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Showing 78 results for Liver

Mahnaz Norouzi , Heidarali Abedi , Maryam Farmahini-Farahani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Desire for using a contraceptive method depends on individual general attitude and perception about it as well as individual understanding, needs and other people ’ s expectation about using that method . This research is conducted to determine reasons for mothers ’ desire in choosing a specific type of postpartum contraceptive method .

  Methods : This research is a cross- sectional study. The subjects were 384 lactating mothers who referred to Isfahan Health Centers for family planning services for the first time after delivery. The data were collected using questionnaires filled out through interview. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to analyze the data .

  Results : The results indicated that the most commonly used contraceptive method in lactating mothers was coitus interruptus (27.4%). The most common reasons of mothers for selecting this method was its safety (45.3%) and effectiveness (25.1%) .

  Conclusions : Because of the high failure rate of coitus interruptus, health personnel should present proper and enough training to lactating mothers and their husbands about different contraceptive methods. They should also present the application of different contraceptive methods in breast feeding and increase couples ’ ability in making proper decisions as well as choosing safe and suitable contraceptive methods .


Afshar Tamook, Nayereh Aminisani , Joubin Mogadam Yeganeh , Afrooz Mardi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : When a cesarean is necessary, it can be a life-saving technique for both mother and infant. In recent twenty years, the cesarean childbirth rate has increased dramatically. Moreover a cesarean costs nearly twice as much as a vaginal birth. The world Health organization states that a cesarean rate greater than 10-15% cannot be justified. The aim of this study was to determine the cesarean rates and its indications in social security hospital of Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study was conducted all of the deliveries (both cesarean and normal delivery) in Ardabil social security hospital were investigated using a questionnaire including the characteristics of indication. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

  Results : 45.4% of the deliveries were done using cesarean and 54.6% of them with a normal procedure. 55.8% of all the cesareans had an accepted indication. 44.2% of cesareans were controversial or elective, 22.7% were repeated cesarean, 8.4% were breech presentation and 2.3% were golden baby and 10.8% of the cesareans did not have a clear indication.

 Conclusions: The cesarean section rates in this study were higher than world rates. As a result the rising cesarean birth rate must be stopped and reversed with health interventions.


Afrouz Mardi , Parviz Molavi , Zahra Tazakori , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Postpartum depression is a problematic and important disease and if not recognized and treated on time, it can be aggravated or chronic. Exercise is strongly recommended in this regard to prevent any family disorders and improve the health of mother, child and family. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on mild postpartum depression among women referring to Ardabil health centers.

  Methods : This study was a double blind clinical trial. About 50 subjects with normal vaginal delivery were selected. The subjects had referred to health canters in the second week after delivery and were diagnosed to have mild depression using Beck depression test. They were randomly divided into two groups (exercise and non-exercise). Then Beck test was done 6 weeks after delivery again and the results were compared in two groups.

  Results : The findings indicated that between mildly depressed mothers, 36% were 26-30 years old, 82% were housekeeper, 44% had under diploma education, 60% had two previous deliveries. 56% of exercise group and 32% of non-exercise group were treated. 8% of experimental subjects and 18% of control ones needed psychological consultation 6 weeks after delivery. T-test showed significant differences between two groups (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Results showed that exercise had a positive effect on the treatment of mild postpartum depression. As a result it is recommended strongly in postpartum care.


Masoumeh Rostamnegad, Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Mother ’ s milk is the best food for the newborns and has positive effects on both mother and infant health, decreasing infant mortality, satisfying emotional needs of mother and infant and economizing the domestic as well as social expenditures. Unfortunately, because of different economical, social and cultural reasons in many parts of the world breast feeding and its length of time has decreased. WHO emphasizes breast feeding in the first six months of life in developing countries. This study is an attempt to determine the causes of unsuccessful breast feeding in the first six months after birth in Ardabil.

