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Showing 26 results for Mice

Shahnam Arshi , Ali Majidpoor , Homayoun Sadeghi , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Reza Gasemi Bargi , Darioush Emdadi , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Parvaneh Naftchi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)

 Background & Objective: Ardabil province is the main area of Iran affected by relapsing fever (RF) for which Borrelia Persica is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease, and the frequency of infection among ticks in this region in order to take necessary measures to decrease it is incidence and increase awareness about the characteristics of this disease.

 Method: In this study a total of 391 patients who were diagnosed to have been effected by tick borne relapsing fever were investigatated in terms of clinical epidemiology between 1998 and 2001. The kind of Borrelia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease were observed. The kind and prevalence of Borrelia infection was determined in 1,421 ticks collected from 130 indoor and 14 outdoor sites. The ticks were crushed and the suspension obtained was injected into the peritoneum of two mice and two guinea pigs to determine the frequency of infection among the ticks living in this region. Data including the tick species determination were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Chi-square and ANOVA tests.

 Results: The most prevalent clinical manifestations were fever, chills and headache. Other findings included nausea, vomiting, sweating, abdominal pain, arthralgia, cough, photophobia, eosinophilia, hematuria, jaundice, petechiae and sclera congestion. Laboratory tests performed on 60 patients showed leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anemia. Of the 1,421 ticks collected, 45.9%, 40.3% and 13.8% were infected by Ornithodoros lahorensis Ornithodoros tholozani and Argas persicus species, respectively. The prevalence of ticks was highest in Khanadabil village. The ticks collected from three villages were found to be infected with Borrelia.

 Conclusions: The clinical manifestations were similar to those reported in other studies. Petechiae occurred less frequently in our study compared to louse-borne RF. The high frequency of anemia in this region, which was not stated in other reference articles, requires further investigation.

Farzaneh Maleki , Farzaneh Delgoshaee , Mohammadreza Khakzad , Mohammad Wejdanparast, Behiyeh Zakerian ,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

  Background & Objectives: :Contact Dermatitis (C.D) is a common condition and 5.4% of population are suffering from it. Main treatments are based on emollients and corticosteroids. and in C.D cellular infiltration are mononuclears chiefly T. helper lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to have a new approach to herbals with new science covering and study the efficacy of alcoholic extracts of 4 herbals: henna, camomile cedar and aloevera in experimental C.D on mice.

  Methods: In a pilot experimental study first we chose 70 mice (ENMARY race, 50 ± 10gr weight as case group, then we shaved behind of their left ears (at the days 0 and 1) and rubbed DNCB 400 mg/ml on the skin.At the 10th and 14th day the same amount of DNCB again was rubbed on the left ear. On the right ear the same amount of olive oil in Acetone dissolver was rubbed,as control group. Then at the times of 2, 10, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 150 hrs after the 2nd contact, the mice were killed with Ether, cutting the ears from base and prepared pathological sections for study of cellular infiltration. In second stage alcoholic extracts of 4 plants were prepared, then herbal cream with 4% concentration in cold cream as pallish cream were made, with considering the results of first stage that showed the maximal infiltration was at 120 hr after contact, the creams were rubbed every 12hr for 7 days on 40 mice in 4 groups that had been sensitized before with DNCB. 2 groups (20 mice) were considered as control (10 mice received no drugs and 10 mice received cold cream). 60 mice were chosen in the second phase and in general 130 mice were investigated.

  Results: lymphocytic infiltration reduced after 7 days application of drugs for camomile group about 66/7%, cedar 50%, alaevera 12/5% and henna 0%

  Conclusion: Camomile chammazolen, Inositol had the best response (66/7% severe response) on improvement of contact dermatitis (P=0.02)

Alireza Vahidi , Mohammadhosein Dashti ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Herbal medicine has an old history with a broad application all over the world. Many researches have focused on the curative as well as antinociceptive effects of herbal extracts. In the previous study the analgesic effect of Chamomile extract containing 2 mg/kg essence in Rats which revealed a significant analgesic effect were studied. In this study it is planned to compare the analgesic effect of chamomile extract and Morphine (as a standard analgesic) in mice.

  Methods: This experimental study was carried out in Shahid Sadughi Medical School on 48 Syrian mice (25-30 grams) which were randomly divided into 8 groups. In this study the analgesic effect of intraperitoneal administration of Chamomile extract containing 2 mg/kg essence and different doses of Morphine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) were assessed by using Formalin Test (for chronic pain during 1 hr. post Formalin injection) and Tail Flick Test (for acute pain during 2 hr. post drug administration in 15 min. time intervals).

