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Showing 45 results for Diabetes

Seyedhashem Sezavar , Leili Abbaszadeh , Adalat Hosseinian , Manoochehr Iranparvar , Minaye Khodamoradzadeh ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus coexist more commonly than predicted by chance and the synergistic effect of these two diseases is the cause of early disability and high rate of mortality in these patients. Controlling the blood pressure has a critical role in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in diabetic hypertensive cases. The goal of this study is to determine the rate of recognition and treatment of hypertension in type II diabetic subjects referring to diabetes clinic of Bou-ali hospital, Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 300 type II diabetic patients were examined in terms of blood pressure control.

 Results: The patients who participated in this study ranged between 28 to 80 years of age (mean: 55.5 ± 11.4). About 61.6% of diabetic patients had hypertension (BP>140/ 90 mmHg) 76.7% of these patients were aware of their hypertension. Only 8.8% of these patients with hypertension had a well-controlled blood pressure and the rest of them (91.2%) had a poorly- controlled blood pressure (BP>130/80 mmHg). About 21.8% of hypertensive diabetics although aware of their hypertension were not on any anti- hypertensive agents.

 Conclusions: This study indicates poor control of hypertension in diabetic patients. It seems that reconsidering CME programs for the physicians, emphasizing the control of risk factors especially in high-risk groups and educating the diabetic patients will improve the control of hypertension in these patients.

Gity Rahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during the pregnancy. Diagnosis of this disorder can prevent complications in mother and her fetus during pregnancy. This study was an attempt to determine GDM prevalence in pregnant women referring to Ardabil health centers.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 601 pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestational age were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) using 50 gr of oral glucose. GCT was considered positive if the serum level of glucose was larger than or equal to 140 mg/dl. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was done on GCT+ subjects with 100 gr oral glucose. The diagnostic criteria were these of National Diabetes Data Group.

 Also a questionnaire was used to record history, age, height, blood pressure, weight before pregnancy and other characteristics. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: From 601 pregnant women, 64 cases (10.6%) were GCT+. OGTT indicated that from these 64 cases, 8 cases had GDM (GCT +, OGTT+). GDM prevalence was estimated 1.3%. There was a statistically significant relationship between BMI, mean age and mean diastolic blood pressure on the one hand and GCT and GDM positivity on the other (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between increasing of BMI and the prevalence of GDM positivity GCT (p<0.05), but the relation was not significant between increasing of systolic blood pressure and gravidity with prevalence of GDM and positive GCT.

 Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of GDM in Ardabil is low and general screening is not necessary for all pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM showed an increase with the age of pregnant women, BMI and obesity.

Mehri Jafari Shobeiri , Simin Atash Khoii ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: It is estimated that as many as 75% of women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during the lifetime and about 5% will have recurrent infections. There are clear association between vaginal candidiasis and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-diabetic women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis have an impaired glucose metabolism.

  Methods: This case-control study was carried out with 32 patients suffering from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis as case group and 30 control patients who had negative history of vaginal candidiasis during the previous year and had referred to the clinics for reasons other than vaginal candidiasis. The case group had referrd to the gynecology clinics three times during the previous year and were recognized to have vaginal candidiasis. They were being treated by antifungal drugs and had at least one positive candida culture. Both groups underwent standardized oral glucose tolerance test with 75-gram dose of glucose. The data were analysed using Chi-square and t-test.

  Results: Women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis had a mean body mass index greater than the control subjects (23.4 versus 21.5, p=0.001). They had no more incidences of overt or preclinical diabetes mellitus than the control subjects, but a greater proportion of them had at least one glucose concentration above the 95th percentile (p=0.015). Glucose concentrations were significantly higher in recurrent vaginal candidiasis cases than in control subjecs at 30, 60 and 75 minutes after the intake of 75-gram dose of glucose (p<0.05). This amount of glucose led to a 15.8% increase in serum glucose level in case group compared to the control group.

