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Showing 31 results for Health Center

Mahnaz Norouzi , Heidarali Abedi , Maryam Farmahini-Farahani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

  Background & Objective : Desire for using a contraceptive method depends on individual general attitude and perception about it as well as individual understanding, needs and other people ’ s expectation about using that method . This research is conducted to determine reasons for mothers ’ desire in choosing a specific type of postpartum contraceptive method .

  Methods : This research is a cross- sectional study. The subjects were 384 lactating mothers who referred to Isfahan Health Centers for family planning services for the first time after delivery. The data were collected using questionnaires filled out through interview. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to analyze the data .

  Results : The results indicated that the most commonly used contraceptive method in lactating mothers was coitus interruptus (27.4%). The most common reasons of mothers for selecting this method was its safety (45.3%) and effectiveness (25.1%) .

  Conclusions : Because of the high failure rate of coitus interruptus, health personnel should present proper and enough training to lactating mothers and their husbands about different contraceptive methods. They should also present the application of different contraceptive methods in breast feeding and increase couples ’ ability in making proper decisions as well as choosing safe and suitable contraceptive methods .

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.

  It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.

  The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.

Shirin Lotfinejad , Touraj Rashidi , Mohammadjavad Eshghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

  Background & Objective : Malignant skin tumors are highly prevalent cancers all over the world. Iran can be regarded as an area in which skin malignancies are so common because of severe sunlight, and occupational requirements of farmers with long exposure to sunlight. This study was an attempt to evaluate the frequency of malignant skin tumors in Urmia.

  Methods : In this descriptive and retrospective study 61496 pathological reports collected from pathology centers in Urmia between March 1991 and March 2001 were examined. Among these reports, 1099 cases with skin malignancies (including BCC, SCC and CMM) were identified and classified based on factors such as age, sex, job, the location of lesion and patient ’ s, residential area. In order to accomplish the incomplete data, the researchers referred to cancer registry center in health deputy of the province.

  Results : Among 1099 cases, 1076 patients (97.9%) had solitary lesion and 23 cases (2.1%) had multiple lesions. The ratio of male to female is 1.7:1 in all skin tumors. Most patients were farmers (28.02%). BCC was mainly observed on nose (26.2%), SCC was around mouth (36.78%) and CMM was mostly in extremities (45.09%). BCC was mostly on upper half of the face and SCC on the lower half. Most patients age ranged from 60 to 69 years. BCC was the most common histopathological type of tumors (71.62 %). 52.61% of patients lived in Urmia and the rest were from other cities. Comparing the first and second 5-Year periods of this research indicated a 25% increase in the frequency of tumors.

 Conclusions: According to the increased incidence of malignant skin tumors in this area some measures should be taken to prevent this disease, reduce the risk factors and diagnose these tumors earlier.

Afrouz Mardi , Parviz Molavi , Zahra Tazakori , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

 Background & Objective: Postpartum depression is a problematic and important disease and if not recognized and treated on time, it can be aggravated or chronic. Exercise is strongly recommended in this regard to prevent any family disorders and improve the health of mother, child and family. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on mild postpartum depression among women referring to Ardabil health centers.

  Methods : This study was a double blind clinical trial. About 50 subjects with normal vaginal delivery were selected. The subjects had referred to health canters in the second week after delivery and were diagnosed to have mild depression using Beck depression test. They were randomly divided into two groups (exercise and non-exercise). Then Beck test was done 6 weeks after delivery again and the results were compared in two groups.

  Results : The findings indicated that between mildly depressed mothers, 36% were 26-30 years old, 82% were housekeeper, 44% had under diploma education, 60% had two previous deliveries. 56% of exercise group and 32% of non-exercise group were treated. 8% of experimental subjects and 18% of control ones needed psychological consultation 6 weeks after delivery. T-test showed significant differences between two groups (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Results showed that exercise had a positive effect on the treatment of mild postpartum depression. As a result it is recommended strongly in postpartum care.

Masoumeh Rostamnegad, Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Mother ’ s milk is the best food for the newborns and has positive effects on both mother and infant health, decreasing infant mortality, satisfying emotional needs of mother and infant and economizing the domestic as well as social expenditures. Unfortunately, because of different economical, social and cultural reasons in many parts of the world breast feeding and its length of time has decreased. WHO emphasizes breast feeding in the first six months of life in developing countries. This study is an attempt to determine the causes of unsuccessful breast feeding in the first six months after birth in Ardabil.