  Results: The results of this study showed that 2nd phase of Formalin Test had more analgesic effect than that of 0.5 mg/kg morphine. In the case of Tail Flick Test its analgesic effect was prominent 30-90 min. after drug administration which was identical to the analgesic effect of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/kg Morphine Sulfate (P > 0.05).

  Conclusion: Data from this study confirms the analgesic effect of chamomile essence which was indicated in our previous study and that this analgesic effect is comparable with 1 mg/kg of morphine sulfate in both the Formalin TEST & Tail Flick TEST. Chamomile as an analgesic should be studied more in different studies.

Hamdollah Panahpour, Nicolas Plesnila,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

 Background & objectives: Stroke remains one of main causes of death and disability in human. Animal models of the brain ischemia provide an important roles for studying of the pathophysiological mechanisms and evaluating of the efficacy of neuroprotective agents. The aim of this study is introducing a new model of the focal cerebral ischemia with increased success and low mortality rate.

 Methods: Fifteen six male mice were anesthetized with isofolorane and mixture of O2/N2O divided in four groups. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal filament method. A silicon coated nylon filament was used for middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetery for leading of filament in vascular pathway. In the 24 hours following ischemia (60minutes), animals were assessed for neurological outcome, infarct volume and brain edema induction. A new and reformed neurological test was used for evaluation of neurological deficits. 10 µm coronal sections were collected from 12 levels of the brain and stained, digitized and quantified by using an image analysis system. Ischemic brain edema was investigated by brain water content detection.

 Results: When sham operated mice had no motor deficit and infarction, induction of ischemia in ischemic group, seriously caused impairment of motor functions (neurological deficit score 3.36±0.25). Mean total infarct volume of left (ischemic) hemisphere was 85.2±4.9 mm3 and 47 percent of infarction occurred in subcortical regions of the brain. Induction of focal cerebral ischemia in the left (ischemic) hemisphere of the brain significantly increased water content (83.1±0.29 percent) compared to both hemispheres of sham group and right hemisphere of the same group. Success rate of ischemia induction was 97.6 percent and mortality rate was 4.21 percent.

 Conclusion: These findings indicate. This present model can be used for brain ischemia studies with high success rate, low mortality rate and narrow variety of the size and location of infarct volume. This model provides controlled and standard conditions to study ischemic brain injury and edema formation and introduce new therapeutic strategies.

Seyed Davar Siadat , Hoda Shirdast , Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Darioush Norouzian, Seyed Mohammad Atyabi , Seyed Mahdi Sadat , Sanaz Soleymaniyeh , Ali Sharifat , Arfa Moshiri ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2010)

  Background & Objectives: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main antigenic structure expressed on the surface of smooth strains of Brucella. It has been shown that Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis efficiently promote IgG and IgM response against the administrated antigen as an adjuvant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LPS-OMV noncovalent complex in producing of T helper 1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and T helper 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in mice.

  Methods: LPS extracted by an optimized method based on hot phenol-water extraction. Groups of six BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with LPS alone, LPS with Freund adjuvant and LPS-OMV complex on 0, 14 and 28 days. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated in spleen cell suspension supernatant by ELISA.

  Result: Immunization with B. abortus LPS significantly induced high level of IFN-γ in comparison to the other groups immunized with LPS-OMV and LPS+ adjuvant (p<0.05). In contrast, lower levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were elicited by LPS in the rest groups. Immunization with the non-covalent complex of B. abortus LPS-N. meningitidis serogroup B OMV caused a significant increase of IL-4 and IL-10 compared with the mice immunized with B. abortus LPS (p<0.05), while the titer of IFN-γ is still significantly higher than IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: The raise of IFN-γ following the immunization with all of the compounds (LPS, LPS-OMV non-covalent complex and LPS+adjuvant) indicates the activation of Th1 population that would be correlated to the clearance of the organism due to the amplification of anti-microbial activity of Polymorphonuclear cells. Low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 following the immunization with all compounds would be a sign of Th1 responses dominancy or inhibition of Th2 population proliferation and activity. Such a cytokine pattern would be a sign of the efficiency of brucellosis subunit vaccine because Th2 responses basically have no role in the immune responses against Brucella and may lead to the persistence of intracellular infection.