  Methods : This descriptive analyticalstudy was conducted on 160 mothers who had 2- month- old or younger infants and did not have exclusive breast feeding until the end of 6 months. The researchers referred to 4 health centers, selected based on cluster sampling, in order to select the qualified mothers and complete the questionnaires in their presence.

 Results: Most of the mothers (37.5%) have begun feedings supplementary nutrition to their infants at the age of 2-4 months. The most common (90.5%) cause for the lack of the exclusive breast feeding was found to be insufficiency of mother milk.Most of the mothers (67%) stated the infant cry as the main reason for this insufficiency. There is a significant relationship between exclusive breast feeding on the one hand and the delivery, time of first feeding, occupation and mother ’ s education on the other (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Social and economic conditions and misbeliefs have all affected the success of exclusive breast feeding. Most of these problems can be prevented through proper trainings.


Farnaz Moslemi Tabrizi, Soosan Rassooli , Simin Atash Khoii , Rasool Azarfarin ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Nitroglycerin is found to have vasodilatory effect. It has also a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of other organs including uterus. This study investigates the effect of intravenous nitroglycerin in emergency cesarean sections in which rapid and transient uterine relaxation for rapid and nontraumatic extraction of the fetus is necessary.

  Methods: Sixty pregnant women who were candidated for emergency cesarean and needed rapid uterine relaxation for different reasons were selected. These subjects underwent spinal anesthesia and at the time of uterine incision, 100 micrograms of nitroglycerin was injected to them intravenously. The time lapse between nitroglycerin administration and fetal extraction, the degree of uterine relaxation, the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage, uterine tone after fetal delivery and APGAR scores of the infants were all controlled and recorded. Also with regard to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin and probably its resultant homodynamic problems, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial O2 saturation were recorded before and after nitroglycerin injection and throughout the surgery.

  Results: The results showed that in 53 (88.3%) of the patients the uterus was acceptably relaxed and the fetus was delivered very easily. Only in 7 patients (11.7%) uterine relaxation was not acceptable. The mean decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after nitroglycerin administration compared with before injection BP was 12.97 mmHg (12.210 %) and 7.86 mmHg (12.208 %), respectively. There was not seen any prolonged effect of the drug such as uterus relaxation tone or abnormal bleeding. Also, none of the delivered infants had low APGAR scores. Besides, in patients with acceptable uterine relaxation the first and fifth minute APGAR score of infants were higher (p = 0.008, p = 0.000).

  Conclusion: This study shows that nitroglycerin can relax uterine smooth muscles very rapidly and transiently and in emergencies it can be an appropriate alternative to the other tocolytic agents with prolonged effect or onset time.


Mohammad Narimani , Parvin Nakhostine Ruhi , Mahnaz Yosefi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression, as a mental disorder, is seen in some women and can threaten their mental health as well as their infants. At least 7% of mothers suffer from this problem after parturition. Studies indicate that many variables are associated with this disorder during and after the gestation period. The aim of this study was to achieve the rate of postpartum depression and its relevant variables among women who referred to the parturition ward of Buali and Emam Hossein hospitals in Tehran.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study a questionnaire construced by researchers as well as Beck 21- item depression inventory were used to collect the data. The subjects (100 cases) responded to the questions individually in the hospitals. According to the type of variables, X2 nonparametric test was used in the data analysis.

 Results: The results of this study indicated that 17% of the subjects were suffering from moderate and severe depression and among the 14 predictive variables of the postpartum depression four variables, namely, matrimonial dissatisfaction, unwanted gestation, unemployment and low economical status of family have significant relationship with the postpartum depression.

 Conclusion: In comparison with the previous studies, the prevalence of postpartum depression is in higher level therefore, it is necessary to increase the information of parturition ward staff about this disorder and inform them to refer any cases of depression to the counseling centers.


Ebrahim Rahbani Nobar , Mohammad Rahbani Nobar ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Lipoprotein [LP(a)] is formed by assembly of LDL particles and carbohydrate rich protein, apolipoprotein(a). LP(a) is elevated in patients with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, but it is still controversial whether this is due to hypoalbuminemia or proteinuria.

