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Showing 41 results for Knowledge

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.

Alireza Zohoor , Masoud Bozorgmagham ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Head trauma is one of the most common causes of death in accidents and it is irreversible. More than 10000 cases of brain death occur annually in Iran and less than 10% of them are donors. That is why the number of organ transplantation in Iran is much lower than Europe and America. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of 20-60 year-old citizens of Tehran about organ donation in brain death.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed on 730 subjects (384 females and 346 males ( in 2000. The questionnaire and multi-stage sampling methods were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Chi-square tests.

  Results : about 44% of the subjects believed that the brain death is virtually irreversible and 93% of these subjects agreed with transplantation. 88% of those who agreed with transplantation accepted to fill out special donation forms. Humanitarian considerations and heavenly rewards were two main reasons mentioned by these people.

  Conclusions : According to this study, it is necessary to train people in order to increase their knowledge regarding brain death and create a positive attitude about organ donation. meanwhile passing some laws in this regard which are in accordance with Islam is recommended.

Afsar Foroud , Afsaneh Foroud ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : In order to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity, midwives should be able to implement community cares for women and their families. The aim of this study is to investigate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery (COM).

  Methods : In this cross sectional study, all 280 midwives working in Kerman hospitals and health service centers were selected. The questioner for data collection had two parts. The first part intended to describe the characteristics of samples and the second part was used to evaluate midwives ’ knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice community oriented midwifery. Correlation and chi - square tests were used to analyze the data.

  Results : Mean of knowledge score was 21.13 and 16.4% of the subjects had a good knowledge of COM. Mean of attitude score was 77.07 and 61.8% of the samples had a positive attitude towards COM. 79.2% of samples announced their readiness to practice COM.

  Conclusions : Based on the findings of this study it seems that the professional knowledge of midwives should be promoted, regarding COM.

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.

  Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.

  Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.

  Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.

Ali Majidpour , Hasan Adalatkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Nayereh Aminisani , Masoud Shabani , Ali Nemati ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Promoting health has always been considered as one of the basic priorities in international, national, regional and local policies. Moreover, retention and promotion of individual health requires a good knowledge of essentials and priorities of the future. Consequently, determining heslth priorities and devising public health programs and policies is just one of the crucial issues to be considered and implemented by the organizations involved. So a fundamental revising of the health care services based on health promotion indices seems to be necessary in order to increase the influence of health interference programs, extend the quality of health care services and improve activities concerning public health.

  Methods: This project started in 2001 and was defined by precise planning of its organization chart. Its two basic concerns included the current status of health and determining its priorities. The first point, that is the current status of health was performed through investigating the previous researches as well as qualitative and field studies. In this phase of research 1000 urban and 1000 rural families were interviewed about different aspects of health including population characteristics, nutrition, risk factors, treatment habits and so forth. To measure the parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrite, sugar and lipids, blood samples were taken from members of 200 families who were above 15. Weight, height and blood pressure of all the subjects who were above 15 years of age and weight, height and Mid Arm Circumference (MAC) of the children aged below 6 were measured. The data were collected and scored based on scientific indices and finally the research priorities in the field of health were determined. It should be noted that many people and organizations participated in this research.

  Results : The findings indicated that mortality of children under 5 years of age, casualties, accidents, etc. were among 34 most essential health priorities.

  Conclusions : Regarding the great experience of determining health priorities which was conducted through need assessment and wide cooperation of the public and organizations, it seems important to conduct such researches once in some years and transfer their findings to other sectors in order to prevent wastage of costs, time and labor. This will also lead the researches towards the real needs and necessary interference in order to promote public health.

Ziyaaddin Ghorashi , Hasan Sultani Ahari ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: Most of the acute poisonings are mild with no complication but in some rare cases they can be life threatening. About 70% of acute poisoning happens in children. More than 90% of these toxic exposures are incidental and easily preventable. The factors leading to acute poisoning are variable based on cultural and socioeconomic differences among the population. The increasing production and distribution of new drugs and chemicals change the etiologic factors. This study was conducted to investigate common acute poisonings and their victims in Tabriz.

