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Showing 11 results for Learning

Mohammad Bager Setoude, Firooz Amani, Sahar Farahmand Rad ,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Hearing disorders are the most common causes of pediatric communicative and functional disorders in the united states which result in communicative and learning disorders, educational failure and vast socio-economic problems. It is estimated that the incidence of hearing loss in pediatric population is 2-4% and otitis media, which is the second infectious cause after the ordinary cold, is the most common cause of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss is categorized into two distinct groups, namely conductive and sensorineural, the former being more common among children. Most of the causes for conductive hearing loss can be diagnosed and treated. Hence, majority of hearing loss cases can be prevented by taking appropriate measures. This study was performed to examine the incidence and common causes of hearing loss among school children in Ardabil.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1999 primary school boys and girls (grades 1-5). The data were collected through a questionnaire in the from of autoscopic examinations and Tuning Fork tests. 654 cases were referred to the audiometric and tympana metrics centers for further examinations as well as filling out the questionnaires. 483 (24.2%) students were definitely suffering from hearing loss. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and SPSS software.

 Results: In this study, the hearing disorders of male students was more than female ones. The most common causes of conductive hearing loss in both sexes and all 5 grades was cerumen (50.3%) and the second cause was otitis media with effusion (34.6%). The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss was 1.86%. Hearing loss disorders in low socioeconomic households is high (44.1%). There was a meaningful relation between hearing loss disorders and positive family history, educational failure, social class and seasons (p=0.001). Hearing loss disorders are high during the cold seasons (73.90%).

 Conclusion:Regarding the high prevalence of hearing loss among school children, more extensive and interventional studies as well as wide ranging screening are required.

Sana Mollahoseini , Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mahnaz Kesmati, Abdolrahman Rasekh,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Several studies have shown that Glucocorticoids affect learning and memory processes by influences on limbic structures such as amygdala. The amygdala is an important region for memory formation. Considering the existence of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intra-BLA microinjection of pilocarpine on the effect of dexamethasone on memory retrieval .

  Methods: As a model of learning, using a step-through apparatus , inhibitory avoidance was used for assessment of long-term memory in 80 adult male Wistar rats . All animals were bilaterally implanted with cannulas into the BLA and were trained and tested (with 24 h interval) 7 days after surgery. Memory retrieval was evaluated by recording of the step-through latencies and the time spent in dark chamber of apparatus in the testing day.

  Results: Pre-test subcutaneous (s.c) administration of dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval in animals when trained 24 h in advance. Co-pretest microinjection of different doses of pilocarpine (1 , 2 μg/rat, intra-BLA ), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, with the dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c) caused enhancement of memory retrieval.

  Conclusion: Results of this research indicate that impairment effect of dexamethasone on memory processes may be mediates by decrease of mechanisms of BLA muscarinic cholinergic.

Tahereh Haghpanah, Vahid Sheibani, Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Mousa Al Reza Hajzadeh, Khadijeh Esmail Pour Bezenjani, Yasamin Pahlavan,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)

  Background & Objectives: I ntra-hippocampal adminestration of origanum (ORG) improves spatial learning of rats. T he aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism for origanum extract on spatial learning and memory in the hippocampus.

  Methods : In this study 42 adult male Wistar rats were used . Animals were cannulated bilaterally in the posterior laterl of hippocampus. After the recovery period, the spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM). Saline, ORG (0.03μg/site) glutamate receptor antagonist MK801 (0.08, 0.2 and 0.4 μmol/site) and co-injected of MK + ORG was injected into the posterior lateral of hippocampus 20 minutes before the training and retrival sesions (for 5 consecutive days) (n=7).

  Results: The results showed that the intra-hippocampal injection of MK 801 significantly blocked the decreased distance and time of reaching (due to ORG injection) to find hidden platform of MWM (p<0.05). On the retrival tests, the average of time spent in the target area is reduced in the co-injected of MK801 + ORG group.

  Conclusion: The intra-hippocampal injection of aqueous extract oforiganum may improve working memory in rats through glutamate-dependent NMDA receptors.

