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Showing 29 results for Idd

Akbar Pirzadeh, Gholamhosein Ettehad ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Chronic otitis media infection exists among 1.5-2 percent of people and its purulent discharges can create some difficulties for the patients. Chronic otitis media is mainly due to pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous. Severe and irreversible damages should be expected unless follow up treatments are exactly performed in such patients. This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent microorganisms involved in otitis infection and their sensitivity to antibiotics.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 60 patients who referred to nose and throat clinics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences (2000-2001) were selected. Using applicator, some samples were taken from suppurative discharges of middle ear. These samples were then cultured in lactose broth and Nutrient broth. In order to isolate pathogenic microorganism, samples were also cultured in blood agar. Sensitivity of isolated pathogenic microorganism was determined against some antibiotics. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: 56 out of 60 patients were culture positive. Microorganisms isolated from suppurative otitis media were Staphylococcus areus (31.6%), pseudomonas aeuroginosa (26.6%), proteus (20%), candida albicans (6.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.6%), aeuromonas (1.6%) and others (6.4%) respectively. Sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was found to be Ciprofloxacin (94.6%), Co-trimoxazole (66.3%), Cloxacilin (64.3%), Chloramphenicol (64.3%),Cephalexin (64.3%), Erythromycin (60.7%), Amikacin (44.6%), Streptomycin (39.3%), Penicillin (5.4%) respectively.

 Conclusions: Since staphylococcus areus wasthe most prevalent micro-organism in otitis media infection, and isolated microorganisms were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, antibiogram test is necessary prior to the treatment of otitis media.

Zahra Tazakori , Maryam Zare, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Diabetes is one of the most important world health problems and a chronic disease that needs continuous care. Therefore, these kinds of patients should take self- care education. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of nutritional education on blood sugar level and macronutrients intake in IDDM patients.

  Methods : 24 IDDM patients under 20 were selected for educational program on nutrition. The data were collected two times using food questionnaire (24- hour recall) and blood sugar level before and after education was estimated. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, using SPSS and Food Processor.

  Results : There was not statistically significant relationship between blood sugar level before and after education. Also the results showed that there was statistically significant relationship between macronutrients intake before and after education (P=0.35). After education, macronutrients were similar to WHO recommendations. HbA1C level in most of the patients was 9-12% which refers to the moderate control of this diseases and hypoglycemia decreased from 4.2% to 3%.

  Conclusions : There were no remarkable changes in blood sugar but the amount of HbA1C and Macro Nutrients showed that education had a positive effect on patients.

Manoochehr Iranparvar, Abbas Yazdanbod , Firooz Amani, Shabnam Sohrabi ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Palpable thyroid nodules are found in almost 5% of the adults. Regarding the high prevalence of this condition, recognizing and evaluating them are important for physicians. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is the first easy and cost-effective way for recognizing pathologic nature of the nods. The present research was an attempt to investigate the epidemiology and evaluate the pathological findings among patients using FNA.

  Methods : This is a descriptive study conducted on all 145(113 female and 32 male) patients referring to the endocrinology clinic of Ardabil in the period between October 1999 to October 2002. The data were collected using a questionnaire, the physical examination of the patients, noting down the clinical finding, doing FNA and its report presented by a pathologist. The data were then analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency tables using SPSS software.

  Results : Most of the patients (36.5%) were 30-40 years old. FNA of 115 patients (79.4%) was reported as benign and that of 6 patients (4.1%) was malignant, 16 patients (11%) had a doubtful FNA, and in 8 patients (5.5%) the sample was not enough. Among patients with benign FNA, 102 cases (70.6%) had nodular goiter, 8 cases (5.5%) had colloid cyst, 3 cases (2%) had follicular adenoma and 2 cases (1.3%) had thyroiditis. Among patients with malignant FNA 1 case (0.7%) had follicular carcinoma and 5 cases (3.4%) had papillary carcinoma.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that most of the malignant lesion is papillary carcinoma, which has a lower prevalence compared to similar studies. Regarding the higher prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in middle ages it seems necessary to investigate the thyroid nodules in this age- group.