  Methods: We studied a group of 71 children suffering from nephrotic syndrome in the absence of renal failure. The levels of serum albumin, LP (a), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ,high density, lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL- C), APOAI and APOB were measured by standard methods. The results were compared with those obtained from 75 age and sex matched normal children as control group. The concentrations of creatinin and protein in random urine samples obtained from children and the protein/creatinin ratio were calculated. The Relationship between measured parameters and/or serum albumin and proteinuria was evaluated.

  Results: Compared to the control group the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, LP (a), APOB and APOAI increated (p<0.05 in all cases), but no marked differences were observed in levels of HDL-C in case group. The levels of serum albumin in patient group were significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins including APOAI and APOB were more correlated with plasma albumin level than with protein/creatinin ratio in the patient group.

  Conclusion: The results indicated that in children nephrotic syndrome with on renal failure, the increase of serum levels of LP (a) is mainly related to hypoalbuminemia that stimulates liver synthesis of APOB and is not related to the degree of proteinuria. It was concluded that determination of APOB is the best marker of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome and normal serum albumin levels seem to be a factor that may determine the of treatment efficacy of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome.


Abbas Aflatoonian , Hajar Hojat , Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. 10% of maternal death is due to EP and only one-third of women with previous ruptured ectopic pregnancy could have a normal delivery in future. Research about prevalence and risk factors of this kind of pregnancy, could help early diagnosis and treatment of EP and improve the prognosis of fertility rate in the future.

Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, seventy-two patients with EP diagnosis admitted and treated in Yazd hospitals were studied. The data were collected using a questionnaire and hospital records. Sonography and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-Square test.

Results: 11176 pregnancies were recorded in Yazd between March 1999 and March 2000 and seventy-two of these pregnancies were ectopic. So prevalence of EC in yazd was found to be 0.5%. Most of the patients (58 cuses) were 20 to 39 years old. 52.8% of the patients had primipar. 25% had a history of one to three times abortion. From 43 patients who used contraceptive, 19 ones used OCP (oral contraceptive). 39 patients had a history of previous surgery, 7 patients had a history of EP and 25 patients had a history of treatment of infertility. The most common symptom of patients was abdominal pain. Only 4 out of 72 patients were treated with a medical method using methotraxe and the rest of them were operated. Three out of these four patients were finally obliged to undertake surgery.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EP was 0.5%, which is lower than the national scale. 
Farnaz Ehdaivand, Masoumeh Rostamnejad , Effat Iranijam ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

 

Background & Objectives: Hypertension is the most common medical problem in pregnancy, with  an incidence rate of 6-8%. The patients with preeclampsia are exposed to more maternal and fetal  complications. This requires more intensive prenatal cares. The diagnosis in early stages of disease has an important role in decreasing maternal and neonatal mortality and its comsequent complications. This study was an attempt to determine the epidemiological factors and complications of preeclampsia among patients admitted to Alavi hospital, Ardabil.

Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 176 women with preeclampsia. The data were collected using a questionnaire and medical records of patients. These data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: 75% of the patients had severe preeclampsia and 25% had mild preedampsia. Regarding the predisposing factors, history of preeclampsia was observed in 23.1% of the cases, mother's underlying diseases in 12.5%, twin in 2.3% and hydramnios in 4%. The method of delivery in 62.5% of the cases was cesarean section. 67.6% of preeclamptic patients had maternal and fetal complications (10.2% Maternal and 57.4% fetal). The maternal complications were: abruptio placenta, (44.4%), eclampsia (22.2%) and coma (11.1%). The fetal complications were: IUGR (42.4%), prematurity (39.6%) and  IUFD (9%).

Conclusion: In this study the incidence of severe preeclampsia was higher, which may be due to insufficient prenatal cares and delay in diagnosis. Further studies about the effect of prenatal cares on pregnancy outcomes in preeclamtic women are recommended.