Jalal Solati, Azar Sabokbar, Jalil Vand Yousefi , Nasrin Kalkhorani ,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background & Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated that selected probiotic bacteria elicit beneficial effects in animals. Probiotic bacteria inhibit pathogens growth in the gut, improve lipid metabolism and activate immune system of animals. In the present study Enterococcus spp were isolated from Iranian traditional cheese and their effects on intestine pathogens (Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium) growth, serum lipids level and activation of immune systems in mice were studied.

  Methods: Iranian cheese samples were collected from Ardabil province. Enterococci spp were isolated using selective culture mediums and identified using API kites. Inhibitory effects of isolated Enterococci on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intestine pathogens (Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) were tested using agar well method . In order to study probiotic activities of isolated bacteria in live animals, NMRI mice were divided into different groups and Enterococci was administrated orally (1 ML/mouse) with doses equal to 2 (6×108 cfu/ml) 3 (9×108 cfu/ml) and 4 (12×108 cfu/ml) MacFarland standard for 2 weeks. After two weeks continues treatment, blood samples were collected from retroorbital sinus and serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL measured using enzymatic method. Interleukins (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10) levels were measured using ELISA kites.

  Results: Results of this study demonstrated that treatment with faecium species decreases serum cholesterol and increases serum IL-10 level, while it has not showed significant effects on serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, IL-2 and IL-6 (p<0.05). Administration of faecalis species have no significant effects on lipid levels of serum ( p <0.05). Moreover, results revealed that treatment with faecalis species increased IL-6 and IL-10 ( p <0.05). None of the species affected pathogens growth significantly ( p <0.05).

  Conclusion: The results obtained from current study demonstrate that continues treatment with both species can affect immune functions of animal by altering the cytokines profile and treatment with faecium species decreases serum level of cholesterol.

Peyman Abdolahzade, Reza Shapouri , Shahrzad Nasiri Semnani,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by intracellular pathogens of the genus Brucella that have their natural reservoir in domestic and wild animals. Many studies show that herbal medicines have been used safely and successfully to treat bacterial diseases without significant side effects and drug resistance problems.

  Methods: In this study aquatic, alcoholic and acetonic extracts of Eucalyptus globulus leaves were prepared, then MIC and MBC of extracts for B. melitensis 16M and B. abortus S99 were determined by broth macrodilution and agar well diffusion methods. In animal model study, 5 × 105 CFU/mL of Brucellae was injected intraperitoneally (i.p) to female BALB/c mice. After 24 hours, 0.5mL (equivalent MBC) of each Eucalyptus globulus extracts was injected (i.p) After 7 days, in spleen the colonies of brucellae were counted on Muller-Hinton agar as standard protocol. 

  Results: The MIC and MBC of Eucalyptus globulus for B. melitensis M16 and B. abortus S99 were 1:80 (10.81 mg/mL) and 1:40 (21.62 mg/mL) for aquatic extract, 1:1280 (0.64 mg/mL) and 1:640 (1.29 mg/mL) for acetonic extract, and 1:2560 (0.31 mg/mL) and 1:1280 (0.63 mg/mL), for ethanolic extract respectively. In culture of spleen supernatant (in vivo), after 48 hours, the average grown B. melitensis 16M colonies for aquatic, ethanolic and acetonic extracts were 5×103 CFU/ml, 2×102 CFU/ml and 6×102 CFU/ml, respectively in comparison with control group (4×1010 CFU/ml). These results for B.abortus S99 were 3×103 CFU/ml, 1×102 CFU/ml and 3×102 CFU/ml, respectively in comparison with control group (9×109 CFU/ml) The results showed that bacterial load was significantly decreased in all experimental groups (p<0.01). 

  Conclusion : The results of in vitro and in vivo indicate that ethanolic and acetonic extracts of Eucalyptus globulus have more effective antimicrobial activity on B.melitensis M16 and B.abortus S99 than aquatic extract. It seems that the extracts Eucalyptus globulus can be used in treatment of human and animal brucellosis.

Mohammad Ghasem Golmohammadi , Mohsen Sagha , Hasan Azari , Norouz Najafzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2011)

  Background &Objectives: Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. The discovery of such cells in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), an organ traditionally thought to have little or no regenerative capacity, opened the door to treatment of degenerative diseases of CNS like Stroke, Parkinson, Alzheimer and Spinal Cord Injury. Thus, here we described the isolation of neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain using the neurosphere assay (NSA) and differentiation of these cells to neural adult cells in details.

