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Showing 22 results for Etiology

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Temporal arthritis (TA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis with unknown etiology, which involves large and medium sized arteries. A wide spectrum of systemic, neurological and ophthalmological complications appears in the course of the disease the most serious of which is visual impairment leading to permanent blindness in 60% of the cases.

  TA is diagnosed through an elevated ESR (>60 mm/Hg) and pathological findings of arterial biopsy. It is considered as one of the urgent neurological cases in which the patient should be treated with corticostroid immediately after diagnosis. The subject of this research was a 62-year-old male who had had headache associated with fatigue, night sweats and low mood for four month. The diagnosis of TA was made considering an elevated ESR and temporal artery biopsy findings. Treatment with prednisolone was initiated and continued for 19 months resulting in complete recovery.

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Bahareh Rajaee Far , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background & Objectives: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active researches over the past many years, the etiology of this disorder in human pregnancy is an enigma. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C can scavenge free radicals inducing cellular damage. The present study was designed to investigate the plasma levels of vitamin C in patients with preeclampsia (case) and normotensive pregnant women (control).

  Methods: In this case-control study vitamin C as an antioxidant was estimated and compared spectrophotometrically in 40 preeclamptic and 80 normotensive pregnant women referring to Alavi Hospital of Ardabil province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The plasma levels of vitamin C were significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia (0.147 ± 0.030 mg/dl) compared to controls who were normotensive pregnants (0.347 ± 0.119 mg/dl).

  Conclusion: Attempts at prevent preeclamsia are justified but since no reliable screening test has been offered as yet for women at risk, assessment of plasma level of vitamin C in patients prone to preeclampsia is strongly suggested.

Abbas Yazdanbod , Manoochehr Iranparvar, Solmaz Seifi ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

  Background &Objectives: According to a recent report published by the Ministry of Health in Iran gastric cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in this country and cardiac cancer is the most common kind of upper GI cancer. This study is an attempt to determine the epidemiology of cardiac cancers in Ardabil.

  Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted for four years (2000-2003) at the only private clinic in Ardabil. The results of endoscopy of these patients including the exact determination of the topography of cancer in cardia and other general information were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version-10)

  Results: During this study 4356 endoscopy were done and 533 histologically proven upper GI cancer were detected. Out of 533, 242 cases were located at E-G junction area, 82(33.9%), 130 (53.7%) in cardia region and 30(12/4%) cases were located at the proximal bady of stomach. 130(53.7%) cases of tumors were, in the right side of cardia. Bormann classification showed that most of cancers (43.8%) were ulceroinfiltrative.

  Conclusion: Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between type and topography of cancer with dysphasia, weight loss and epigasteric pain(p<0.05). The results showed significiant relationship between type and topography of cacers with Bormann classification(p=0.001). Further epidemiologic studies are required to evaluate etiology of cardia cancers in Ardabil.

Farnaz Ehdaeevand , Mohammad Tagei Neeknejad, Naiere Aminisani, Mahdi Chinifroush,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (4-2005)


 Background & Objectives: cervical dysplasia indicates the growth disorder of cervix and is characterized by the appearance of cancerous and precancerous cells in cervix. Cervical dysplasia often has no symptoms but can progress to cervical cancer in 5 % of the cases. Early diagnosis of these pre-invasive lesions with pap smear can prevent, to a great extent, the progress of lesion to cancer. The prevalence of cervical dysplasia is different in different parts of the world and depents, to a great extent, on its etiology. This study was an attempt to determine the prevalence and types of cervical dysplasia in 5000 cases of pap smears.

 Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 5000 cases of pap smears selected randomly from among 8249 pap smears in the period between March 2003 to August 2004. Some samples were studied retrospectively and some others prospectively. The population of the study was composed of women referring to Ardabil health care centers for pop smear test. The data were collected with questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software (ver.11).