Hosein Najafzadeh, Mahmood Khaksari Mahabadi, Sareh Rezaie, Peghah Ardalani,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2013)

  Background: Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron is used for different purposes such as an antispasmodic and expectorant. Recent studies have demonstrated that saffron extracts have antitumor, radical scavenger, hypolipidemic, anticonvulsant effects and it improves activity on learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect ofaqueous saffron extracton weight, length, macroscopic and microscopic skeletal malformation in fetuses of rats.

  Methods: Study was carried on 3 groups of female Wistar rats. Group1 was kept as control and received normal saline with equal volume of extract Group 2 received saffron extract with 80mg/kg-IP on 10th and 11th day of gestation Group 3 received saffron extract with 200mg/kg-IP on 10th and 11th day of gestation. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested by cesarean section. The living status and weight and length of fetuses were detected. After examination for determination of gross malformations, fetuses were placed in alcohol and stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method then evaluation was carried by stereomicroscope.

  Results: Saffron extract at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly increased the weights and body-lengths of fetuses in compare with saline and extract at dose 200 mg/kg. Macroscopic and Microscopic studies did not show any skeletal abnormalities by two above doses of saffron.

  Conclusion: The results show short time administration of saffron aqueous extract does not cause malformation on skeletal system.

Zahra Kiasalari , Mehrdad Roghani, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mohammad Javad Hasas ,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (9-2014)

  Background & objectives : Epileptic seizures accompany disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills. With regard to antiepileptic potential of curcumin and its beneficial effect on memory, the effect of its administration on learning and memory in kainate-epileptic rats was investigated.

  Methods: Forty male rats were divided into sham, positive control ( valproate-treated epileptic), epileptic, and two curcumin-treated epileptic groups. Rat model of epilepsy was induced by unilateral intrahippocampal administration of 4 μg of kainate per rat. Rats received intraperitoneal injection of curcumin (50 and 100 mg/kg) daily for 1 week before surgery. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial (IL) and step-through latencies (STL) were determined using passive avoidance test and alternation behavior percentage was obtained according to Y maze test.

  Results: Regarding IL, there was no significant difference between the groups. In contrast, STL significantly decreased in curcumin-50-treated epileptic group (p<0.05) (a change from 263.1 to 184.5 s). However, this parameter significantly increased in curcumin-100-treated epileptic group as compared to epileptic group (p<0.01) (a change from 263.1 to 220.3 s). In addition, STL was also significantly higher in valproic acid-treated epileptic group versus epileptic group (p<0.05) (a change from 145.7 to 210.3 s). Alternation percentage was also significantly higher in curcumin-50- and curcumin-100-treated epileptic groups relative to epileptic group (p<0.05) (a change from 60.5 to 77.6 and 80.3%).

  Conclusion: Curcumin could dose-dependently enhance the consolidation and recall in epileptic animals and could improve spatial memory in such animals.

Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh, Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant.

Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning.

Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

Mehdi Parsa Moghadam , Mohammadhossein Yazdani, Afshar Seyyedin, Manouchehr Pashazadeh ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background & objectives: Construction of new service centers including hospitals is expensive and requires optimal site selection for these centers so that all citizens benefit from its increased productivity. It can also help them lower their costs. This study investigates the optimal locations for construction of hospitals in Ardabil using GIS software.

Methods: This is an applied research which incorporates a descriptive-analytic methodology. The data is made up of 11 criteria; proximity to densely populated areas, proximity to green space, closeness to main thoroughfares, proximity to fire departments and distance from existing hospitals, industrial centers, slopes, learning centers, cemetery, military bases and from sport facilities. They were all weighted using analytic network process (ANP) model.

Results: After performing the necessary calculations and evaluations, the highest and lowest weight of criteria belonged to the proximity to densely populated areas (0.229) and distance from the cemetery (0.033), respectively. According to the criteria weights and overlapping of layers, the most and least favorable locations for the establishment of hospitals were identified.

Conclusion: Results of the classification showed the best location for construction of hospitals in Ardabil city based on four municipal regions. In region one it belongs to the 8th, 5th, 2nd, and 11th districts in region two districts of 6 and 7 which cover southeastern edge of the city, in region 3 districts of 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 and 10 which contain the western part of the city, and in region four it belongs to districts of 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 11 that encompass the blocks in the northern and north-western route of the city. These regions can be used for construction of new hospitals in order to improve people’s access to healthcare services.