  Methods : This descriptive analyticalstudy was conducted on 160 mothers who had 2- month- old or younger infants and did not have exclusive breast feeding until the end of 6 months. The researchers referred to 4 health centers, selected based on cluster sampling, in order to select the qualified mothers and complete the questionnaires in their presence.

 Results: Most of the mothers (37.5%) have begun feedings supplementary nutrition to their infants at the age of 2-4 months. The most common (90.5%) cause for the lack of the exclusive breast feeding was found to be insufficiency of mother milk.Most of the mothers (67%) stated the infant cry as the main reason for this insufficiency. There is a significant relationship between exclusive breast feeding on the one hand and the delivery, time of first feeding, occupation and mother ’ s education on the other (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Social and economic conditions and misbeliefs have all affected the success of exclusive breast feeding. Most of these problems can be prevented through proper trainings.

Ahmad Daryani , Mohsen Sagha ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe illness when transmitting to fetus or when it is reactivated in immune-suppressed persons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in women referring to laboratory of health center for medical examinations before marriage.

  Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 504 samples collected from women in Arabil, Iran, in 2002. The samples were studied by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for determination of IgG and IgM antibodies to toxoplasma.

  Results: The seroprevalence of IgG antibody at a titer of ³ 1:20 was 34.7%. The highest antibody titer frequency was observed in 1:20 titer (11.7%) and the lowest belonged to 1:3200 (0.4%) and 1:6400 (0.4%) titers. 20 persons (4%) showed IgM antibody against Toxoplama gondii. No statistically significant differences were observed between the prevalence of antibodies on the one hand and age and history of contact with cat or domestic animals on the other.

  Conclusion: since 65.3% of these women in Ardabil were seronegative, health education is required to omit the risk factors, especially during the pregnancy.

Gity Rahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during the pregnancy. Diagnosis of this disorder can prevent complications in mother and her fetus during pregnancy. This study was an attempt to determine GDM prevalence in pregnant women referring to Ardabil health centers.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 601 pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestational age were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) using 50 gr of oral glucose. GCT was considered positive if the serum level of glucose was larger than or equal to 140 mg/dl. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was done on GCT+ subjects with 100 gr oral glucose. The diagnostic criteria were these of National Diabetes Data Group.

 Also a questionnaire was used to record history, age, height, blood pressure, weight before pregnancy and other characteristics. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: From 601 pregnant women, 64 cases (10.6%) were GCT+. OGTT indicated that from these 64 cases, 8 cases had GDM (GCT +, OGTT+). GDM prevalence was estimated 1.3%. There was a statistically significant relationship between BMI, mean age and mean diastolic blood pressure on the one hand and GCT and GDM positivity on the other (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between increasing of BMI and the prevalence of GDM positivity GCT (p<0.05), but the relation was not significant between increasing of systolic blood pressure and gravidity with prevalence of GDM and positive GCT.

 Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of GDM in Ardabil is low and general screening is not necessary for all pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM showed an increase with the age of pregnant women, BMI and obesity.

Naser Safaii , Nasrollah Maghami Pour ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)


Background & Objectives:Aortic coarctation occurs in 6 to 8% of patients with congenital heart disease. It is the fourth most prevalent heart disease which requires catheterization and surgical involvement in the early years of life. If surgical repair is not conducted on-time, it can lead to heart failure (HF) and death. That is why we decided to study this disease in shahid Madani hospital, Tabriz.

Methods:53 patients with aortic coarctation who underwent surgery from early 1999 to late 2003 in Tabriz Shahid Madani Research and Health center were studied retrospectively. 

Results: 88% of the cases were diagnosed during routine examinations. The most frequent complaints of the patients were palpitation (45%) and exertional dyspnea (41%), and the most important signs were systolic ejection murmur in 96%, weakness of lower limbs pulses in 86% and hypertension in 45%. In ECG, 96% of the patients had LVH and in CXR, 45% had cardiomegaly. In angiography, 100% of the patients had apparent aortic coarctation, which in 14 this was associated with Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) In other 15 cases, PDA was not reported in angiography but was discovered during operation. The most common surgeries were resection, end-to-end anastomosis (43%) and Dacron patch angioplasty (39%). In both methods the pressure graradient decreased to under 10 mmHg in the site of anastomosis and the late complications in the patch method was more than the other one.