 Methods: In this retrospective study 306 cases of acute poisoning were reviewed from April 1999 to March 2002, in Tabriz Pediatric Medical Center. The factors that were considered included: age, gender, manner (incidental versus intentional), agents route of intoxication, residential area (rural versus urban), duration of admission, clinical presentation, date of first admission and mortality.

 Results: 306 patients (53.3% male and 46.7% female) were studied in this research. Most of the cases (31%) were 1-2 years old, and the fewest (1.3%) were under 6 months of age. About 95% of the cases were incidental, and 5% intentional suicide attempts among children above 10 years of age. 63% of the subjects were living in Tabriz, 29.5% of them were from rural areas and the rest (7.5%) were dwelling small towns. Poisons in the order of prevalence included: drugs (45.5%), hydrocarbons (26%), organo phosphates (7%), atropinic material and datura intoxication (6%), Rodenticides (3.6%), Opiates (2.9%), Carbon monoxide (2.2%) and alcohol, mushrooms, animal bites, acids & alkalines (6.8%). Average duration of hospitalization was 2 days and the total mortality rate was 3 cases.

 Conclusions: The most common etiologic factor was drug poisoning followed by hydrocarbons as the second most prevalent factor in this regard. It seems that mass media especially TV programs can play a key role to increase the public knowledge about this issue.

Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.

  It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.

  The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.

Zhinoos Bayatmakoo , Roshanak Bayatmakoo ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)

 Background & Objective: The emergence of multi-drug resistant salmonella strains h ave made t h e treatment of typhoid fever difficult all over the world. It is even more complicated w h en t h e hi g h cost of newly marketed antibiotics, their side effects and arising bacterial resistance to them are considered. Knowledge of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of salmonella can make prevention of side-effects and emergence of resistance as well as the treatment measures more effective in this region.

  Methods : This descriptive study was performed in a 6-year period between 1992-97 on 397 patients who were culture positive (blood and stool) in terms of typhoid. The drug resistance was determined based on the anti-biogram of salmonella separated from blood and stool culture of the patients.

  Results: The total number of patients was 397 (237 males, 160 females). All of the subjects were above 12 years old. The resistance of strains of salmonella separated from the blood and stool culture to an antibiotic was 76.9 and 79.6 percent respectively. Resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol was highest among others. There were 60 strains with multi-drug resistance 34 of which (8.57% of all patients) were separated from blood culture and 26 (6.55% of all patients) from stool-culture. The amount of microorganisms multi-drug resistance separated from blood and stool was 6.55% and 8.57% respectively (15.12% in total).

  Conclusions : Using antibiotics without the knowledge of bacterial resistance and sensitivity can complicate the issue.

Manoogehr Barak , Firooz Amani, Mehrdad Mirza Rahimi , Nateg Abbasgholizadeh, Ali Reza Hamid Kholgh ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Neglecting children can have irremediable and harmful effects on them concerning their growth, evolution, acquisition, and health both at present and in the future. Since lack of nutrition knowledge and failing to observe the principles of infant nutrition is one of the important causes of malnutrition and its unpleasant consequences, we decided to carry out an assessment concerning mothers’ level of awareness about infant nutrition and the factors affecting this knowledge, as well as the effect of this knowledge on growth and development of children.

 Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted to evaluate mothers’ knowledge of infant and neonatal nutrition and its effect on infant growth in Hir health center. The data were collected using a questionnaire, including 20 questions, which was filled out in the health center. Moreover weight, height and head circumference of 100 infants were measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: All mothers’ age ranged between15-36 and were housewives.15% were unlettered, 18% had high school education and others primary or secondary school education. 55% of children were female and 45% male. 67% of mothers had knowledge about proper neonatal and infant nutrition. 97% of them had little knowledge about when to start introducing different nutrients for infants, 3% had moderate knowledge in this regard.

 Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study and the lower knowledge level of mothers about when to start giving different food to infants as well as the importance of proper nutrition in their growth, it is necessary to improve mothers’ knowledge and promote children’s health.

Homayoun Sadegi Bazargani , Shahnam Arshi, Ali Akbar Mortazazadeh, Jafar Bashiri , Naiere Aminisani, Saied Hashem Sezavar , Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahram Seifnejad, Ali Ruhi, Hale Shahlazadeh ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

 Background & Objectives : Providing health services for all population subgroups of a community is a major hallmark for health administration. Little is known about health status of Ashayer population in Iran. This study aims at evaluating health status and quality of health service delivery to them.

 Methods: In a cross-sectional research 320 households (1800 persons), entered the study. Moreover, blood samples from 458 dogs were taken and studied with both Direct Aglutination Test (DAT) and a newly presented dipstick test . All children under 12 were also studied with DAT. In computing the sample size the generalizability for 63 variables with a minimum and maximum probability level of 90% and 97% respectively were taken into account and since the cluster sampling was employed, the Design Effect would be at least 1.56 and for different variables in the first sample it would be at most 4.

 Results: Only 30 households(9.7%) used piped water supply inside their houses while most of the other families (41%) obtained their water from mobile water tanks. Residual water chlorine was measured to be zero in 88.7% of the samples taken from drinking water of Ashayer. 89 (27.8%) households had lavatories and 22 (7%) households had bathrooms inside their houses. 90.4% of those using raw vegetables washed them only with plain water. Monthly incidence rate for accidents was 230 per 10000. 18.1% of women in reproductive age had a history of abortion. Unwanted pregnancy rate was 38.9%. 47.1% of women with a labor history in past three years had never been visited by any person legally allowed to do so. Women in reproductive age had a poor knowledge about contraceptive methods. The minimum delay for vaccination was 16.9 (SD= 19.26) days regarding the third dose of OPV and the highest delay in vaccination was 46.44 (SD=60.7) days belonging to the third dose of HBV. From all 503 persons above 12 years old, 77 cases had hypertension. Periodontal easy bleeding was observed in 13.7 % and pyorrhea in 19.3%. 10.2 % had aching neck, 18.7% had backache and arthralgia was shown in 13.5%. The unmet need for physician's visit was 64.8%. The frequency of positive cases of leshmaniasis was 3.4% and 3.06% for boys and girls respectively. 28 male and 6 female dogs were positive in DAT test making an overall positive rate of 7.4%. Sensitivity of dipstick test was higher than 80 percent only when golden standard was considered to be DAT ≥ 1 /640.

  Conclusion: Many of the health indices of Ashayer except for vaccination were suitable. This requires further attemps on the part of govermental and health outhorities. Kale-azar disease can spread to the north of the province as well as the neighboring provinces due to the migration of these tribes. It is predicted that Bilesavar and Parsabad cities will be added to the andemic regions of this disease in coming years. Using dipstick test recently offered by WHO is recommended to be used to screen the infected dogs.

Masuome Aghamohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: It is estimated that 4-10% of diabetic patients suffer from foot ulcer. About one in five people with diabetes enters hospital for foot problems. Regarding the importance of education for these patients, the present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of education on foot care among diabetic patients referring to Ardabil Buali hospital.

 Methods: From the diabetic patients referring to Buali hospital (diabetes center) 120 patients admitted for the first time, who had had no past training about diabetes, were selected. Each patient was asked to fill out a questionnaire on his reference to the hospital. The questionnaire had 38 questions, the first 8 of which were about the demographic status and the illness itself and the rest of them concerned priniciples of foot care. Following this, these diabetic patients participated in public classes in the center, and a month later they filled the questionnaire again. Finally their knowledge before and ofter the education period was compared using statistical analyses.

 Results: The level of knowledge of 73.33% of the subjects before education was medium whereas following the education this rose to 86.67%. Comparing the level of knowledge of patients before and after education using t-test indicated that the level of knowledge after education is significantly higher than before (p<0.001).

