followed by P369S (3.1%, 7 cases), V726A (2.2%, 5cases), A744S (1.3%, 3cases), F479L, M694V and R761H (0.8%, each 2 cases), and eventually K695R (0.4%) respectively. Some mutations such as M694I, M680I (G/C), M680I (G/A), I692del were not seen in these samples. There were compound heterozygous mutations of E148Q/P369S, E148Q/V726A, E148Q/P369S, and P369S / F479L in normal population without any findings in favor of FMF.
Conclusion: Twenty-five percent of the normal population of the northwest of Iran carrying a heterozygous variant of the MEFV gene, E148Q (18.3%) as a most common mutation, which can be considered as a normal variant in the healthy population. The presence of M694I, M680I (G/C), M680I (G/A) and I692del mutations in the normal population can be interpreted with cautiously, while particular compound heterozygous mutations can be considered as normal variants.
 
Iraj Feizi, Somaieh Matin, Hasan Ghobadi, Saeed Hosseininia, Susan Mohammadi Kebar, Farideh Feizi, Hossein Salehzade,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (10-2019)
Abstract

 
Background & objectives:  Hydatid cyst is a major hygiene problem in Iran. In 80% of cases, only one organ is involved. However, multiorgan involvement has also been rarely reported. But it seems, the prevalence of hydatid cyst with the involvement of more than one organ in Iran is more than other world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients with hydatid cyst multi organ involvement in Ardabil province in northwest of Iran.
Methods: In this retrospective study, 34 patients with hydatid cyst with involvement in more than one organ were included. For each patient, a pre-designed questionnaire including name, age, education level, occupation, place of residence, cyst location, clinical manifestations and serologic test results were completed. Patients, who had previously a history of treatment due to hydatid cyst, were excluded from the study.
Results: The mean age of patients was 36.41 years. 61.8% of the patients were housewives and 64% were rural residents. The most commonly involved organs was liver and simultaneous involvement of liver and lung was observed in 38.2% of patients and was more in women. The association of the right lung cyst with the liver cysts was greater than that of the left lung. Only in 43% of the patients, the serologic test was positive for hydatid cyst, and the relationship between serologic test and type of involvement was not significant.
Conclusion: Regarding the high incidence of hydatid cyst involvement in more than one location in our region, in all patients, especially women with liver hydatid cyst, other organs, especially the lungs, should be investigated
 

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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