Conclusion:The diagnosis of this disease had been delayed in these patients because of imprecise examination of all four limbs' pulses at the first examination of the patients, the patients' own ignorance, misdiagnosis, mismanagement and symptomatic therapy. In spite of PDA and low blood pressure in coarc region, these patients did not have severe pulmonary hypertension. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis is associated with less common late complications and if conducted in early ages, it can lead to complete recovery.

Manoogehr Barak , Firooz Amani, Mehrdad Mirza Rahimi , Nateg Abbasgholizadeh, Ali Reza Hamid Kholgh ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Neglecting children can have irremediable and harmful effects on them concerning their growth, evolution, acquisition, and health both at present and in the future. Since lack of nutrition knowledge and failing to observe the principles of infant nutrition is one of the important causes of malnutrition and its unpleasant consequences, we decided to carry out an assessment concerning mothers’ level of awareness about infant nutrition and the factors affecting this knowledge, as well as the effect of this knowledge on growth and development of children.

 Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted to evaluate mothers’ knowledge of infant and neonatal nutrition and its effect on infant growth in Hir health center. The data were collected using a questionnaire, including 20 questions, which was filled out in the health center. Moreover weight, height and head circumference of 100 infants were measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: All mothers’ age ranged between15-36 and were housewives.15% were unlettered, 18% had high school education and others primary or secondary school education. 55% of children were female and 45% male. 67% of mothers had knowledge about proper neonatal and infant nutrition. 97% of them had little knowledge about when to start introducing different nutrients for infants, 3% had moderate knowledge in this regard.

 Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study and the lower knowledge level of mothers about when to start giving different food to infants as well as the importance of proper nutrition in their growth, it is necessary to improve mothers’ knowledge and promote children’s health.

Shahnam Arshi, Seid Reza Majdzadeh, Homauoon Sadegi, Seid Hadi Sezavar, Zahra Tahmacian, Looeiz Amanati , Ali Ruhi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Regarding the recent implementation of new information system in medical universities, it seems quite necessary to perform an evaluation study on its effectiveness as well as on the functioning of health care systems regarding the different parts of this system. The aim of this study was to investigate skills of family health personnel in health centers of Ardabil province on correctly completing two common data forms called family planning form and maternity care data form. This can be a reasonable criterion for how well the new system is working in the field of family health.

  Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study. All family health care personnel from Ardabil province heal care centers were entered into the study. They were asked to enter data related to 10 case presentations into blank forms. After filling out the forms they were checked and evaluated for correctness and final scores were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results : From all the data collected from 9 cities of the province, 38.5% lacked an academic education and 52% were graduated in midwifery. Mean personnel skill was 4.38 out of 10 and only 11.7% had acceptable skills in filling out the forms. Those with academic education outperformed the non-academic ones. Discrepancies regarding the correct ways of filling the forms, were observed among different cities’ health care centers.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated family health personnel were not skillful enough in completing the data forms. This led to their weak and non-dependable statistic which in turn would waste budget and energy. Moreover, the validity of the collected data would be under question. So the form 108 is very complicated and needs revision.

Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaie , Alireza Nikniaz, Hosein Koushavar , Haleh Sadegie,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of society. Any qualitative and quantitative problem in offering health services to them is a main health and social problem. Cooperative health centers for the first time in Iran were established in East Azerbaijan as a proper strategy for solving health problems and limitations of expansion of government health centers. This study was conducted to evaluate their quality of services to children under one year old in comparison with governmental health centers.

 Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done on 7 cooperative health centers and 14 neighboring government health centers selected by convenience method. Data were collected by filling checklists obtained from observation of services offered to these children by healthcare personnel as well as studying the children's health records. Descriptive (absolute and percent frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation) and inferential (independent samples t-test) statistics were used for analyzing the data.

 Results: The findings showed that the quality of health care for children under one was good (85.71%) in cooperative centers and moderate (78.57%) in government health centers and their statistical difference was significant (P=0.002). In terms of services about growth monitoring of child, nutrition of infant and mothers' education, cooperative health centers had better practice compared to government health centers (P= 0.001, 0.007and 0.023respectively). Regarding the equipment both centers had good facilities (85.71%) and there was no statistically significant difference between them (P= 0.912).