 Conclusion: with regard to the significant difference in knowledge of diabetic patients before and after education, it can be concluded that educational classes of diabetic center can improve the knowledge of patients about foot care. So they are strongly recommended to be held for all these patients.

Sarie Golmohamadloo , Farzane Broomand, Mitra Asadi Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Despite abundant efforts by lranian family planning authorities during the last decade, unintended pregnancy and its consequences such as infected abortions is still a common problem. The aim of this descriptive study was to examine the causes of unintended pregnancy in Kosar Hospital, Urmia.

  M e thods : In this descriptive-analytical study the data were collected from 330 unintendedly pregnant women (out of 1830 pegnant women) visiting gynecology unit at Koshar Hospital in Urmia in 1999. These subjects were interviewed to fill out a questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS using t-test and Chi-square.

 Results: 83.6% of the cases were illiterate and 96.36% were housewives. 59.69% of the cases were above 30 79.09% had 3 or more children. The subjects used the following prophylaxy.

 Methods: thads. Pills (40%), withdrawal (25.5%), IUD (10%), injection (6.4%), minipills (4.5%), condom (3.6%) breast feeding (2.7%), rhythmic (0.9%) and tubectomy (0.6%). The remaining 5.8% had not used any prevention methods. We found a significant correlation between aging and number of unwanted pregnancies (P<0.0001 r = 0.44) and a negative meaningful correlation between literacy and rate of pregnancy (P<0.0001 r = 0.39). Reasons for failure were irregular use of pills, minipills or condom (90% each), unfamiliarity with prevention affter forgetting to take the pill (0.77%), IUD extraction, interrupted use of DMPA method and incorrect use of breast feeding method.

 Conclusion: This study reveals that desptie available prevention methods, due to lack of knowledge irregular use and misconceptions about complications of prevention methods, the subjects used unreliable methods which are more likely to lead to failure. Therefore, new measures should be taken in family planning centers to increase awareness among women concerning risk of unitended pregnancy.

Parvin Yavari, Uadollah Mehrabi, Mohammad Amin Pour-Hoseingholi ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Breast Cancer is among the most common types of cancer in women which in case of early diagnosis and treatment can increase women’s chance of survival. This study was performed in two case and control groups.

 Methods: This case-control study which was based on hospital records was conducted on 303 breast cancer patients and 303 control women. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-square.

 Results: The study revealed that there were significant differences between the cases and controls with regard to knowledge (p<0.001) and practice (p<0.001) of breast self-examination. 61% of the cases and 32% of the controls mentioned BSE as a necessary measure for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. 76% of the cases and 47% of the controls were not aware of the proper time for BSE (p<0.001). More than two-third of the subjects in each group did not know the proper time and the necessity of BSE in menopause and pregnant women and these was a statistically significant difference between two groups in this regard (p<0.001). Women in case group had done more frequently than controls (p<0.04). Moreover, the BSE intervals in two groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the reasons of refusing to do BSE in two groups (p<0.05). Subjects in neither group had regularly referred to a physician for examination and early diagnosis.

 Conclusion:Since the knowledge and practice of women and their referring to a physician for breast examination is inadequate, it seems necessary to devise educational program about doing monthly BSE and hold educational courses to promote women’s knowledge concerning the early diagnosis of breast cancer as well as its appropriate and regular performance.

Ali Majidpour, Shahram Habibzadeh , Firooz Amani , Fateme Hemmati,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with a history of only three decades, has turned into a threatening pandemic disease world wide giving rise to 3.1 million deaths in 2005. Since there is no distinctive treatment or effective vaccine for AIDS, its epidemiology is similar to non-communicable and behavioral diseases. Since accurate knowledge and attitude is necessary for a healthy behavior, we conducted this study on high school students of Ardabil to determine their sources of acquiring information on AIDS as well as to find out their attitude and knowledge about this disease.

  Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 students in Ardabil high schools during the year 2002 using cluster random sampling method. A questionnaire with 4 groups of questions including demographic information, source of information used for AIDS and the amount each source is used as well as attitude and knowledge of the participants regarding AIDS was distributed in the school. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS.

  Results : 378 (47.2%) out of 800 students were girls and the rest of them were boys. The media used for getting informed about AIDS was determined to be: 84.5% TV, 51.4% newspapers and magazines, 49.6% papers and books and 30.6% radio. 89% of the girls and 67% of the boys used TV. The difference was statistically significant(p<0.001). Sources of information in interview form were found to be health care workers with 17.7%, teachers with 10.2%, friends with 9.5%, religious authorities with 8.6%, family members with 8% and other relatives with 5.6%. A combition of the above-mentioned methods plus other souces formed 41.3% of the information source of the students about AIDS. Only 46.3% of the students had a proper insight in their interaction with role-playing patients of AIDS. 44% of the participants had weak and 56% had moderate knowledge about transmission ways of HIV and no one had good knowledge in this regard. There was no significant difference between age, sex and knowledge. The highest percentage of moderate knowledge score was seen in student studying experimental sciences. Only TV had a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001).

  Conclusion: This study entails that more attention must be paid to education through effective use of TV broadcasting. Films, pictures, teachers, clergymen, radio, books and papers had not an effective educational role among high school students regarding AIDS.

Abbas Abolghasemi, Azar Kiamarsi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

 Background & Objectives: The cognitive processes such as attention, thinking, memory and recall have effective role on the child’s confrontation with daily life problems. The psychological disorders are among those impairments which may severely affect these processes. Researches have shown that schizophrenia can impair children’s cognitive processes to a great extent. The aim of this research was to compare the comprehension, lexical Knowledge, memory and recall in children with schizophrenia, conduct disorder and brain damage.

 Methods: The sample of this causal-comparative research consisted of 80 children (8-13 years old) suffering from schizophrenia, brain damage and conduct disorder as well as a group of healthy ones who were selected from among in and out-patients referring to psychology and neurology wards of Emam Hossein health care center in 2004 (20 subjects in each group). The instruments employed in this research were WISC-R (comprehension, vocabulary, digit span) and Recall Test of Babcoch.

  Results: The one way analysis of variance showed significant differences between the children with schizophrenia, conduct disorder, brain damage and non-patient in comprehension, lexical knowledge, memory and recall (p<0.01). The LSD test showed that comperhension, lexical knowledge, memory and recall in children with schizophrenia were more impaired compared to children with conduct disorder and brain damage. Moreover, comprehension, lexical knowledge and memory in children with conduct disorder were more severely impaired than children with brain damage. However, the recall was better in children with conduct disorder than those with brain damage (p<0.01).

 Conclusion: The results showed that schizophrenic children have comprehension, lexical knowledge, memory and recall more impaired than those suffering from conduct disorder and brain damage. The timely recognition of the cognitive abnormalities seems necessary to have a better diagnosis and choose effective treatment and remedial strategies to cope with them.

Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Behrouz Dadkhah, Hashem Sazavar , Naser Mozaffari ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Controlling diet to regulate blood pressure in hypertensive patients has always been a challenging issue. On the other hand, insufficient supporting systems, non efficient follow-up programs, patients inability to do treatment measures in relapsing period, insufficient following of diet and drug taking, unplanned discharge and poor knowledge of risk factors are among controllable factor that lead to the readmission of the patients. The aim of this study is determining the effect of follow up on blood pressure control in hypertentive patients.