  Methods: The rostral part of the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles in the adult mice was dissociated into single cell suspension and cultured using NSA. Primary neurospheres were counted seven days after plating and then the mean number of neurospheres was recorded. The differentiation of neural stem cells into adult neural cells was accomplished by plating the neurosphere-derived cells in differentiating media. Immunocytochemistry and specific markers were used for the identification of the adult neural stem cells.

  Results : The cell suspension obtained from the rostral part of the SVZ of the lateral ventricles generated multipotential colonies, called neurospheres, 7 to 10 days post- incubation. The mean number of neurospheres generated from SVZ was 505±62. The multipotentiality of the neurospheres was shown by palting them in differentiating media and generating adult neural cells including neuron, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte .

  Conclusion: Owing to their rarity and paucity of neural stem cell specific markers, the NSA is a common and selective method for isolating and understanding the biology of embryonic and adult neural stem cells.

Maryam Ghasemi , Farzad Rajaei, Darioush Mohammadnejad, Amir Javadi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Stress in developing countries is an important problem in human health. Feelings of stress in humans result from interactions between persons and their environment. Stressor is an external stimulus or an event that provokes a stress response in an organism. Animal models enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for physical symptoms of stress disorder. In the present study the effects of social stress on male mouse reproductive system were investigated.

  Methods: Sixty male mice were divided into 6 groups, including two non-stressed control groups (2 cages, 5 mice per cage), two mild-stressed groups (2 cages, 10 mice per cage), and two high-stressed groups (2 cages, 15 mice per cage). Three cages (one cage from each group) kept for one month and three cages kept for two months. After one and two months the mice were anaesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Tissue samples of testes , epididymis and vas deferens for light microscopy were removed . Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.

  Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between mild and high-stresses groups in the diameter of seminiferous tubules, vas deferens, height of epithelial cells of epididymis and vas deferens. The diameter of epididymis in mild and high-stressed groups was significantly decreased as compared with that in non-stressed control groups (P<0.02, P<0.009). The diameter of vas deferens in mild-stressed groups was significantly decreased as compared with in non-stressed control groups (P<0.02). The height of epithelial cells of vas deferens in mild and high-stressed groups was significantly decreased as compared with that in non-stressed control groups (P<0.001, P<0.001).

  Conclusion: This study shows that crowding stress can decrease the diameter and height of epithelial cells of epididymis and vas deferens of male mice .

Kamal Yavari,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Antibody-based radiopharmaceutical drugs are the great current interest in imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide an important tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to specific antigens in the diseased tissues. The monoclonal antibody avastin binds, neutralizes VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) and blocks VEGF-induced angiogenesis in tumor tissues. In this study, the complex of avastin and beta particle was investigated as a first step in the production of a radiopharmaceutical drug.

  Methods: Antibody of avastin was prepared and purified. The antibody was conjugated with freshly prepared DOTA-NHS and then labeled with 153Sm-samarium chloride (185 MBq). The efficiency and in vitro stability of antibody labeling were determined using thin layer chromatography. The integrity of the radiolabeled antibody was checked by SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) protocol. Biodistribution study of 153Sm-DOTA –Avastin was performed in BALB/c mice at 2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injection.

  Results: The efficiency of antibody labeling was more than 98%. The in vitro stability of the labeled product in human serum after 120h was 83 ±2%. There was no fragmentation in the labeled antibody during SDS-PAGE protocol. The highest (%ID/g) was observed in the liver, lungs and kidneys.

  Conclusion: The monoclonal antibody avastin against angiogenesis was effectively radiolabeled with 153Sm. The Biodistribution study showed that it has a high specificity to accumulation in tissues with enriched blood vessels.

Kamal Yavari , Mohammad Ghannadi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2012)

  Background & Objectives: The monoclonal antibody cetuximab binds to EGFR and thus provides an opportunity to create both imaging and therapeutic modalities that target this receptor. The potential of cetuximab as a radioimmunoconjugate was investigated and quality control tests (in vitro and in vivo) were performed as a first step in the production of a new radiopharmaceutical.