 Conclusion: The results showed that, in most cases, the quality of health care given to children under one was good in cooperative health centers and moderate in government centers. This optimum performance of cooperative centers can encourage health care authorities to plan for the expansion of such centers to compensate for the deficiencies of health services especially in children under one year old.

Farideh Mostafazadeh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Masoumeh Rostamnegad ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)

 Background & Objectives: Ceasarean section (CS) has increased in rate during the past years. Due to postoperative complications, long recovery time and high costs of surgery, normal delivery is recommended as a routine method. Regarding the increase in the number of CS and its acceptability on the part of the public, it seems that women’s as well as health personnels' attitudes play an effective role in selecting the termination method. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare pregnant women’s and health personnels' attitude toward termination procedures.

 Methods: This was a descriptive and comparative study. 84 health personnels and 300 pregnant women who referred to Ardabil health centers in 2002 were selected. These subjects' attitudes were collected through Likert questionnaire and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS, using t-test.

 Results: The findings showed that 30.1% of women and 50% of health personnels had positive attitudes towards normal delivery. The findings also indicated that there was a significant difference between pregnant women and health personnels in their attitudes toward normal delivery and cesarean (p=0.001).

 Conclusions: Since health personnels had a more positive attitude towards normal delivery than pregnant women did, it seems that the young as well as the pregnant individuals in society need more education and awareness to be able to change their attitudes towards delivery methods. Health personnel, due to their high positive attitude towards normal delivery, can play a more beneficial role in this regard.

Firooz Amani , Jafar Bashiri , Ahmad Sabzevari, Babak Gharoosi , Negin Nahanmoghaddam,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

  Background & Objectives : Tuberculosis has been the most common fatal disease among adults. It was ranked as the 7th most prevalent disease in the Global Burden of disease. It was also predicted to retain similar rank based on the Disability-Adjusted life Years (DALY) Criteria in the year 2020, whereas this rink has decreased for other infectious diseases. Tuberculosis varies in socio-demographic characteristics in different geographic areas. Therefore understanding its pattern could be useful in designing a preventive strategy. This study was conducted to identify socio-demographic pattern of this disease on the basis of smear.

  Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Ardabil city by reviewing 232 samples of patients who were under treatment for TB during last four years. Information was collected from patients’ records which were kept in Ardabil health center. The Data were analyzed through SPSS.

  Results: 37.5% of cases were male and the rest were female. 86 of subjects had positive smear, 44 negative smear and 98 were diagnosed as extra pulmonary tuberculosis and 4% as relapse. The average age of cases was 42 with SD=19.4 ranging between 2 and 86 years. Positive smear’s pulmonary TB more prevalent in urban areas than rural areas while negative smear’ pulmonary TB and relapse were more frequently observed in the rural areas. Smear positive was 59.3% smear negative was 59.1% and extra-pulmonary TB 67.3% were more common in women than men. However, relapse rate was equal in both sexes.

  Conclusion: the average age of our subjects was compatible to the findings of other studies.66% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis had positive smear which is close to 65% that was reported in the national program for prevention of TB. The ratio of positive smear’ pulmonary TB to extra-pulmonary and negative smear’s pulmonary TB was 60% which differs to the expected ratio of one. Relapse rate was 1.7% which is less than expected rate (4%). This shows that DOTS was a successful program.

Giti Ozgoli , Samra Shahbazzadegan, Nayer Rassaian , Hamid Alave Majd,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

  Background & Objectives : nausea and vomiting is one the most common problem during pregnancy. There are several reports about treating effect of acupressure for nausea and vomiting. Our propose was to investigate of p6 acupressure in reducing and relieving of symptoms of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

  Methods : A single blind clinical trial has been conducted in order to examine the effect of P6 acupressure on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in women referring to health center of Ardebil at 2005. 75 women complained of nausea and vomiting after being matched on the basis of the intensity of nausea and vomiting and pregnancy period were invited to participate in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups of treatment, placebo, and control (25 persons in each group), accidentally. Women in treatment group use acupressure wristbands with pressure to P6 acu-point, in placebo group use acupressure wristbands without pressure to P6 and control with no intervention. The symptoms were evaluated for 6 days and twice daily using a questionnaire inspired by Rhodes Inventory of Nausea and Vomiting. In the first 3 days all there groups equally filled the questionnaire and in the second 3days the treatment and placebo groups filled there out. Data of frequency, duration, and severity of nausea and frequency of vomiting were analyzed by Analysis of variance and Wilcoxon means were compared with Tukey and Kruskal-wallis tests.