Reza Khandagi , Mohammad Yazdchi Marandi , Mohammadali Arami ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Background & Objectives: Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are among the most common neurologic problems affecting people of middle and old ages and are one of the causes of seizure in these age groups. Epileptic seizure in patients with stroke occurs in the forms of early and late seizures and could be seen as simple or generalized. The aim of  this study was to evaluate the incidence of early seizure in patients with stroke.

Methods: All 716 patients with cerebrovascular accidents admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital during the year 2002 participated in this descriptive study. The data were collected using the patients, records. The stroke was diagnosed through clinical findings, CT Scan and MRI (if necessery).

Results: Early seizures were documented in 46 (6.4%) of 716 patients, including 16 cases (5%) with atherosclerotic thrombosis, 10 (8.4%) with embolic infarction, 10 (5%) with intra cerebral hemorrhage and 10 (16.9%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Twenty-four (52%) out of 46 patients had Tonic- clonic seizures, 14 (30.5%) simple partial seizures, 5 (11%) complex partial seizures and 3 (6.5%) tonic-clonic status.

Conclusion: It was found that incidence of early seizures in stroke is 6.4%and early seizures are more common in subarachnoid hemorrhage and embolic infarction than embolic and atherothrombotic infarction.
Hojat Hossein Pourfeizy , Airag Lotfiniya ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is mainly due to the obstruction of blood vessels with fat globules, reached to circulation. FES is associated with traumatic and non traumatic diseases. The prevalence is 2-5% in long-bone fractures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate manifestations, laboratory findings and the diagnosed cases of fat embolism.

 Methods: In this retrospective study all the patient records associated with injury were evaluated and those diagnosed with the traumatic fat embolism were selected. The data including sex, age, type of fracture, clinical and laboratory findings and symptom onset time were collected using a questionnaire. These data were then statistically analyzed.

 Results: 17 out of 1660 patients were found to have fat embolism most of which belonged to middle-aged men. The most common clinical features consisted of: respiratory failure, tachycardia and consciousness level alterations. Fat embolism was mainly associated with tibial and femoral shaft fractures. Low level of Pao2 (Pao2<60) is the most reliable laboratory test in this study.

 Conclusion: Fat embolism should be regarded as a threarening factor in patients (especially middle-aged ones) with fractures in long bons of lower limbs. Pao2 Level of can also be used as a reliable laboratory finding.

Saied Javad Toutounchi, Parvane Abbaszadeh, Mahmood Barzgar ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Hearing is perhaps the most important sense in human beings without which communication with the environment would greatly diminish. Chronic perforation of tympanic membrane, ossicular erosion and tympanosclerosis are major causes of hearing diorders. Nevertheless, a conducting hearing loss is the commonest complication of chronic otitis media. Cholesteatoma which is the most dangerous complication of chronic otitis media is treated by surgery. Tympanosclerosis is also one of the most important complications of chronic otitis media, which leads to conductive hearing loss through ossicular fixation. This study is an attempt to determine the effect of different kinds of chronic otitis media on the hearing of the patients.

  Methods: In this survey, 440 patients with chronic otitis media, who were surgically treated in the department of otolaryngology between 1998-1999, were studied in terms of various pathology of middle ear and the resultant level of hearing impairment.

  Results: 37 patients (8.4%) were involved bilaterally with otitis media. The number of operations on the left ear was 10% more than those on the right. The most common pathology recognized in examination was nonprulant perforation of tympanic membrane in 179 cases (40.7%) and the most common pathology recognized in surgery was cholesteatoma in 140 cases (30.2%). From 440 patients, 430 cases had conductive hearing loss and 92 cases (20.9%) had sensorineural hearing loss. Cholesteatoma of middle ear caused the highest proportion of conductive hearing loss and majority of the cases with sensorineural hearing loss (about 30%) whereas tympanosclerosis caused the most severe sensorineural hearing losses.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated that cholesteatoma and tympanosclerosis were the most common causes of both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss with tympanosclerosis as the cause of the most severe sensorineural hearing loss. However granulation tissue is the most common histopathology in patients with chronic otitis media at references and papers.