  Methods : Cetuximab solution was dialyzed and concentrated using an Amicon Ultra-15 filter. Purified antibody was labeled with lutetium-177 using the acyclic bifunctional chelator, DOTA-NHS, and radioimmunoconjugates were purified by PD10 columns. Radiochemical purity and stability in buffer and human blood serum were determined using thin layer chromatography. Integrity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by SDS-PAGE. Preliminary biodistribution studies in normal mice model performed to determine radioimmunoconjugates distribution up to 72h.

  Results: The radiochemical purity of the complex was 98±1%. The stabilities in phosphate buffer and in human blood serum at 96 hours post-preparation were 96±2 % and 78±4%, respectively. All of the samples, controls and radiolabeled antibodies, showed a similar pattern of migration in the gel electrophoresis. Biodistribution of Lu177-cetuximab was evaluated in normal mice and the highest ID/g% was observed in the blood (13.2±1.3% at 24 hours) and the liver (9.1±1.3% at 24 hours).

  Conclusion: Our results show that DOTA-cituximab can be labeled with 177Lu. Lu177-cetuximab has sufficient stability and retains its integrity. The new complex could be considered for further evaluation in animals and possibly in humans as a new radiopharmaceutical for use in radioimmunotherapy of cancers.

Mahdi Saadati , Mahdokht Taheri , Mohammad Hadi Bahadori ,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2014)

  Background & objectives : Infertility is a global problem affecting millions of men and women in developed and developing countries. In this regard, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) plays an important role in improving the quality of life in infertile patients. However, studies have shown that the implantation failure in IVF is the main challenge of this procedure. Melatonin can increase the survival rate of embryos and IVF success rate through eliminating free radicals and removing reactive oxygen species. So, this study is conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of melatonin on the rate of newborns of mice following transfer oftwo-cell embryos .

  Methods : In this study, female mice with average age of six to eight weeks were superovulated by administering pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG) intraperitoneally (7.5 IU. ip), and followed after 48h by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (7.5 IU. ip). Two-cell mouse embryos were obtained from female mice oviduct after 48 h. The embryos transferred bilaterally into pseudopregnant mice of the same strain through surgical procedure and 8-14 embryos were transferred to each tube. The study included 4 treatment groups and one control group (6 mice in each group). The treatment groups were exposed to subcutaneous injection of concentrations of 100 µm , 10 µm , 1 µm and 100 nm of melatonin. After the cesarean on 18th day of pregnancy, the percentage of live births was assessed. The outcomes of the live birth rate were as­sessed using the chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage of live birth was calculated and compared with the control group.

  Results: A total of 701 two-cell mouse embryos were transferred into one control group and four experimental groups. The number and percentage of live births at concentrations of 100 µm and 10 µm of melatonin and the control groups were 21 (15.55%), 13 (9.15%) and 9 (6.47%), respectively. No infant was born at the concentrations of 1 µM and 100 nM of melatonin . The highest rate of live births was obtained at the concentration of 100 µM and showed a significant difference with the control group (p ≤ 0.01). There was no significant difference in live births at the concentration of 10 µm and control group.

  Conclusion : The results of this study indicated that subcutaneous injection of melatonin improves the two-cell mouse embryo growth and post implantation development of mice.

Sh Heydari Tajaddod, N Najafzadeh, M Mahdavi Rad, H Sheikhkanloui Milan, H Kalarestaghi, V Nejati,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)

  Background & objectives: Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are multipotent and various types of HFSCs were introduced. HFSCs separation using cell surface markers is one of the interesting strategies in the replacement of old methods. In this study, we used magnetic activating cell sorting (MACS) to separate HFSCs.

  Methods: In this study, HFSCs were isolated from Balb/c mice and dissected under an invert microscopy, and bulge area isolated and the bulge cells cultivated about 14 days. The CD34 positive cells isolated using CD34 monoclonal antibody and magnetic activated cell sorting system (MACS), then the cells incubated in DMEM/F12 and 10% FBS. The CD34 positive cells counted using a neubauer slide and evaluated under a fluorescent microscopy.

  Results: Here, we isolated CD34 positive cells using MACS and 12±1. 04% of HFSCs were CD34 positive and we found that, CD34 positive cells survived during 7 days cell culture in vitro.

  Conclusion: The results show that MACS is useful to increasing density gradient of cells in vitro.

Sm Rezavian, R Shapouri ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)

  Background & objectives: Yersiniosis is created by Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 and causes problems in the world especialy in cold and mild countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 oligopolysaccaride (OPS) conjugate to diphtheria toxoid (DT) as a vaccine candidate.