  Results: Analysis revealed that the participants in three groups didn't have significant differences in regard to age (treatment 24.3 ±3.9 , placebo 24.9 ±4.3 , control 25.4 ± 3.3 year), gestational age (treatment 12.4 ±2.8 , placebo 12.9 ± 3.1, control 12.4 ±2.8 week) number of parity (treatment 1.7, placebo 1.6, control 1.4 times) education, job, number of pregnancy. The mean score of nausea severity decreased from 25.1 ±18.6 to 12.0 ±11.0 in treatment group, from 22.8 ± 14.6 to 16.1 ±12.31 in placebo group but increased from 16.3 ± 7.48to 17.5 ±8.92 in control group. The mean of vomiting frequency also decreased from 3.1 ± 3.33 to 1.5 ±1.66 and from 3.1 ± 4.30 to 1.9 ±3.68 in treatment and placebo group, respectively but its value changed from 1.2 ± 2.2 to 1.4 ± 1.4 in control group. Differences between pre-treatment and treatment period of nausea and vomiting symptoms was not significant in treatment group than placebo groups (p<0.043) and it was more in the placebo compared to control group (p<0.009). Comparing of means in treatment and placebo groups showed significant difference in nausea frequency and severity but not significant differences in duration of nausea and frequency of vomiting.

  Conclusion: P6 acupressure wristband is effective in the treatment compared to control and placebo for reduction of severity, duration and frequency of nausea and frequency of vomiting. The wristband without pressure to P6 acu-point also is affected in reducing nausea and vomiting symptoms but its effect is lower than P6 wristband.

Ehya Garveriani , Mohammad Mahdi Aslani , Shahram Habibzadeh , Afshin Fathi ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Yersinia spp is from Enterobacteriacea family. The members of this group are all gram negative bacilli or cocobacili and non-spore and negative heme-oxidase which casuses a vast spectrum of diseases in humans the commonest one of which is gastroenteritis. Other diseases and clinical syndromes are septicemia, mesenteric lymphadenitis, Appendicitis, pharyngitis and rarely Reiter's syndrome. Due to frequent reports of febrile gastro-enteritis from Health centers of Ardebil, the probability of gastroenteritis resulted from Yersinia in this cold province is predictable. Thus this study was done to determine the role of Yersinia spp in the diarrhea of children under 5 in the cold seasons of the year in Ardebil.

  Methods: Stool samples from 490 children under 5 with diarrhea in a 7-month period were collected, and transferred in carry-Blair to the laboratory. Stool samples were cultured on Mac-Conkey agar and Salmonella-Shigella agar and Yersinia selective agar, TCBS agar and selenate agar. After adequate incubation, the growing colonies were identified according to the standard biochemical methods.

  Results: of 490 samples, only 405 were suitable to be cultured of which 9.38% pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The frequency distribution of the separated bacteria were as follows Y.enterocolitica, 13 species vibrio, 11 species Enteropathogenic E.coli, 6 species Salmonella, 5 species Shigella, 2 species and plesiomonas, one species.

  Conclusion: The findings of this study are the indicator of the role of Yersinia spp in diarrhea in the cold seasons of the year in the cold and mountainous province of Ardebil. On the other hand, the frequency of isolated vibria was due to simultaneous cholera epidemy in this area.

Nasrin Homayounfar , Fahimeh Sehhati , Afrooz Mardi , Firooz Amani , Hamid Jafarzadeh ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an injectable contraceptive method that is widely used by 68 million women in over 114 countries and was reported Different medical and non medical reasons were reported for discontinuation of DMPA use. Due to little information about continuation rate and reasons for discontinuations of DMPA in this region and because of the different result of the research in other countries this study was designed. to evaluate the use of DMPAincluding continuation rate and side effects.

  Methods: In this cross sectional retrospective study 396 DMPA user women referring to health care centers in Ardabil were selected through classified sampling. The data were collected by a questionnaire by interviewing the subjects and data were analyzed by SPSS software using analysis variance (ANOVA) and correlation and T-test.

