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Showing 6 results for Narcotics
Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Ahad Azami , Manoocher Barak, Firooz Amani , Seddigh ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Background and objectives: Establishing centers to stop addiction in our country is one of the measures taken to confront this problem. Unfortunately, it has been shown that about 80% of the addicted people who refer to these centers relapse. The present study set out to investigate the possible causes of this problem.
Methods: This is a case control study in which a questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The subjects were all addicted people who referred to Shahid Mellat Doust and Shahid Family treatment centers in 2000. The criterions for entering the study in case group were the last record of the addicted person ’ s abandonment in Tehran ’ s welfare center ( based on the patients ’ records) and using narcotics at the present time. The control group subjects, on the other hand, had abandoned using narcotics at least four months before and had never used any substance so far.
Results: The mean age for case group was 35.99 and that of the control group was 35.09. Regarding the age distribution 98.59% of the case group and 100% of the control group were men. 88.7% of the case group and 97.2% of the control group were urban residents. Considering the job, 40.8% of the case group and 19.4% of the control group were unemployed. 52.1% of the case group and 61.6% of control group were living with their spouses. Opium was the most commoly used narcotics in both groups. In studying the relationship between the variables under study through logistic regression the job was not a main factor in the relapse. The duration of time being away from addiction had a deductive effect on the relapse, and this effect was statistically meaningful (p=0.001). Adding one month ’ s time to the period of being clear (not using the narcotics) caused 98% deduction in returning to narcotics.
Conclusion: Because 80% of the patients who referred to the related centers began using narcotics again during the first 6 months after abandoning, it is necessary to improve the preventive measures to help the patients pass this critical period.
Ahad Azami, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi , Rahim Masoomi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Background & Objectives: Narcotic abuse is one of the main problems in the world today, and individuals ’ view towards it is important for managers and social problem analysts.Regarding the threats and harms of the prevalence of narcotics in society, this research was done to determine the rate of tendency to narcotics among people over ten years old in Ardabil province.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional research. A two-section questionnaire was used to collect the data. 600 men and women over ten years of age were chosen through systematic cluster sampling and the required information was gathered by referring to their houses and interviewing them. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.
Results: 3.5% of the samples had positive family history of using narcotics. 18% were smokers. 84.7% believed that one can use narcotics everywhere. 30% claimed that using narcotics reduces one ’ s physical discomfort, and 30.2% expressed that one can give up the narcotics whenever necessary. On the whole the tendency towards addiction among the subjects was 53.57%. This tendency was higher in rural areas compared to the cities (56.72% versus 49.81%). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Illiterate people had the most tendency rate towards addiction (55.61%). There was a statistically significant relationship between tendency towards addiction and positive family history (p< 0.05). The highest tendency rate (54.33%) was seen in 11- 20 age group.
Conclusion: the results showed that the consequent dangers of addiction are not known for people and that the great tendency for narcotics shows the need to inform the society in order to prevent the addiction.
Firooz Amani, Saeid Sadegie Ahari , Saedollah Mohammadi, Ahad Azami,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Background & Objectives: Opium addiction is a major social, psychological and health problem in the world. In past decades addiction to legal and illegal drugs has been widespread and over 1000 kinds of narcotics have been recognized, which are used in different ways including eating, smoking, injection and inhaling. Statistics published by international organizations such as UNDCP, WHO and UNSCO indicated an increasing trend in drug abuse worldwide. The countries are different only in the pattern of drug abuse. This study investigates the pattern of drug abuse in last 5 years in Ardabil.
Methods : This is a descriptive, analytical and prospective study. To obtain the trend of substance abuse the records of all addicts in 1998 (684 cases) and 2002-2003 (341 cases) were studied. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (rel.11) using descriptive statistics.
Results: The findings indicated that in the last five years the use of hashish, opium extract and other substances has decreased whereas the trend of heroin and opium use has increased. The use of opium has increased from 48.07% in 1998 to 67.4% in 2002-2003. Also the heroin use has increased from 8.5% in 1998 to 27.5% in 2002-2003. Moreover, the use of hashish, opium extract and other narcotics has decreased. The highest decrease (23.5%) belonged to opium extract and the highest increase (19%) to heroin.
Conclusion : According to the results we could say that the pattern of substance abuse in Ardabil in the last five years has changed and heroin and opium consumption has increased.
Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Masoud Entezariasl , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)
Background and Objectives: Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation could lead to hemodynamic responses in the from of hypertension and tachycardia as well as arrhythmia and myocardial ischemia. This alterations can be life-threatening particularly in elderly people. This clinical trial compared the effects of two rapid-onset narcotics, Alfentanil and Remifentanil, on the hemodynamic responses to the induction and tracheal intubation in elderly patients.
Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 40 subjects aged 65 and above. They were candidate of cataract surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 20. The first group, was gaiven Alfentanil 10 m g/kg and for second group Remifentanil 0.5 m g/kg was injected prior to the induction of anesthesia. Both groups were similiar in the method of anesthesia except in narcotics. The first group was infused with Alfentanil 1 m g/kg/min and Remifentanil 0.1 m g/kg/min was used for the second group. Hemodynamic variations including heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were measured and recorded eight times (before induction, aften injection, after intubation and five times during anesthesia). Data were analyzed with SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi squre and ANOVA.
Results: Immediately after injection of narcotic drugs, all hemodynamic variants decreased. Howerver diastolic blood pressure in Remifentantil group significantly more than Alfentanil group (P<0.05). After laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation all hemodynamic variants increased and slowly decreased in less than 10 minutes. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly in remifentanil group than alfentanil group (P<0.05). Although heart rate decreased during few minutes after intubation, there was not significant difference between two groups regarding this decrease (P>0.05). Ephedrin was used to treat severe hypotention in those under Remifentanil (11 patients) more than those under Alfentanil (4 patients) (P<0.05).
Conclusions: According to the resukts of this study Remifentanil could prevent hemodynamic variation induced by laryngoscopy and treacheal intubation more than Alfentanil. However in some cases Remifentanil leads to hypotension during anesthesia. There is no important difference between two drugs in increasing heat rate after laryngoscopy and intubation.
Vadood Norouzi , Eiraj Feizy , Firooz Amani , Pouneh Zamani ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Background & Objectives: Pain acts as a defensive mechanism of body, which occurs following tissue damage. It is expected in surgical wounds. With regard to negative clinical outcomes resulting from surgery pain, this study was conducted to investigate the quality of pain control after appendectomy.
Methods: In this descriptive, cross- sectional and prospective study, 200 patients undergoing appendectomy were randomly selected. Pain control in all of the patients was managed for 8 hours using narcotics injected intramuscularly. The patients were studied during 12 hours after surgery. The rating scale of 0-10 grade was used to estimate pain severity. The collected data were analysed by SPSS.
Results: From 200 patients experiencing appendectomy, 101 (50.5%) were female and 99 (49.5%) were male. Pain was controlled with pethidine, methadon and pentazocin in 123 (61.5%), 51 (25.5%) and 26 (13%) patients, respectively. In 98 (49%) patients there was severe pain following the surgery. The most severe pain belonged to 21 (80.7%) patients who received pentazocin.
Conclusions: With regard to multiple complications and problems resulting from pain after appendectomy, careful control of pain and more attention is necessary.
Saeideh Shakeri Hosseinabad, Gholamreza Shabanian, Sheida Shabanian , Mahmoud Rafiean , Souleiman Kheiri, Zahra Lorigooini, Koubra Masoodi,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)
Background & objectives: Pain is one of the most common post-operative complications of cesarean section, which is very important for mother in nursing a baby and breastfeeding. Finding ways to overcome this pain has always been a concern for researchers. Considering the application of plants in traditional medicine as sedatives, this study evaluated the effect of Dill seed oil on post-operative pain in patients with spinal anesthesia.
Methods: This double-blind, clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria and referred to Hajar hospital in Shahrekord, Iran during 2015-2016. By simple random sampling, the patients were divided into two groups. In the first group, 10 cc Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed oil was prescribed at intervals of half an hour and one hour before spinal anesthesia and half an hour , one hour and two hours after spinal anesthesia. In the second group, placebos (standard treatment) were prescribed at the same intervals. Pain and vital signs, including blood pressure, nausea , vomiting, heart rate, bleeding , use of narcotics and NSAID and any additional medications (such as atropine and ephedrine) were recorded and rechecked during surgery , thirty minutes after spinal anesthesia and one hour, four hours and twelve hours after cesarean section.
Results: The findings showed a significant difference between the two groups in the third stage of the study (4 hours after cesarean section) only in respiratory rate and in the fourth stage of the study (12 hours after cesarean section) in all vital signs (p<0.05). Also, the pain and nausea rate in the third and fourth stages of the study in the case group (Dill seed oil) were lower than those of the control group, indicating a significant difference in the pain level (p<0.05). The bleeding rate and use of NSAIDs and opioids twelve hours after caesarian section in the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: considering the effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed oil on reducing pain, bleeding rate and use of narcotics and NSIADs, it can be used in women undergoing cesarean section.