Masuood Naderpour , Yalda Jabbary Moghaddam ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Acute otitis media is the second most common disease of childhood. With inappropriate treatment, it can progress to chronic otitis media which requires surgical intervention. Surgical treatment of chronic otitis media is based on the following two principles: complete removal of pathologic tissues and improvement of hearing level. Trauma to the inner ear cochlea (caused by suctioning, surgical drill and ossicular manipulation at the time of surgery) may cause sensorineural hearing loss. Even slight additional hearing loss can profoundly affect these patients. The objective of this study is to assess sensorineural hearing loss following surgery for chronic otitis media.

  Method s : This is a comparative, analytic and cross-sectional study performed on 100 patients admitted to ENT ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tabriz between 2000 and 2002. The data were analyzed after being collected using pre and postoperative audiograms.

  Results: By comparing pre and postoperative audiograms, postoperative sensorineural hearing loss was found in 6 patients (6%) 5 of whom were female. The highest complication rate was seen following tympanoplasty with ossicular reconstruction. No cases of sensorineural hearing loss was found following radical and modified mastoidectomy.

  Conclusion: Any type of surgical procedures in the middle ear has the potential risk for acoustic trauma and consequent hearing loss. Because middle ear surgery is performed to improve the ear function, more attention should be paid to this risk. In our study ossicular manipulation played a major role in causing sensorineural hearing loss as a postoperative complication.

Saeid Khamnei , Nahid Ghandchilar, Hooshang Najafi, Mahdi Farhoudi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

 Background & Objectives: Many researches have been conducted on autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), but its possible variations coincidence with postvagal tachycardia have not yet been studied. The present study searched for the effect of this phenomenon on CBF in young and middle-aged persons.

 Methods: 52 healthy volunteers including 13 young males (mean age 23.9±0.8), 13 young females (mean age 24.2±0.7), 13 middle-aged males (mean age 58±0.9) and 13 middle-aged females (mean age 56.4±0.7) went under the study. Flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) was assessed using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography apparatus. Eckberg’s neck suction device was utilized to stimulate carotid baroreceptors. The data were analyzed using Minitab and SPSS software (rel. 10).

 Results: Concomitant to the carotid baroreceptors stimulation there was a significant reduction in heart rate in all groups (p<0.05), but mean cerebral blood flow did not change significantly. After ending the carotid baroreceptors stimulation and concomitant to PVT, mean cerebral blood flow increased in all groups except middle-aged males. This increase in CBF became significant in middle-aged females (p<0.05).

 Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that cerebral blood flow autoregulation act effectively concomitant to acute stimulation of carotid baroreceptors and this efficacy is maintained until the middle-age, but when faced with PVT, cerebral blood flow autoregulation dose not act effectively.

Ahad Azami , Abbas Yazdanbod, Nateg Abbasgolizadeh, Yegane Sadeghy,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: According to a recent report published by the ministry of health, Esophageal cancer is the second most common fatal cancer in Ardabil. This study investigated the relationship between anatomical sites and pathological features of Esophagus cancer with related risk factors.

  Methods: This descriptive-cross-secional and prospective study was conducted on patients referring to GI clinic of Ardabil (Aras) between 2000-2003. Patients with suspicious upper GI symptoms underwent upper GI vide-endoscopy. At least five to six endoscopic punch biopsies were obtained from all the lesions and sent for pathology. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. Anatomical sites, demographic information of the patients (age, sex, educational state, residential area) smoking habit, alcohol and opium consumption were entered into the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the EPI 2000 statistical software.

 Results: The mean age of the patients with cancer was 59 ± 11.64 years and the male to female ratio was 1:1. Villagers constituted 117 (77%) of the patients. 93.4% of these patients were illiterate. The cancers were of the following types: 126 (82.9%) SCC, 25 (16.4%) adenocarcinoma and 1(0.7%) in situ carcinoma. The most common site of esophageal SCC cancer was middle third of esophagus with 73 (48%) patients. In contrast the most common site of adenocarcinoma in 31 (20%) patients was lower third of esophagus. No meaningful relationship was found between esophageal cancer and smoking drinking or opium consumption.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated that unlikewestern countries esophagus cancer had no relationship with smoking or alcohol consumption in Ardabil. Other studies are recommended to be performed to find out more about relationship between known esophageal risk factors including nutritional habits, nitrosamines, soil contents, agricultural products and genetic background.