  Results: The mean age of the study population was 32±7.8 years, 33.8% had primary education and the majority of the users were housewives (%95) and only20 (%5) were employed. 6, 9, 12 and 24 month cumulative continuation rate of DMPA were recorded as %44.5, %26.5, %18.2 and %2.3 respectively. The most common reason for discontinuation among all of groups was amenorrhea. The most common side effects were amenorrhea (%69.7), low back pain (%13.4), and weight gain (%13.4) and headache (%10.4). There was a significant corvelation belween education level and spouse's education level, spouse's job, family income, grariding, number of off spring, type of previous delivery and continuity of DMPA (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: The result of this study could help health authorities and care givers in term of correct counseling and follow up. This factor could result in more satisfaction and improve continuation rate of DMPA.

Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaei , Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksariie, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Zhila Mohamadrezaei,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (4-2008)

Background & Objective: Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence especially in child-bearing women. This study was done to determine relationship between postpartum depression and its various risk factors.
Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study on 600 women referring to health centers in Tabriz. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including 5 parts: demographic characteristics, mother-newborn characteristics, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Holms stress scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. These data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods in SPSS 14/win software.
Results: In this study 34.7% of mothers were depressed (scores>12). Significant risk factors for postpartum depression were: Marital dissatisfaction, relationship with mother, mother-in law and husband's family, job dissatisfaction, house condition, having an unpleasant
pregnancy experience, unplanned pregnancy, baby care stressors, infant feeding method, nursing problems, mother's self-esteem and stress level.
Conclusion: Concerning high prevalence of postpartum depression in this study and other similar studies and effects of some factors in this disorder, it seems to be necessary to improve the knowledge of mothers and health care staff about this risk factors for reducing effects of this disorder on physical and psychological health of newborns, mothers and
Hosein Alimohammadi, Nasrin Fouladi , Firouz Amani , Mehran Safarzade, Farhad Purfarzi , Effat Mazaheri ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2008)

 Background & Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis parasitical disease. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in transmission of parasite to fetus or its reactivation among immune-compromised persons can lead to server clinical symptoms. The aim of study was to determine immune level of Toxoplasmosis among women who were to get married and have referred to Health Center of Ardabil.

  Methods: In this study 272 blood samples of women who had referred to health center of Ardabil in 2007 were collected. Samples were tested with ELISA method to detect Anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG Antibodies.

  Results: The tests showed that 42.3% of women were IgG Positive, 57.2% were IgG negative and 2.6% women were IgM positive and also IgG positive. They have ( IgG positive women) 11.3% family history of abortion, 96.5% eating raw vegetables, 92.2% eating half cooked meat, 89.6% not washing the vegetables with disinfectants, 29.6% animal contact, 57.4% contact with raw meat and 94.8% used piped water.

  Conclusion: Since 57.7% of women who were to marry in Ardabil city were negative from the view point of Toxoplasmosis, health education for elimination of risk factors especially within pregnancy period seems mandatory.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Homaioun Sadeghi, Akbar Ganji, Soltan Mohammazadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

  Background & objective : The reason for attacks of wild canines are for hunting or defense or as rabies. Usually in the biting of rabid wolf there are so many victims and the wounds are deeper and more dangerous. The rabies probability in this wonnd is 15 times more than the other bites. This article is a report of 24 bites of a rabid wolf in a short period of time. It is considerable even after 3 years because of the large number of victims and the appropriate measures of health related systems, and lack of mortality .

  Materials and methods: The report consists of 24 wonnded patients from the health center of meshkin Shahr. All of the victims were interviewed, examined and followed up for 3 years.

  Results: In the summer of 2006 a rabid wolf, whose rabies later was confirmed by Pasteur Institute of Iran, attacked 7 contiguous villages in the southern part of Meshkinshahr and 24 of natives were wounded. Mean age of victims was 36.5 years old. The injured organs were as follow: head and face in 21 cases, hands in 12 cases, body and abodomen in 8 cases, neck in 3 case s, leg 3 cases, and buttock 1 case. In 14 cases the wound of claw and teeth were observed. In two cases the attack form was insability in bending fingers and in other cases there weren't any complications. All of the patients were treated with vaccine and anti rabies serum and if necessary with tetabolin. There wasn't any mortality and morbidity reported during the 3-year follow-up.

  Conclusion: T he manner of wolf attack was compatible with the rabid wolf's behavior. No death was reported due to sufficient support, health care centers' awareness, vaccination and serum injection and tetabolin

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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