Nematollah Gheibi , Javad Shahbazi, Zahra Zarmohammadi , Mahmoud Alipoor Heydari , Eftekhar Kakaeie, Mohammad Sofiabadi ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Background & objectives: Propolis is a natural product with powerful antioxidant and therapeutic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propolis on passive avoidance memory in adult male mice.

Methods: In this study, 40 adult male mice were divided into 8 groups, including control, sham (solvent) and 3 treatment groups orally treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of propolis, respectively for two weeks before and one week after treatment. Then, passive avoidance learning and memory were recorded in timescales of 24 and 48 hours, 4 days and a week after shock by the shuttle box. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett’s post hoc tests, and p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Administration of propolis (50 mg/kg) significantly increased the dark chamber entering time at intervals of 24 and 48 hours (p<0.001) and at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg in all time periods after the shock (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Oral administrations of propolis can improve learning and memory dose-dependently in adult male mice.

Mortaza Salimi Avansar ,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background & Objectives: The reduction of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects memory, learning and cognition, food intake and energy metabolism and causes behavioral disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks interval training and curcumin consumption on TNF-α and BDNF levels in men with metabolic syndrome.
Methods: This study was performed on 40 men with metabolic syndrome who were randomly divided into four groups, including exercise +supplement, exercise, supplement and control groups (n=10). The experimental groups did the exercise protocol and consumed curcumin supplement for eight weeks. The blood samples were collected 24 hours before the start of exercise and 48 hours after the last training session. One-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. The significance level was considered to be p≤0.05.   
Results: In exercise +supplement and exercise groups, significant changes were observed in BDNF (p=0.000, p=0.004) and TNF-α (p=0.001, p=0.008) levels compared to pre-test. Also, when analyzing changes between groups, TNF-α (p=0.004) and BDNF (p=0.000) changes were statistically significant in exercise +supplement group compared to other groups.
Conclusion: Eight weeks moderate-intensity interval training combined with curcumin consumption significantly reduced inflammatory factors and increased BDNF expression.
Mohammad Sofiabadi, Mohammadhousein Esmaeili, Hashem Haghdoost-Yazdi , Moustafa Aali,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus cause cognitive defects. Royal Jelly has been claimed to improve the neurological damage caused by diabetes. In this study, the effect of oral administration of royal jelly on memory and passive avoidance learning was studied in diabetic male rats.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences on 48 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into control, diabetic without treatment, diabetic recipient of glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) and three diabetic groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg royal jelly (n=8). Diabetes was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60mg/kg/ip). Treatment in the groups performed by gavage from the onset of hyperglycemia for 30 days. At the end of the test, the passive avoidance learning and memory and blood glucose were measured. Data were analyzed by by SPSS software using ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests, and p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Diabetes reduced the latency time of dark room entering. Royal jelly treatment delayed the entrance to the dark room significantly at 24 h, 48 h and 2 weeks after the shock, especially at doses of 100 (p<0.05) and 200 mg/kg (p<0.01) compared to untreated diabetic animals.
Conclusion: According to the results, diabetes causes memory impairment, and royal jelly administration can reduce the memory impairment due to diabetes.
Mohammad Hossein Esmaeili, Zohrea Rozbahani,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2018)

Background & objectives: Epidemiological Studies have shown that diabetes increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD).also several studies have confirmed that long term use of Metformin (Met) improves cognitive function in diabetic patients.  The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Met on learning and memory in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.
Methods: Animals were divided into 2 groups including healthy and diabetic group. In healthy group, normal rats subdivided into control, saline and Met groups which received saline or Met (500mg/kg) and in diabetic group including DM, DM+saline and DM+Met subgroups, diabetic rats  received saline or Met (100, and 200mg/kg) for 20 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of streptozotocin (STZ).
Results: Our results showed that Met (500mg/kg, ip) impaired spatial learning but improved spatial memory in normal rats. The results also showed that Met improved learning and memory in diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner, so that the rats of DM+Met group compared to DM+saline group found platform in less time and with less distance traveled. Met also increased the percentage of time elapsed and the distance swum in the target quadrant in diabetic rats during the probe trial.
Conclusion: An intraperitoneal injection of STZ resulted in a significant decline in learning and memory and treatment with Met can enhance learning and memory in a dose dependent manner, therefore, it is useful for treatment of cognitive impairment in diabetic patients.

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