 Results: Cervical dysplasia was found in 56 cases (1.12%) 0.66% of which was CIN I, 0.3% CIN II and 0.16% CIN III.

 Conclusion: The total percentage of cervical displasia in this study was 1.12%. This prevalence in other similar studies varies between 0.4% in Scotland and 12% in USA. Nevertheless, the prevalence found in this study is in line with most of the similar researches.

Seiad Jamal Hashemi, Mahdi Moheb Ali , Zabihollah Zarehee,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Tina capitis is among the most prevalent human infections induced by dermatophytes. Some dermatphytic factors are globally widespread while some others are geographically determined. A number of similar researches have been conducted in Iran however, due to the geographically diverse etiology of the disease and lack of similar research in Meshkin Shahr, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis in primary schools of this city.

  Methods: In order to determine the frequency of the tinea capitis in the students of primary school in Meshkin Shahr, children in 13 schools including 2470 boys and 3012 girls were studied. For this purpose first of all the children’s scalps were observed clinically and the specimens such as hair and scale were taken from 228 pupils. The specimens were examined by direct and culture methods.

  Results: Of all the subjects, 38 students (0.7%) had tinea capitis. The prevalence rate was 0.8% and 0.6% among boys and girls respectively, which was statistically significant. The high degree of disease was seen in 11 year old students (39.5%) and the main source of infection was Trichophyton violaceum.

  Conclusion: Desptie a decrease in tinea capitis among children especially in primary school pupils nationwide, there is still a considerable (0.7%) rate of prevalence in Meshkin Shahr which demands attention.

Afshar Tamook, Farhad Salehzadeh, Naiere Aminisani , Goubin Moghaddam Yeganeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia disease is noticeable. Studying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its related factors is a step to reduce its incidence and remarkable treatment expenses. On the other hand, due to lack of on time recognition and suitable treatments, this disease can cause irreversible neuro-cerebral complications. This study was conducted to examine the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its associated signs, in order to provide on time and suitable treatment measures.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2003 on neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Ardabil Sabalan hospital. The data obtained from their conditions, clinical examination, and measurment of total and direct bilirubine was used to fill out a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (release 10).

 Results: From among 132 neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, 50% were male and others were female. 85.6% of these subjects were fullterm births and the rest were premature. 56% of these neonates were born by C/S. 6.8% of hyperbilirubinemia cases, which were considered as “pathologic”, occurred during 24 hours after birth. 72% were related to the second to seventh days of birth, 17.2% to second week of birth, and the rest (4%) had prolonged Icter. 65% of these neonates were the first children of the family. The average time of hospitalization was 4.8 days. 34.8% of these neonates had pathologic signs beside hyperbilirubinemia and had a clinically serious condition. About 23% of these neonates were born by C/S and only 11.8% of them were vaginal births. 46 cases (34.8%) had accompaynig pathologic problems in addition to Icter, among whom 33 children (25%) had evident infection. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia were Crigler-Najjar syndrome in one case, ABO in 11 cases (8.33%) and RH discord in 4 cases (2.8%). Generally speaking the precise cause of 36.89% of Hyperbilirubinemia was determined.

 Conclusion: Some factors such as children by C/S, neonatal infection, prematurity, ABO discords and RH discords play an important role in hyperbilirubinemia incidence and severity.

Ahmad Hashemzadeh, Farhad Heidarian,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

  Background & Objectives: Juvenile Immune Arthritis (JIA), which is a disorder with unkuown etiology, occurs in children under 16 and is one of the most common collagen vascular diseases in pediatrics and among the important causes of permanent deformity of joints and blindness in children. With regard to its importance, we studied the incidence, different types as well as clinical and laboratory features of this disorder.

  Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed on 24 patients (age range: 6 months-12 years) admitted to pediatric wards of Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad during 1998-2001. The data were collected from the patients’ records using a questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results: Polyarticular type was the most common form of the disease. Peak age of involvment was 11 years old. Boys were more frequently affected than girls. Knees, ankles and wrists were the most commonly involved joints. Most of the patients suffered from loss of appetite and irritability. Fever was detected in 100% of the patients with systemic type and 2/3 of the cases with polyarticular form. The most important laboratory findings were elevated ESR, positive CRP and anemia. There was an excellent response to aspirin or glucocorticoids.

  Conclusion: In comparison to similar studies the onset of disease in our patients was a little later. Fever was seen in all patients with sytemic disorder and skin rash was observed in most of the cases. So, it would be quite wise to suspect JIA in such cases. Aspirin or prednisolone are suitable drugs to treat most of these patients.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Afshin Fathi , Homauoon Sadegi , Firooz Amani, Mahiar Gamari,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

  Background & Objectives : Sinusitis is inflammation of perinasal sinuses. Gold standard for diagnosis and etiology of bacterial sinusitis is a positive culture of punctured samples in sterile conditions, which is invasive procedure. This study was designed to compare the effects of clarithromycin versus amoxicillin on treatment of acute community acquired bacterial sinusitis in children.

  Methods: This study was conducted as a single-blind clinical trial, with 30 randomly selected patients in each of two groups (case and control). Acute sinusitis was defined as sinusitis not lasting more than 4 weeks. Inclusion criteria were defined as existence of post nasal septic drip or nasal prulent secretions plus at least 3 out of 4 conditions as follows: unilateral local pain on face or head, halitosis, deterioration of symptoms in recent 5 to 7 days and axillary temperature equal to or greater than 38 degrees centigrade. For one group of patients (group A) clarithromycin (KLACID) 15 mg/kg in two divided doses, and for another group (group B) amoxicillin 40 mg/kg in three divided doses, were administered. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (rel 9) using Chi-square and t-test.

  Results: In view of response to treatment, 9 persons in group B (30%) and 26 persons in group A (86%) felt healthy on tenth day of therapy. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001) using Chi-square test. Mean days before patients’ improvement was calculated to be 10 ± 0 (mean ± SD) days for group B and 6±1.9 days for group A. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001).

  Conclusion: Despite relatively small sample size, the difference found between effectiveness of two drugs was significant (p=0.001). Thus clarithromycin can be used as one of the effective drugs in treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis.

Maziar Hashemilar, Daruoosh Savadi Oskoui , Mariam Jafaryani , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

 Background & Objectives: The ischemic stroke is defined as cerebral dysfunction due to brain infarct which is induced by vascular obstruction. The related risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardioembolism and hyperlipidemia are investigated in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of cerebral infarction in young adults ( - year-olds).

 Methods: All the patients in the age rang of - admitted to the neurology ward of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between 2004 and 2005 with a diagnosis of cerebral infarction were included in this study. A questionnaire including demographic data, personal and family history of stroke and cardiac infarct, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and hyperlipidemia was filled out for all patients. Blood sugar, cholesterol, anticardiolipin antibody and beta- glycoprotein were examined. The patients underwent echocardiography. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release ).

 Results: The total number of the patients was , including females (71.1%) and males (28.9%). The mean age was (SD= ). The etiologic factors based on their frequency were: cardioembolism ( ), positive antiphospholipid antibodies (35.5%), hyperlipidemla ( ), smoking ( ), hypertension ( ), oral contraceptive use ( ) and diabetes mellitus (13.7%).

 Conclusion: The most frequent etiologies of the cerebral infarcts in the young adults in this study were cardiogenic embolism and positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Other background factors were hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, oral contraceptive use and diabetes mellitus respectively. Most of these etiologies can be intervened and prevented. The identification of these factors before occurrence of cerebral infarction can prevent this debilitating event.

Ahad Azami , Shahram Habibzadeh , Hosein Doostkami , Firooz Amani , Faramarz Ajri ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

  Background and Objectives: pericardial effusion is characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in the pericardial space, which can lead to cardiac dysfunction or death. Most of the previous studies have been performed in developed countries and its epidemiologic aspects in developing countries were not well-recognized. The aim of this research was determination of etiology, clinical and paraclinical findings in patients with pericardial effusion.

  Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and retrospective study. From all of the patients admitted to Buali hospital between 2001 to 2003 ,49 patients that showed moderate to massive pericardial effusion in echocardiography were selected and studied in terms of history, physical examination, CXR, ECG and pericardial fluid analysis (if performed).

  Results: From 49 patients 25 (51%) were female and 24 were male. Age ranges of patients were 11 to 85 years. The age of 42% of the patients was above 60 years. The most common clinical complaints were dyspnea (44.9%) and chest pain (24.5%). ECG in most of them (53.1%) were normal sinus rhythm. Cardiac electrical axis in 83.7 % was normal, but ECG in 83.7% of cases showed low voltage QRS complex. The most common findings in CXR was cardiomegaly (85.7%) and 14.3% of patients had normal CXR. Common etiologies of pericardial effusion were chronic renal failure (16.3%), tuberculosis (8.2%), heart failure (8.2%) and malignancies (6.1%). Etiology of disease in 44.8% of patients was unknown.

  Conclusion: It seems that most of pericardial effusions occur in higher ages. It can be due to high prevalence of different diseases such as heart failure, chronic renal failure or malignancies in senile persons.

Yousef Bafandeh , Davood Daghestani ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2006)

  Background & Objectives : Patients with esophageal SCC and GEJ adenocarcinoma have a poor prognosis. The advanced stage tumor is not amenable to cure and requires palliation, specially to relief dysphagia and to improve quality of life. Esophageal stenting has been shown to be faster, and longer lasting method of palliation. Esophageal expandable stents have been available recently in IRAN. The aim of this study was to report the results of our experience to relief dysphagia by means of stents, specially plastic removable types.

  Methods: This was a prospective trial in 60 patients with strictures due to malignant esophageal and /or GEJ cancers and those who had undergone anastomotic procedure during 2001 to 2005. These patients referred to endoscopy clinic of Tabriz Immam hospital for stenting. Dysphagia was scored according to a 5-point scale before stenting, 3 days after, and later during follow-up period of a mean of 7.6±6.6 months. Barium study and endoscopy was done for evaluation of site and length of stricture, and its etiology. Strictures were dilated up to 15 mm before stenting. The data were analyzed using correlation test, Chi-sqare and T- tests.

  Results: Covered metallic Wallstent was used in 12 patients removable covered polyflex stents in 47 and double lumen metal stent in only one case. Stents were successfully deployed in all cases. Dysphagia improved significantly by all stent types compared with the presenting status, after 3 days (p<0001) and during follow up period (p<0.05). Distal displacement of stents was seen in 16 (32%) patients, all of which happened during 1-3 months after insertion. In polyflex stents, the way restored by endoscopic intervention. Tumor overgrowth at the end of stent was seen in 4(8%) of the cases. Mean period of survival was 7.6± 6.6 months. In no case was the death directly attributable to the procedure.

  Conclusions: Self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), have favorable efficacy in palliating dysphagia. Their insertion is easy, with low risk and successful and associated with a lower rate of complications, morbidity and mortality in majority of the patients.

Seyedziaaddin Ghorashi , Reza Ghotaslou , Hasan Soltani Ahari , Sona Ghorashi ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2007)

  Background & Objectives: Septicemia is one of the serious infections of neonatal period that its microbial etiologies bacterial causes are different in various parts of the world. Incidence of sepsis in developing countries is much more than that of developed countries and it is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal period. This study was done to determine the microbial etiology, mortality and resistance pattern of septicemia.

 Methods: This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study for three years on blood cultures of 210 neonate admitted in pediatric hospital in Tabriz. Demographic information, clinical findings, types of bacteria in blood culture and antibiogram were analyzed.