  Methods: In this interventional study, hypertensive patients referring to emergency ward were randomly divided into two case groups (100 patients) and two control groups (100 patients). After collecting data, case group patients were trained in their homes about the role of nutrition, mobility and regular drug use in blood pressure control for 3 months. Then, blood pressure in case and control groups was controlled and mean blood pressure in two groups was compared. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Result: 55.4 % of the case and 54.3% controls had family history of blood pressure. Before intervention mean BMI in case and control group was 26.8±5.56 and 28.04±14.66 and after intervention it was 25.96±5.38 and 27.61±14.29 respectively. Before follow up program was implemented, 39.13% of the cases and 35.87% of the controls had regular drug use history. After follow-up this rose to 44.6% and 42.4% respectively. After follow-up program 22.83% of the cases and 17.39% of the controls had referred to emergency ward or a physician once in 3 months. After intervention program, mean systolic blood pressure in cases and controls were 133 and 153 mmHg respectively and this difference was statistically meaningful (P<0.001). After follow-up, systolic blood pressure control in case and control groups was 59.8% and 35.9% respectively and this difference was meaningful (P<0.001).

  Conclusion: Results showed that after training program and home follow-up, blood pressure and weight control were more in case group, than control group, Therefore, we suggest that patient training programs and follow up and home follow-up be used as an effective way in hypertensive patients' health care and their treatment.

Faride Golfooroshan, Effat Khodaeiani , Shahla Babaei Nejad , Delara Laghosi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinically and genitically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in blood. The skin is involved both in the effects of acute metabolic changes and in the chronic degenerative compilications of diabetes. Skin lesions are frequently observed in diabetic patients and it is generally stated that about 30% of these patients have cutaneous disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin lesion in patients with diabetes mellitus referring to dermatology and diabetes clinic of Sina hospital in Tabriz .

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on diabetic patients with skin lesion who referr e d to diabetic and dermatology clinic of Sina hospital of Tabriz during 2003. Data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which included some variables such as age, sex, job, type of diabetes, its duration, control of blood glucose, receiving regular treatment, type of lesion. The questionnaire was filled out for each patient with skin lesion individally. Skin lesions due to burn were excluded from our study. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-aquare and Fisher test.

  Results : From a total of 500 patients, 80 patients (16%) had skin lesions. 57.5% of these patients was male and 91.2% had type II DM. Mean age of the patients with skin lesion was 56.86±1.54 years and mean diabetes duration was 10.87±0.82 years. Patients over 50 years had the most skin lesion . The most common type of skin lesion in the diabetic patients were 30 cases of necrotic ulcer (6%) and 22 cases of diabetic dermopathy (4.4%) respectively. Other skin lesions such as infection, sclerodermoid, punched out lesions, neuropathic ulcer, diabetic bulla, dermatitis and lichen planus were not common . 97.5% of diabetic patients with skin lesion had poor control of blood glucose. Twelve percent of the patients had some kind of diabetic foot ulcer (Neuropathic Necrotic, punched out and cellulitis ulcer altogether) of which 21.6% underwent amputation.

  Conclusion: The results showed that rate of skin lesions in diabetic patients is decreased. compared to the past. This may be due to increase of knowledge and attitude of patients regarding diabetes and its complications.

Javad Agazadeh, Mojgan Lotfi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Perception and Feeling are two parts of each sensory experience. Sensory reception of information proceeding about internal or external environment is conducted by sensory root. Humans inform themselves of their surrounding by receiving and organizing sensory stimulants. This conception and stimulant organization is called sensory reception. When a help seeker is admitted to a health care organization, he/she encounters stimulants which are different in quality and quantity from past stimulants and this causes sensory changes in him. The patient who is admitted to ICU ward is exposed to overburden or sensory deprivation due to some critical situations and complex methods of therapy.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study which was performed on 45 cases using simple random sampling method. A three-part questionnaire was used to collect the data which were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

 Results: The findings showed that the subjects experienced no, very little or occasional unpleasant sensory reception in more than 80% of the cases (without sensory overburden). But the assessment of emotional reactions indicated 39.8% had experienced pain, 18.5% anxiety, 12% fear, 7.4% anger and 0.9% hating, which probably happened because of sensory deprivation arising from less family visiting and lack of knowledge about disease.

 Conclusion: Since patients in ICU experience some unpleasant emotional reactions, in order to decrease this experience, it is recommended to educate the patients and increase the duration of visiting time.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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