Simin Atash Khoii , Mehri Jafari Shobayri , Sohrab Negargar ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

 Background and Objectives: Pre-eclampsia is one of the common causes of maternal mortality. A main problem with induction of general anesthesia in these patients is exagergted increase of blood presscure during laryngoscopy and intubation that is associateed with a significantly increased intracranial pressure with the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. There are some strategies to minimize extreme increase in blood pressure during laryngoscopy and intubation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Fentanyl-Droperidol combination (Talamonal) on reducing cardiovascular responses due to laryngoscopy and intubation in preeclamptic parturient.

 Methods: Thirty preeclamptic parturients who were admitted for emergency caesarean section under general anesthesia were studied. All patients had diastolic pressures sustained at ≥ 100 mmHg, and had received antihypertensive therapy. A standard general anesthesia was induced in all patients. Fentanyl-Droperidol combination was used only in the case group five minutes before induction of anesthesia.

 Results: Arterial pressure and heart rate increases, improved in approximately 86.6 % of the case group. The mean increase in systolic pressure, and heart rate following laryngoscopy and intubation was significantly different in two groups (P=0.0001). There was no significant difference in the mean Apgar score of the neonates at 1 and 5 minutes after delivery in two groups.

 Conclusion: Using Fentanyl-Droperidol Combination during induction of anesthesia produced a clinically significant decrease in sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in most mothers, without any adverse effect on the neonates.


Giti Rahimi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Hysterectomy is the most common surgery among nonpregnant women. A review of indications of hysterectomy can provide the specialists with new insights about these patients’ treatments. The aim of this study is to investigate the indications and methods of hysterectomy in patients referring to Alavi hospital.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Alavi hospital for two years (2002-2003). The data from 257 hysterectomized patients collected through interview and studying their records were entered into previously-designed questionnaires. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: The number of hysterectomies decreased 38.4% in 2003 compared to 2002. The mean age of patients was 45.8±8.09. The most common indication of hysterectomy was lyomyoma in 42.2% of cases. Abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal method were done in 93% and 7% of the cases respectively. In patients who were operated for pregnancy and delivery complications, the most common indication for hysterectomy was placenta increta (50%). The most common complication was hyperpyrexia (25.7%). The prevalence of complications of abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal method was 26.3% and 16.6% respectively.

 Conclusion: Lyomyoma is the most common indication of hysterectomy in patients referring to Alavi hospital. Besides, abdominal operation is the most prevalent method of hysterectomy in this hospital. Complications of vaginal method are less than those of abdominal method.


Homayoun Sadegi Bazargani , Shahnam Arshi, Ali Akbar Mortazazadeh, Jafar Bashiri , Naiere Aminisani, Saied Hashem Sezavar , Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahram Seifnejad, Ali Ruhi, Hale Shahlazadeh ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives : Providing health services for all population subgroups of a community is a major hallmark for health administration. Little is known about health status of Ashayer population in Iran. This study aims at evaluating health status and quality of health service delivery to them.

 Methods: In a cross-sectional research 320 households (1800 persons), entered the study. Moreover, blood samples from 458 dogs were taken and studied with both Direct Aglutination Test (DAT) and a newly presented dipstick test . All children under 12 were also studied with DAT. In computing the sample size the generalizability for 63 variables with a minimum and maximum probability level of 90% and 97% respectively were taken into account and since the cluster sampling was employed, the Design Effect would be at least 1.56 and for different variables in the first sample it would be at most 4.