 Results: Mean age of patients was 8±2 days in which sixty percent were male and the rest were female. Among 12 isolated bacteria, negative staphylococcus coagulase was the most common. 68.6% of isolated bacteria were positive gram. 31.4% of negative gram were in which klebsiella pneumoniae had the most frequent incidence. 22.9% of neonates died, in which 9% of them weighed less than 1500 grams. Among 8 antibiotics used by disc diffusion method, ampicillin showed the highest (97.4%) and vancomycin the lowest (6.7%) resistance.

 Conclusion: septicemia is still the main problem in neonatal ward and neonatal intensive care unit. The etiologic agents and resistance pattern of each area should be considered in starting empirical treatment.

Mirmehdi Chinifroush Asl , Mohammad Bagher Sootode , Amir Jameeii , Samira Shahbazzadegan,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Lymphadenopathy refers to the disease of lymphatic nodes. Any immune response against foreign antigens is often associated with lymph node enlargement (lymphadenopathy) and lymphadenitis. Most pathologic studies of neck lymph nodes indicated TB as the most common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy. Approach to a neck lymphadenopathy as the main complaint of the patients or the only clinical finding is usual events which physicians encounters frequently during their practice. M anagement of these patients depends on the physician experience and knowledge. This study aimed to investigate etiology of cervical lymphadenopathies in admitted patients.

  Methods : In this cross-sectional study, one hundred patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who referred to Fatemi hospital from 2002-2006 and underwent excisional biopsy with pathologic results were included. Demographic data ' age and sex', and pathologic findings were obtained using the patients' file . FNA results and non lymphoid samples were excluded . All findings were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results: A total number of 100 subjects were studied of whom, 52 (52%) were male and 48 (48%) were female. On the basis of pathologic findings, tuberculosis was the most common cause of lymphadenopathy (36%) . Reactive changes including follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis and other forms of lymphadenitis, metastatic carcinoma, Hodgkin and non Hodgkin lymphoma were found in 34%, 13%, 9% and 8% respectively. In patients aged under 15, reactive changes were seen in 11cases (57%), and in age group of 16- 55 years tuberculosis was found in 31 cases (44.2%), and metastatic carcinoma was diagnosed in subjects aged over 55 years with 5 cases (45.4%).

Conclusion: In our study tuberculosis is the most common cause for cervical lymphadenopathies in both sexes (especially between 15 to 55 years). This findings emphasis about the TB prevalence in Ardabil. Under the 15 years old reactive change of lymph nodes and over the 55 years metastatic carcinoma were the most common causes.
Mohsen Sokouti, Vahid Montazeri, Eiraj Feizi ,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Esophageal carcinoma has more prevalency in northwest of Iran. Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is one of the common delayed complication. It emerges due to technique of surgery. Reflux and or leakage in anastomotic area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and etiologies of dysphagea after esophagectomy and postoperative endoscopic dilation results.

  Methods: This is a retrospective discreptive study, during 2000-2005 at Imam Khomeini hospital, all patients who had esophagectomy because of esophageal carcinomas entered this study. Data collected from medical records, Primary tumoral diagnosis, operation endoscopy, dysphagea, histopathological findings, Postoperative complications, especially dysphagia and it’s etiology, and different methods of therapy, reoperation and or endoscopic dilatation were studied.

  Results: Among 324 patients 81 patients had esophagectomy for esophageal carcinomas. In eighteen patients (22.2%), dysphagea reappered after operation. Rate of dysphagea in patients with carcinoma of lower one third area was 5.3 times greater than middle third of the esophagus. Mean time between first hospitalization and second hospitalization due to relapsing dysphagea was 10.03 months. The main cause of relapsing dysphagia in 88.24%, was benign stricture in anastomotic area. 17 patients with endoscopic dilation and one patient with surgical stricturoplasty, were treated.