Soltanali Mahboob, Majid Mohamad Shahi , Abolhasan Shakeri, Alireza Ostad Rahimi , Seyedjamal Ghaem Maghami , Fatemeh Haidari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)

 Background & Objectives: Goiter prevalence in school age children is an indicator of the severity of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDS) in the society and a goiter prevalence ≥5 % in school age children indicates a public health problem. In area of mild to moderate IDDS, measurement of thyroid volume by ultrasonography through observation is preferrable to population for grading goiter. Considering the importace of this issue, because of being mountainous and lack of this method's application for determining the incidence of goiter this study was desinged.

 Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, thyroid volumes of 230 boys between 12 to 15 years old were measured by portable ultrasonograph in Tabriz. Also urinary iodine concentrations were determined by method A (Sandell-kolthoff reaction).

 Results: Mean of subjects’ thyroid volume was 8.12 ±2.21 ml and with latest references of Iran and WHO/NHD, goiter prevalence was taken based age 51.7 % and based surface body 81.1 %. Urinary iodine median of tested samples was 15.2µg/dl and iodine deficiency prevalence was 29.1 % . There was no significant correlation between urinary iodine and thyroid volume.

 Conclusion: Large thyroid volume of middle school boys in Tabriz is probably due to iodine intake deficiency in the first years of their life. Also, the role of goitrogenic factors and effect of climate condition on thyroid volume and goiter prevalence of middle school boys in Tabriz shouldn't be ignored. Further studies are recommended for determination of a local reference for thyroid volume Also it is necessary to be sure from consumption of iodine salt and its standardization.

Hamdollah Panahpour, Nicolas Plesnila,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

 Background & objectives: Stroke remains one of main causes of death and disability in human. Animal models of the brain ischemia provide an important roles for studying of the pathophysiological mechanisms and evaluating of the efficacy of neuroprotective agents. The aim of this study is introducing a new model of the focal cerebral ischemia with increased success and low mortality rate.

 Methods: Fifteen six male mice were anesthetized with isofolorane and mixture of O2/N2O divided in four groups. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal filament method. A silicon coated nylon filament was used for middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetery for leading of filament in vascular pathway. In the 24 hours following ischemia (60minutes), animals were assessed for neurological outcome, infarct volume and brain edema induction. A new and reformed neurological test was used for evaluation of neurological deficits. 10 µm coronal sections were collected from 12 levels of the brain and stained, digitized and quantified by using an image analysis system. Ischemic brain edema was investigated by brain water content detection.

 Results: When sham operated mice had no motor deficit and infarction, induction of ischemia in ischemic group, seriously caused impairment of motor functions (neurological deficit score 3.36±0.25). Mean total infarct volume of left (ischemic) hemisphere was 85.2±4.9 mm3 and 47 percent of infarction occurred in subcortical regions of the brain. Induction of focal cerebral ischemia in the left (ischemic) hemisphere of the brain significantly increased water content (83.1±0.29 percent) compared to both hemispheres of sham group and right hemisphere of the same group. Success rate of ischemia induction was 97.6 percent and mortality rate was 4.21 percent.

 Conclusion: These findings indicate. This present model can be used for brain ischemia studies with high success rate, low mortality rate and narrow variety of the size and location of infarct volume. This model provides controlled and standard conditions to study ischemic brain injury and edema formation and introduce new therapeutic strategies.

Mohsen Sokouti, Vahid Montazeri, Eiraj Feizi ,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Esophageal carcinoma has more prevalency in northwest of Iran. Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is one of the common delayed complication. It emerges due to technique of surgery. Reflux and or leakage in anastomotic area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and etiologies of dysphagea after esophagectomy and postoperative endoscopic dilation results.

  Methods: This is a retrospective discreptive study, during 2000-2005 at Imam Khomeini hospital, all patients who had esophagectomy because of esophageal carcinomas entered this study. Data collected from medical records, Primary tumoral diagnosis, operation endoscopy, dysphagea, histopathological findings, Postoperative complications, especially dysphagia and it’s etiology, and different methods of therapy, reoperation and or endoscopic dilatation were studied.