 Results: Only 30 households(9.7%) used piped water supply inside their houses while most of the other families (41%) obtained their water from mobile water tanks. Residual water chlorine was measured to be zero in 88.7% of the samples taken from drinking water of Ashayer. 89 (27.8%) households had lavatories and 22 (7%) households had bathrooms inside their houses. 90.4% of those using raw vegetables washed them only with plain water. Monthly incidence rate for accidents was 230 per 10000. 18.1% of women in reproductive age had a history of abortion. Unwanted pregnancy rate was 38.9%. 47.1% of women with a labor history in past three years had never been visited by any person legally allowed to do so. Women in reproductive age had a poor knowledge about contraceptive methods. The minimum delay for vaccination was 16.9 (SD= 19.26) days regarding the third dose of OPV and the highest delay in vaccination was 46.44 (SD=60.7) days belonging to the third dose of HBV. From all 503 persons above 12 years old, 77 cases had hypertension. Periodontal easy bleeding was observed in 13.7 % and pyorrhea in 19.3%. 10.2 % had aching neck, 18.7% had backache and arthralgia was shown in 13.5%. The unmet need for physician's visit was 64.8%. The frequency of positive cases of leshmaniasis was 3.4% and 3.06% for boys and girls respectively. 28 male and 6 female dogs were positive in DAT test making an overall positive rate of 7.4%. Sensitivity of dipstick test was higher than 80 percent only when golden standard was considered to be DAT ≥ 1 /640.

  Conclusion: Many of the health indices of Ashayer except for vaccination were suitable. This requires further attemps on the part of govermental and health outhorities. Kale-azar disease can spread to the north of the province as well as the neighboring provinces due to the migration of these tribes. It is predicted that Bilesavar and Parsabad cities will be added to the andemic regions of this disease in coming years. Using dipstick test recently offered by WHO is recommended to be used to screen the infected dogs.


Mohammad Hosein Dehghan, Ali Majidpour,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of hyperlipidemia in the world especially in Iran, finding suitable and effective treatment seems justified. Metronidazole is the only drug that is used as an antiparasital and antiprotozoal agent. Researchers have found that oral dose of 750 mg/day has a suitable absorption, is widely distributed in the tissues and reaches to a blood level of 4-6 mg/ml. Despite its suitable efficiency, a few clinical trial have been conducted in this regard. This study was designed as such to examine the effect of metronidazole on lowering blood lipids.

  Methods: The present research was performed as a clinical trial without control, on 50 patients. All the patients filled out a special form (to show their satisfaction) as well as a questionnaire. Metronidazole was given with a daily dose of 750 mg for a week. 20 patients with no complaint continued their drug consumption for another seven days. Lipid parameters such as plasma total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured in both groups. The data were collected and analyzed with SPSS software using t-test.

  Results: Measuring the serum level of lipids indicated that the mean total plasma lipid and total cholesterol decreased significantly compared to their level before taking the drug (p<0.01). The findings also showed a similar decrease in plasma TG level (p<0.001). In the patients who continued the drug consumption in the second week, the serum level of lipids under study showed more decrease compared to their levels in the first week which was statistically significant (p<0.01). Liver tests indicated that the functioning of liver has not changed during drug consumption.

  Conclusion: Using 750 mg of metronidazole per day exerts a significant decrease in lipids fractions in a short time. Most cases of hyperlipidemia require a long-term treatment, hence metronidazole can be effectively used in the treatment of short-term hyperlipidemia.


Zahra Fardiazar, Farzane Zahery , Sedige Sadegy Khamene , Sakine Mohammad Alizade , Hosein Kooshavar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)
Abstract

 

  Background & Objectives: Post-episiotomy perineal pain is one of the most common causes of maternal morbidity and is often poorly treated. This study was performed to investigate effectiveness, side effects and patient satisfaction when lidocaine gel and placebo are used.

 Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial a total of 124 women who had normal viginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy without other complications were randomly selected to receive lidocain gel or placebo. Pain intensity was assessed by numerical rating scale (0-10) after perineal pain in different intervals. Pain relief was assessed by number of pain pills, amount of gel used and the degree of painlessness. Repair of episiotomy was assessed by physical examination on 1 and 10 days after delivery. The data were used to fill out a questommaire. Finally, these data were analysed by SPSS ll (rel 11).

 Results: There was no significant difference in the amount of pain pills taken, the amount of gel used and patients satisfaction between two groups. Regarding the healing of episiotomy there was no significant difference between two groups in the first and tenth day examinations and all wounds healed on 10th day. Satisfaction of the patients regarding the use of gel was the same in two groups.