  Methods : After cultivation of bacteria, the LPS were isolated by modified hot phenol method. Then dialysis and concentration were done and the OPS were extracted by acetic acid 2%. To conjugate with diphtheria toxoid, ADH was used as a spacer molecule and EDAC as a linker. Conjugate was purified by gel filtration. Then 4 groups of female BALB/c mice were selected (15 mice in each group). Injection was performed intraperitoneally in three doses with two weeks interval. Then serum samples were collected and antibody response against OPS was measured by indirect ELISA method for detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3.

  Results: After second and third doses, OPS-DT recieved group showed significant increase in all types of antibodies titer in anti-OPS in comparison to group that recived nonconjugated OPS. The increase in titer of antibodies was as: OPS-DT>OPS>DT. A remarkable increase was shown in total IgG and IgM titers (with total amount of 3204 and 670, respectively). In IgG1 subclass the amount was 920 and in other subclasses of IgG (IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b) the amounts were 910, 110, and 99, respectively.

  Conclusion: The results shows that OPS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 increases the anti-OPS antibodies in the form of conjugate with diphtheria toxoid and could be considered as an appropriate vaccine candidate.

Shima Abtin, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mahnaz Kesmati, Hosein Najafzadeh,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Background & objectives: Salvia officinalis is one of the memory-enhancing herbs that were used in the past. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticles which are widely used in medicine and industry may impair the brain process related to memory. In this investigation, the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis on iron oxide nanoparticle induced memory impairment and the role of beta-adrenergic receptors in this effect were studied.

Methods: To assess the inhibitory avoidance memory, animals were trained in the step-down task and drugs (saline, hydro-alcoholic extract of sage leaves, nanoparticles of iron oxide and propranolol) were injected immediately after training by intraperitoneal (ip) injections. Long-term memory was tested 24 hours later and step-down latencies were recorded.

Results: Administration of iron oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/kg, ip) impaired memory retrieval. Salvia officinalis extract (40 mg/kg, ip) also prevented iron oxide nanoparticle induced long-term memory impairment. On the other hand, administration of propranolol (5, 10 mg/kg, ip) before Salvia officinalis extract (40 mg/kg, ip) and iron oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/kg, ip) attenuated the effect of Salvia officinalis extract.

Conclusion: It seems that extract of Salvia officinalis leaves decreases iron oxide nanoparticle induced memory impairment. Beta-adrenergic mechanisms are possibly involved in these effects of Salvia officinalis extract.

Maryam Salem , Tooba Mirzapour, Aboulfazl Bayrami, Mohsen Sagha, Asadollah Asadi,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Background & objectives: According to importance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in production of different cell lines, transplantation of these cells are used for treatment of many different diseases during cell therapy. Viability and proliferation of these cells after transplantation are very important. Since infertility is as public health problem in men and women, the scientists attempt to produce germ cells from differentiation of stem cells. It is supposed to use these cells for treatment of different illnesses especially for men with lack of germ cells in testes in future. However, in using stem cells for cell therapy the culture medium should be designed to increase the number of cells and efficiency of transplantation and to guarantee the health of the cells in terms of DNA damage. This study designed a suitable culture medium in order to increase the number of colonies and decrease the cell injuries.

Methods: In this study mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of mice and exposed to retinoic acid (RA) with concentration of 10-6 M and Sertoli cells condition medium. Since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produce fibroblastic colonies so the number of colonies was counted every 3 days after culture (days of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 15) under inverted microscope. The staining of ethidium bromide-acridine orange was also done for determination of apoptotic nucleus in days of 10 and 15 after culture.

Results: The results showed that the effects of retinoic acid on grow and viability of MSCs is related to the time. It seems that RA increased the proliferation of the cells and the number of colonies increased in low time but the apoptotic cells elevated with increasing the time of culture. Condition medium of Sertoli cells also increased the proliferation of bone marrow stem cells.

Conclusion: According to proliferative properties of condition medium, it seems that using condition medium together with RA is better than RA alone for differentiation of MSCs to germ cells.

Nematollah Gheibi , Javad Shahbazi, Zahra Zarmohammadi , Mahmoud Alipoor Heydari , Eftekhar Kakaeie, Mohammad Sofiabadi ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Background & objectives: Propolis is a natural product with powerful antioxidant and therapeutic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propolis on passive avoidance memory in adult male mice.