  Results: Among 324 patients 81 patients had esophagectomy for esophageal carcinomas. In eighteen patients (22.2%), dysphagea reappered after operation. Rate of dysphagea in patients with carcinoma of lower one third area was 5.3 times greater than middle third of the esophagus. Mean time between first hospitalization and second hospitalization due to relapsing dysphagea was 10.03 months. The main cause of relapsing dysphagia in 88.24%, was benign stricture in anastomotic area. 17 patients with endoscopic dilation and one patient with surgical stricturoplasty, were treated.

Conclusion: Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is common in our patients. This represents mostly benign strictures after esophagectomies for esophageal carcinoma. In benign anastomotic strictures, endoscopic dilation is an effective treatment and it is recommended.
Eiraj Feizi , Samira Shahbazzadegan ,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2009)

  Inguinal hernia is a common disease of middle age and older. This case is one of huge and rare inguinal hernia with the size of 30 × 30 × 35 cm. A sixty years old man was referred to hospital with a big mass in left inguinal area and problem of walking and wearing of clothes. At physical examination, a massive left-sided inguinal hernia was observed. The surgery operation was carried out with the technique of Bassini and using of mesh the tissues of inside sac include omentum and gut returned into the abdomen manually. The patient was followed for 3-6 months. Similar cases were reported from India and Japan previously.

Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2010)

  Back ground and aim: Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in humans is caused by fungal agent which belongs to black yeasts. The disease is apparently restricted to Middle East been reported from Saudi Arabia, occupied Palestine and Qatar. The disease has not been recorded from Iran yet or its existence has not been noticed. Ramichloridium mackenziei is responsible for this disease, which belongs to fungal order chaetothyriales. Members of this order are mainly opportunistic pathogens on humans and animals causing a wide range of infections such as chromoblastomycosis (cutaneous, subcutaneous) and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Species recognition and delineation in members of this order is based on morphological features of asexual stage (anamorph). This order encompasses several genera such as Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella, Exophiala, Veronaea, Cladophialophora. Some members of this order are morphologically similar to plant pathogenic or saprotrophic species and there is no clear-cut morphological differences among these genera. Accurate identification of human pathogenic species in both clinics and natural ecological niches will play important role in our understating on ecology of these fungi.

  Materials and methods: In present study, 24 isolates belonging to 15 species from three genera viz., Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea were subjected to morphological and molecular examinations. Morphological features were evaluated on malt extract agar, using a slide culture technique. Phylogenitc relationship among isolates was inferred based on sequence data from two genomic regions of ribosomal DNA including partial sequences from ITS-rDNA and LSU-rDNA.

  Results: Phylogeny inferred from DNA sequence data placed isolates in two groups. Clade one included Rhinocladiella and Veronaea together with Ramichloridium mackenziei and R. fasiculata, R. anceps and Rhinocladiella basitona which all belong to the order Chaetothyriales. The second clade included type species of genus Ramichloridium (R. apiculatum) together with other plant pathogenic Ramicholridium species which belong to the order Capnodiales. Putting together DNA sequence data, ecology and morphology, Rhinocladiella is an appropriate genus to accommodate Ramichloridium mackenziei.

  Conclusion: taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Ramichloridium mackenziei is ascertained in Chaetothyriales. Combination of DNA data set together with morphology and ecology is indispensable in identification of human pathogenic Chaetothyriales. Current work is good starting point towards studying importance and diversity of these fungi in Iran.

Hamdollah Panahpour , Gholamabbas Dehghan ,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2011)

 Background & objectives: Ischemic brain edema is one of the most important complications of cerebral infarction. Edema aggravates the primary ischemic injury to the brain. It was demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its active peptide angiotensin II involved in ischemic brain injury. But role of RAS in the formation of ischemic edema is not clear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the RAS inhibition by enalapril on edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption.

 Methods: In this research frothy Sprague Dawley male rat in six groups were studied. Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400mg/kg, IP). Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of right middle cerebral artery using intraluminal filament method. Three groups of animals as sham, ischemic and enalapril receiving (0.03mg/kg) groups were studied for assessment of neurological outcome and brain edema formation. 24 hours following ischemia (60minutes), animals were assessed for neurological deficits. Ischemic brain edema was investigated by brain water content detection. Another three groups of animals at the same conditions were studied to evaluate the possible disruption of BBB by Evans blue extravasation technique.