 Conclusion: Despite the findings of some similar studies, topical gel of 2% lidocaine was not significantly different from placebo for healing eposiotomy and relieving its pain. But in both groups result of healing on 10 th day postpartum was good. More studies are required to indicate the effect of high dose of lidocaine on pain relief and the positive effects of using gel on wound healing.

 


Sima Khavandizadeh Aghdam ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives:Different studies have emphasized the psycho-social aspects of delivery, so that these aspects are no less important than medical and midwifery factors. This is a quasi- experimental study, the main objective of which was to evaluate the effects of the continuous labor support from a supportive companiom on the process and outcome of labor in primigravida.

 Methods: 50 women in supported group (case) and 50 without supporative companion (control) were selected. All women were between 18-30 years, and had term pregnancy, single fetus, cephalic presentatation or spontaneous onset of labor without any complications. The supportive companions were students of midwifery. The support consisted of talking, touching, reassurance, soothing, giving encouragement and physical comfort (e.g, helping to change position, keeping lips wet and cooling). The data were analyzed using student t-test, chi-square and Fisher test.

 Results: The findings showed that the continuous labor support by a companion reduced length of active phase (p<0.01), cesarean section (p=0.026) and increased APGAR score in the first minute (p=0.015) and led to the early onset of breast feeding (p<0.01). Duration of second labor and fifth-minute Apgar were not significantly different in two groups. Conclusions: This study showed that the continuous labor support can result in better outcomes in deliveries.


Farideh Mostafazadeh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Masoumeh Rostamnegad ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Ceasarean section (CS) has increased in rate during the past years. Due to postoperative complications, long recovery time and high costs of surgery, normal delivery is recommended as a routine method. Regarding the increase in the number of CS and its acceptability on the part of the public, it seems that women’s as well as health personnels' attitudes play an effective role in selecting the termination method. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare pregnant women’s and health personnels' attitude toward termination procedures.

 Methods: This was a descriptive and comparative study. 84 health personnels and 300 pregnant women who referred to Ardabil health centers in 2002 were selected. These subjects' attitudes were collected through Likert questionnaire and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS, using t-test.

 Results: The findings showed that 30.1% of women and 50% of health personnels had positive attitudes towards normal delivery. The findings also indicated that there was a significant difference between pregnant women and health personnels in their attitudes toward normal delivery and cesarean (p=0.001).

 Conclusions: Since health personnels had a more positive attitude towards normal delivery than pregnant women did, it seems that the young as well as the pregnant individuals in society need more education and awareness to be able to change their attitudes towards delivery methods. Health personnel, due to their high positive attitude towards normal delivery, can play a more beneficial role in this regard.


Hasan Anari, Farhad Salehzadeh , Ramin Mirmohammadi , Simin Monshari ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Developmental dislocation of hip (DDH) as an inherited joint disorder results from external location of the head of femora from the acetabulum.Early diagnosis of this disorder is very important and any delay may result in long life handicap. Nowadays new methods such as sonogrphy are recommended in diagnosis of this disorder. Radiology and physical examination are traditional methods. This study was designed to evaluate the results of sonographical, radiological and physical examination findings in 100 infants who were suspected to have DDH.

 Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was done in private clinics from June 2004 to June 2005. The one hundred infants who were suspected to have DDH in physical examination entered the study. A questionnaire was completed for each infant, and then sonography and radioghray have been done for them. The data were collected and analyzed by statistical programs.

 Results: Among 100 infants 48% were female and 52% male, with mean age 42±7.23.In 44% they were the firstborn.58% had normal delivery and 42% cesarean section. 15% had breech presentation. In 28% radiological and 56% sonographical methods showed findings in favor of DDH.

 Conclusion: This study showed, simultaneous physical and sonographic examination especially during the first month result in early and precise diagnosis of DDH, on the other hand it does not have radiologic side effects.