Methods: In this study, 40 adult male mice were divided into 8 groups, including control, sham (solvent) and 3 treatment groups orally treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of propolis, respectively for two weeks before and one week after treatment. Then, passive avoidance learning and memory were recorded in timescales of 24 and 48 hours, 4 days and a week after shock by the shuttle box. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett’s post hoc tests, and p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Administration of propolis (50 mg/kg) significantly increased the dark chamber entering time at intervals of 24 and 48 hours (p<0.001) and at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg in all time periods after the shock (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Oral administrations of propolis can improve learning and memory dose-dependently in adult male mice.

Shazad Daroogari , Rahmatollah Parandin, Namdar Yousofvand , Daryoush Shakibaie,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Background & objectives: Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) is a medicinal plant usually used in traditional medicine to reduce toothache. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of topical Clove oil on acute and chronic pain in male mice using formalin test.
Methods: In this study, 24 mice were divided into 4 groups: control, morphine (as positive control), Clove oil, and Clove oil plus morphine groups. Before the formalin test, the animals were treated topically with clove oil for 6 hours.  A single dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was prescribed subcutaneously. Pain scores were obtained using the formalin test through an injection of 20 microliter of formalin 2.5% into the palm of the animal's right hand.
Results: Topical administration of Clove oil significantly decreased acute pain (the initial phase of the formalin test) and chronic pain (the second phase of the formalin test). Furthermore, topical Clove oil increased the analgesic effect of morphine in acute pain phase.
Conclusions: This study showed that the analgesic effect of topical Clove oil was comparable to morphine.
Mina Kiani, Paria Parto ,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background & objectives: The present study examined the gonadotoxic effects of ciprofloxacin antibiotics and protective effects of L-carnitine.
Methods: In this study, 20 NMRI mice were divided into four groups: control, ciprofloxacin, L-carnitine, L-carnitine-ciprofloxacin (each group included 5 animals). The control group received normal saline, the treatment group 1 received 12.5 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, the treatment group 2 received 100 mg/kg L- carnitine and the treatment group 3 received 100 mg/kg L- carnitine and 12.5 mg / kg ciprofloxacin simultaneously. All animals were treated by intraperitoneal administration for 15 days. Testis and epididymis were collected to evaluate sperm parameters (sperm count, motility, morphology and viability).
Results: In the ciprofloxacin group, a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility, progressive sperm motility and normal sperm as well as a significant increase in rotating sperm motility, sperm without movement, head and tail abnormalities were observed (p≤0.05). A significant increase in sperm count, sperm survival, motility and progressive sperm motility, normal sperm and a significant decrease in rotating sperm motility, sperm without movement and head abnormalities in the L-carnitine-ciprofloxacin group were observed (p≤0.05); however, the reduction in tail abnormalities of sperm was not significant.
Conclusion: L-carnitine improves sperm parameters in the adult mice treated with ciprofloxacin.
Mohammad Mehdi Zangeneh, Nader Goodarzi, Akram Zangeneh, Fariba Najafi, Reza Tahvilian,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background & objectives: Considering the prevalence of diabetes and importance of its prevention, control and treatment, using low-calorie natural sweetener is necessary. Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic properties of the aqueous extract of Stevia. rebaudiana were assessed in the present study.
Methods: In this study, 35 mature male mice were divided into 5 groups. Diabetes was induced by administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The negative control group received normal saline and treatment groups received glibenclamide with 0.5 mg/kg and 200 and 400 μg/kg of aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana through gavage for 15 days, respectively. Also, one group was considered as positive control (as non-treated diabetic). On the last day, the blood glucose levels of samples were measured. After periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining, 5μm of sections were used for stereological analysis. 
Results: The blood glucose level was decreased (p<0.05) significantly in aqueous extract-treated groups compared to the untreated diabetic mice. The weight and volume of kidneys, cortex, medulla, proximal and distal tubules, collecting ducts, loop of henle, interstitial tissues, vessels and length of renal tubules decreased significantly (p<0.05) after treatment with aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (p<0.05). The number and volume of glomeruli restored toward normal levels with high doses of S. rebaudiana.
Conclusion: According to the obtained results, aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (sweet fraction) can regulate the blood glucose levels and inhibit diabetes-induced renal damages. It seems that S. rebaudiana can be used as an antidiabetic and nephroprotective supplement.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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