 Results: When sham operated rats had no motor deficit, induction of ischemia in ischemic group, seriously caused impairment of motor functions and neurological deficit score(NDS) of ischemic group was 2.67±0.42. Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) significantly reduced NDS and improved motor dysfunctions (1.5±0.34, P<0.05). Induction of ischemia seriously caused edema formation in right (ischemic) hemisphere of the brain in ischemic group (4.1±0.4 percent). Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) significantly decreased edema compared to ischemic group (1.89±0.23 percent). Extravasation of Evans blue in right side of the brain in ischemic group (12.48±1.94 μg/g) was significantly more than sham group. Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) had protective effects on BBB function and decreased Evans blue extravasation by 44.5 percent (6.92±1.46 μg/g).

 Conclusion: RASinhibition by enalapril reduces ischemic brain edema formation by protecting the integrity of BBB and reducing its permeability following focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Pre-ischemic inhibition of RAS activity may reduce ischemic brain injury by ameliorating edema formation.

Rahim Masumi, Habib Ojaghi , Navid Masumi , Sara Jafarzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2011)

 Background & objectives:Amblyopia as one of the most important social and visual problems is common in the world including Iran. It plays a major role in visual dimness. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and causes of amblyopia in middle school students in Ardabil city, Iran in 2004.

 Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study 4548 middle school students were included. The subjects primarily were screened by optometrists and an ophthalmologist by using of Snelen chart. The doubtful cases were referred to eye clinic for further checking and re-examined by ophthalmologist. The data were collected by questionnaire and the results were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS software.

  Results: The results cleared that 11.4% of subjects (520) had refractive errors, 2.63% (120) showed the amblyopia and 0.9% (43) experienced strabismus. The most common cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (59% of all cases) and for strabismus was isotropia (69.5% of all cases). These findings showed that there is a significant correlation between type and rate of refractive defects with amblyopia. The highest rate for refractive amblyopia was over 3 Diopter hyperopia (29.5% of refractive amblyopia). Hyperopia revealed to occur in males more than females and vice versa for astigmatism

  Conclusion : It seems that the prevalence of amplyopia in Ardabil is similar to other cities in Iran and other countries. But the refractive amblyopia in Ardabil shows more prevalent than other areas. Its reason may be due to less knowledge to use glass and low socio-economic conditions as well as low quality of treatment.

Reza Mahdavi , Ali Nemati , Eiraj Feizi, Mojtaba Amani , Hosein Alimohammadi Asl, Mohammad Mazani M, Phd4; Nagizadeh Bagi , Abbas , Ali Shadman , Reza Alipanah Mogadam, Asghar Pirzadeh, Mousa Ghayour Nahand,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Consumption of ω3 fatty acids supplementation inhibits oxidative stress injury, increases activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreases lipid peroxidation in gastric cancer patients. In this study, we examined effects of ω-3 fatty acid intakes on oxidative stress in gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  Methods: This double blind clinical trial study was conducted on 30 adult patients (15 cases and 15 controls) with gastric cancer during chemotherapy in Ardabil city in 2010. Case and control groups were selected by randomized allocation. Three grams ω -3 fatty acid supplementation (1.8 g EPA & 1.2 g DHA in 10 g fish oil) and placebo were given case and control groups for 45 days, respectively. Anthropometric indices (weight, height & BMI) were measured. Blood samples were taken and then biochemical factors including triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, MDA, and total antioxidants were evaluated at the beginning, middle and end of the study . The data were analyzed by using Paired sample t-test, Independent sample t-test and repeated measures test.

  Results: MDA, Weight and BMI of omega group after intervention were significantly more than control group at the end of the study (p<0.05). Weight and BMI were decreased but serum MDA was significantly increased in control group during the study (p<0.05). Weight, BMI , and total antioxidants were significantly increased in omega group during day 30-45, (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in other biochemical factors at the end of study.

  Conclusion: The present investigation shows administration of ω3 fatty acid supplements to gastric cancer patients during chemotherapy increases the total antioxidants capacity and prevents the enhancement of oxidative stress.