Mokhtar Mokhtari , Mehrdad Shariatie , Nazanin Tadayon ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Spironolactone is a diuretic and antiandrogenic drug and is used in the treatment of hypertention 'secondary hyprealdosteronism congestive heart failure' cirrhosis of the liver, nephrotic syndrome 'androgenic alopecia' gynecomastia and hirsutism. In this research, the effects of spironolactone on the serum LH, FSH, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and changes in body weight and testicular tissue in adult male rats, were studied.

 Methods: For this purpose 190 10 g male wistar rats (n=40) were randomly divided into the following grups: control, sham operated (received water) and 25, 50, 100 mg/kg oral spironolactone treated groups. After 14 days body weight and testis weight under laboratory methods, were measured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for the measuring of LH/FSH/testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and then the rates' testes, in order to evaluate the histological changes, were removed and weighed and after obtaining tissue section and staining through HE, they were studied.

 Results: Serum LH level showed a significant increase and testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels showed asignigicant decrease in 100mg/kg spironolactone treated group ( p 0.05 ) and there was no significant difference among serum FSH level, body weight and testicular weight as compared to control group.

 Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of spironolactone maximum dose for 14 days could increase serum LHlevel and decrease testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels.


Ali Nemmati , Soheila Refahi, Manoochehr Barak , Manije Jafari , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: 11% of all newborns in the developing countries suffer from low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight has an important role in individual health, family and society. Lower and higher birth weight from standard rate lead to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between some of maternal anthropometric measurements such as BMI, pre-gravida weight, height, age with birth weight.

 Methods: This is an analytical-descriptive study, in which there were 300 pregnant women who hard referred to Alavi Hospital, Ardebil for delivery. Maternal pre-gravida height, weight and birth weight were collected from their units. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the maternal pre-gravida weight in kg by height in m squared (kg/m2). The relationship between maternal anthropometric measurements and birth weight was analyzed by t-test.

 Results: Our study showed that 32 (10.7%) women had BMI<19.8, 185 (61.7%) BMI=19.8-26 and 83 (27.7%) BMI>26. 36.3% of women were under 55 kg, 48.3% between 55 to 70 kg and 15.3% over 70 kg. The relationship between maternal pre-gravida BMI, weight and birth weight was statistically significant (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between maternal age and neonatal birth weight.

 Conclusion: Pre-gravida body mass index (BMI) and weight could be two important anthropometric measurements associated with birth weight. Thus, it is recommended that women give adequate preconceptional and prenatal care to decrease the amount of LBW and HBW in population.


Fariba Kahnamouei, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Farideh Mostafazadeh, Afshar Ebrahimi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

  Backgrond & Objectives: Oligohydramnios is a disorder which is followed by unpleasant outcomes for fetus that can lead to termination of pregnancy before term and preterm delivery. For these patients' increase in gestational period and prevention of preterm delivery is the most important act. In this study the effect of intravenous and oral hydration therapy in increasing duration of gestation in patient with oligohydramnios was evaluated.

  Methods: In this study, the population was devided into two case and control groups with 30 female individual who were found to have oligohydramnios in course of hospital admission according to on sonographic results. Patients were randomly put in case or control groups. Case group were given 3-4 liter normal salin for 1 week and then were given oral hydration solution until the end of pregnancy, In each group whenever it was found that pregnancy was not possible the pregnancy continuance was stopped. Data collection was through history, physical examination completing relevant questionnaire and findings of sonography and in order to see the relationship among finding s, kitest and t-test from SPSS software were used.

  Results: The age means of case and control groups were 25 and 24 respectively. The mean of pregnancy duration from the diagnosis time in case group was 30.2 weeks and in control group 31.8 weeks. The mean of pregnancy terminatior in case group was 34.6 weeks and in control group 34.2. In increasing duration of pregnancy in case and control group. It was concluded that intravenous and oral Hydration therapy cause incerease in duration of pregnancy in patients suffering from oligo Hydraminos. According to the results of this study and significance of the difference.



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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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