Conclusion: Relapsing dysphagea after esophagectomy is common in our patients. This represents mostly benign strictures after esophagectomies for esophageal carcinoma. In benign anastomotic strictures, endoscopic dilation is an effective treatment and it is recommended.
Esmaeil Hassanpour, Seiyed Mahdi Moosavizadeh , Khalil Rostami, Nasim Younosi ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2010)

  Background & Objectives : Scalp defects have various etiologies which included scalp cancers, trauma, burns, congentital vascular lesions (Hemangioma & arteriovenous malformations), acquired & congenital skin defect such as aplasia cutis and infections. These defects need different reconstructive methods. The aime of this study was to determine the etiology of scalp defects and out come of various reconstructive methods.

  Methods : This was a descriptive study and based on the patient’s files during two years from 2004 to 2006. All patients operated for scalp defects were included in the study. Different methods of reconstructive surgery were considered and results analyzed using descriptive statistics.

  Results : The study included 75 patients, (52 males and 23 females) with the mean age of 42 years old. In most cases the scalp defect was in the temporoparietal region and most defects were reconstructed using tissue expander (TE). The most common cause of scalp defects was Basal cell corconoma (primary and recurrence) and the most common primary reconstructive method was skin graft. The second cause of scalp defects was burn scar and in these cases the most common reconstructive method was TE. Operative complications in this study were partial necrosis of the graft or distal flap that was repaired by using the repeated skin graft. In one case there was infection of tissue expander that was extracted.

  Conclusion: The most common cause of scalp defect were Basal Cell Carcinoma and burn respectively and in these cases the skin graft and TE were the most common reconstructive methods respectively .

Gity Rahimi , Zahra Tazakori , Niloofar Shateri ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2010)

  Background & Objectives : Preeclapsmia representing as one of the most important complications of pregnancy, affects up to 8% of all pregnancies nevertheless little has been known about its etiology. It is, however, generally accepted that the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is related to systemic maternal endothelial dysfunction. Homocysteine, a cytotoxic compound, adversely affects the endothelial system. Main objective of this study was to assess plasma levels of homocysteine in women with normal pregnancies and those who suffering from preeclapsmia .

 Methods: A case –control study was designed for 165 preeclamptic patients and 165 normal cases. Controls were matched for gestational age and age of mothers. Blood samples were obtained from patients attending Alavi hospital in Ardabil (after 6-8 hour NPO). Two milliliters blood was collected in tubes containing ice bag stored ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and homocysteine level was analyzed.

 Results: Mean levels of homocysteine were elevated in the preeclamptic cases compared to control group (7.4±3.3 vs. 4.09±2.3 _mmol/l, P < 0.001) the levels of BMI and Arms sizes have been shown to be different statistically in two groups and other variables revealed no significant differences between the groups.

 Conclusion:It is concluded that in our study homocysteine Levels, BMI and Arms sizes are signiffantly effected patients with preeclampsia compared with control group and can increase the risk of developing severe side effect to mothers and neonates.

Shahrbanoo Keihanian, Maryam Zakerihamidi, Fariba Sadeghi , Javad Khalatbari,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2010)

  Background & objectives: Thrombocytopeniais, defined as a platelet count of less than 150,000/L complicates 7 to 10% of all pregnancies. Etiology of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy may include a ranging from benign disorders such as gestational thrombocytopenia to life threatening syndromes such as the HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated liver Enzymes, Low Platelet count). The aim of this study was to evaluate frequency of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy among pregnantsrefered to Tonekabon health centers during 2009 .

  Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 150 normal pregnants bearing third trimester and refered to Tonekabon health centers were selected by random simple sampling. Patients´ demographic information and history were obtaied and CBC (complete blood count) test was done. Those pregnants suffered from thrombocytopenia were refered to a hematologist for compeleting tests if needed. Data analysis was done by SPSS 11.5 and chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered as signifcant difference .