Hamdollah Panahpour,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2011)

  Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability in most of the human societies. There is no effective treatment due to complexity of the pathophysiological mechanisms. Today, more researches are designed to introduce involving factors and new treatment strategies in brain ischemia. The objective of this study is to introduce an experimental model of the focal cerebral ischemia in rat with increased success rate and low mortality rate.

  Methods: In this research 32 male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were studied as in four experimental groups. Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400mg/kg, ip). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal filament method. A silicon coated nylon filament was used for middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetery to guide the insertion of the filament into the vascular pathway. 24 hours after ischemia (90minutes), animals were assessed for neurological outcome, infarct volume and brain edema formation. A new and reformed neurological test was used for evaluation of neurological deficits. 2 - millimeter coronal sections were collected from 6 levels of the brain and stained, digitized and quantified by using an image analysis system. Ischemic brain edema formation was investigated by brain water content detection.

  Results: Induction of ischemia in ischemic group, seriously caused impairment of motor functions (neurological deficit score 4±0.5) While sham operated rats had no motor deficit and infarction. Mean total infarct volume of left (ischemic) hemisphere was 402±43 mm3 and 62.7 percent of infarction occurred in cortical regions of the brain. Induction of focal cerebral ischemia in the left (ischemic) hemisphere of the brain significantly increased water content (84±0.23 percent) compared to both hemispheres of sham group and right hemisphere of the same group. Success rate of ischemia induction was 100 percent and there was no mortality due to technical problems.

  Conclusion: Our findings indicate that continuous recording of regional cerebral blood flow using laser Doppler flowmeter had significant role in increasing success rate and lowering mortality rate in the present model of ischemic rat. This experimental model with high success rate and low limitation can be used for brain ischemia studies and evaluating new therapeutic strategies.

Nasrin Fouladi, Hosein Alimohamadi , Ali Hosenkhani, Firouz Amani , Roghaiyeh Ghoshadehroo,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (4-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Urinary stone disease is one of the common urinary tract complications that can lead to renal failure. It occurs usually in middle-aged and older men The aim of this study was to determine the association between types of urinary stones and risk factors for urinary stone formation in patients referred to Ardabil therapeutic centers.

  Methods : In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 150 patients with urinary stone were followed from March 2008 to July 2009 in therapeutic centers of Ardabil.

  Data were collected by a questionnaire include demographic factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Job and Habitation place. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and ANOVA in SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was p<0.05.

  Results: 116 of patients (77.3%) had calcium oxalate stone, 15 of patients (10%) had phosphate calcium stone, 10 of patients (6.7%) had acid uric and 9 of patients (6%) had phosphate ammonium stone. The mean age of patients was 41.90 + 14.41 years (48% of patients were 30-50 years old) and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.81+3.66. 91 of patients (60.66%) were male and 59 (39.4%) of them were female. There was no significant difference between types of urinary stones and factors including BMI the job of patient, (p=0.252), habitation place (p=0.173), history of previous illness (p=0.207) and history of drug use (p=0.247).

  Conclusion: The most common type of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (77.3%) in both men and women however ammonium phosphate (6%) is much less common.

Tahereh Haghpanah, Vahid Sheibani, Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Mousa Al Reza Hajzadeh, Khadijeh Esmail Pour Bezenjani, Yasamin Pahlavan,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)

  Background & Objectives: I ntra-hippocampal adminestration of origanum (ORG) improves spatial learning of rats. T he aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism for origanum extract on spatial learning and memory in the hippocampus.

  Methods : In this study 42 adult male Wistar rats were used . Animals were cannulated bilaterally in the posterior laterl of hippocampus. After the recovery period, the spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM). Saline, ORG (0.03μg/site) glutamate receptor antagonist MK801 (0.08, 0.2 and 0.4 μmol/site) and co-injected of MK + ORG was injected into the posterior lateral of hippocampus 20 minutes before the training and retrival sesions (for 5 consecutive days) (n=7).

  Results: The results showed that the intra-hippocampal injection of MK 801 significantly blocked the decreased distance and time of reaching (due to ORG injection) to find hidden platform of MWM (p<0.05). On the retrival tests, the average of time spent in the target area is reduced in the co-injected of MK801 + ORG group.

  Conclusion: The intra-hippocampal injection of aqueous extract oforiganum may improve working memory in rats through glutamate-dependent NMDA receptors.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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