  Results: The Prevalence of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy was 12.66% and the highest percent of thrombocytopenia (68%) was observed among nullipars. The cause of 95% of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy was gestational thrombocytopenia and 5% were due to ITP (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura). The pregnants who suffered from gestational thrombocytopenia didn’t have any problems and no need to treatment but those who had been experienced ITP, used venous immunoglobin during labor for treatment .

  Conclusion: Gestational thrombocytopenia is the most common cause of the thrombocytopenia in pregnancy and isn’t dangerous for mother and fetus. So, it is no need to be done any intervention .

Manoochehr Barak , Setareh Mamishi , Seiyed Ahmad Siadati , Peyman Salamati , Ghamartaj Khotaii, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2011)

  Background & objectives: Nosocomial infections increase patient’s mortality and are considered as a health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolated bacteria in NICU and PICU, in Bahrami and Children’s Medical Center hospitals, Tehran .

  Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study from October 2008 to September 2009, risk factors and etiology of nosocomial infections were evaluated in all patients who showed infectious signs upon 48h admission. Infectious agents were diagnosed by the standard microbiological tests and antibiotic sensitivity of isolates was determined using dick diffusion method. The data for location of the hospital, admission history, presence of immunodeficiency, fever and using venous and urine catheters, suction, venous injection as well as cerebral shunt and surgery have been collected by a questionnaire and analyzed, statistically .

  Results: About 9.3% (70 individuals) of cases encountered with nosocomial infections. From whom, 24.3% were infected by Pseudomonas aeroginosa and 18.6% and 3.14% by Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter spp, respectively. The location of the hospital, using of suction and surgery were the most common risk factors related to nosocomial infections (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: Our findings showed that the hospital location, suction and surgery were the most common risk factors and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter spp were the common infectious threats. So, we need to design the special program to improve nosocomial infection control in hospitals .

Mohammad Sahebalzamani, Saeid Mehri, Davar Altafi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)

  Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with multifocal areas of demyelination. Genetic and environmental factors could be involved in etiology of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate important risk factors for MS progression in patients admitted in Alavi hospital, Ardabil.

  Methods : The present research is an analytical, case-control study in groups with or without MS with same age and sex (80 subjects in each group). A self-made questionary including demographic characteristics and risk factors used as a data compilation instrument which validity reliability were confirmed by content and α-Coronbach tests respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: Factors such bachelorship (p=0.037), accidental head and back traumas (p=0.003), smoking (p=0.035), smoke exposures (p= 0.0001), meat regimen (p=0.0001), contact with birds (p=0.032), inadequate sunlight exposure (p=0.034), occupational pollution (p=0.002), menarche age (p=0.016), family history (p=0.029), being third born in family (p=0.034), were found as significant risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

  Conclusion : The present study demonstrates that factors such as smoke, trauma, environmental pollution, touching birds and family history of MS are important risk factors for onset of multiple sclerosis.

Manoochehr Barak , Farhad Pourfarzi , Shima Jirodi , Gity Rahimi , Yasamin Pahlavan ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (11-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Nosocomial infections occur following admission of patients in the hospitals and usually are accompanied by significant mortalities. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of nosocomial infections and the causatives in Ardabil Bu Ali hospital during 2010.

  Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which has been done on collection of information through practical examinations, laboratory tests and files of nosocomillay infected patients in Ardabil Bu Ali hospital during 2010. Data were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results: From a total of 3254 patients, 42 (1.3%) had got nosocomial infections. Of these infected patients 47.6% was males and 52.4% was females. Infection was more frequent in patients with ages between 1 month to1 year old (45.2%). Sepsis (33.3%), pneumonia and blood stream infections (23.8%) and urinary tract infection (19%) were the most frequent infections. The mean length of hospital stay was 26.86 days. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common pathogen reported (23.8%). Infection was more common in NICU (38.1%).

  Conclusion: In this study, the frequency of nosocomial infection was lower than other studies. Distribution of infection differed with age, ward and length of stay in the hospital.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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