  Conclusion: Glucose tolerance test was mildy impaired in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis. The plasma glucose concentration increased in 2 hours after 75 g glucose intake. Although the obtained results were not in the range of occult diabetes, it can designate the important of glucose tolerance test in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

Masuome Aghamohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: It is estimated that 4-10% of diabetic patients suffer from foot ulcer. About one in five people with diabetes enters hospital for foot problems. Regarding the importance of education for these patients, the present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of education on foot care among diabetic patients referring to Ardabil Buali hospital.

 Methods: From the diabetic patients referring to Buali hospital (diabetes center) 120 patients admitted for the first time, who had had no past training about diabetes, were selected. Each patient was asked to fill out a questionnaire on his reference to the hospital. The questionnaire had 38 questions, the first 8 of which were about the demographic status and the illness itself and the rest of them concerned priniciples of foot care. Following this, these diabetic patients participated in public classes in the center, and a month later they filled the questionnaire again. Finally their knowledge before and ofter the education period was compared using statistical analyses.

 Results: The level of knowledge of 73.33% of the subjects before education was medium whereas following the education this rose to 86.67%. Comparing the level of knowledge of patients before and after education using t-test indicated that the level of knowledge after education is significantly higher than before (p<0.001).

 Conclusion: with regard to the significant difference in knowledge of diabetic patients before and after education, it can be concluded that educational classes of diabetic center can improve the knowledge of patients about foot care. So they are strongly recommended to be held for all these patients.

Faride Golfooroshan, Effat Khodaeiani , Shahla Babaei Nejad , Delara Laghosi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinically and genitically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in blood. The skin is involved both in the effects of acute metabolic changes and in the chronic degenerative compilications of diabetes. Skin lesions are frequently observed in diabetic patients and it is generally stated that about 30% of these patients have cutaneous disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin lesion in patients with diabetes mellitus referring to dermatology and diabetes clinic of Sina hospital in Tabriz .

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on diabetic patients with skin lesion who referr e d to diabetic and dermatology clinic of Sina hospital of Tabriz during 2003. Data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which included some variables such as age, sex, job, type of diabetes, its duration, control of blood glucose, receiving regular treatment, type of lesion. The questionnaire was filled out for each patient with skin lesion individally. Skin lesions due to burn were excluded from our study. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-aquare and Fisher test.

  Results : From a total of 500 patients, 80 patients (16%) had skin lesions. 57.5% of these patients was male and 91.2% had type II DM. Mean age of the patients with skin lesion was 56.86±1.54 years and mean diabetes duration was 10.87±0.82 years. Patients over 50 years had the most skin lesion . The most common type of skin lesion in the diabetic patients were 30 cases of necrotic ulcer (6%) and 22 cases of diabetic dermopathy (4.4%) respectively. Other skin lesions such as infection, sclerodermoid, punched out lesions, neuropathic ulcer, diabetic bulla, dermatitis and lichen planus were not common . 97.5% of diabetic patients with skin lesion had poor control of blood glucose. Twelve percent of the patients had some kind of diabetic foot ulcer (Neuropathic Necrotic, punched out and cellulitis ulcer altogether) of which 21.6% underwent amputation.

  Conclusion: The results showed that rate of skin lesions in diabetic patients is decreased. compared to the past. This may be due to increase of knowledge and attitude of patients regarding diabetes and its complications.

Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus may be associated with the imbalance between protective effect of antioxidants and increased free radical production with regard to discrepancies of the findings in previous researches the present study set out to determine the changes of plasma malondialdehyde and erythrocyte antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2005 using random sampling. 38 patients with type II diabetes mellitus who referred to 5th Azar diabetes center and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were selected for this study. Heparinated blood samples were taken from the cases. The separated plasma was tested for blood sugar, lipid peroxidation and blood cells (for glycolisated Hb and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 10) using t-test.

  Results: The level of plasma malondialdehyde from type II diabetes mellitus patients (6.27±0.80 nmol/ml) was significantly different from that in control group (3.56±0.98 nmol/ml)(p<0.05). Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity from type II diabetes mellitus patients (678.78±59.36 U/gr Hb) was significantly lower than control group (1056.47±52.98 U/gr Hb) (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: The significant difference between the increase in malondialdehyde and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in patients with type II diabetes mellitus may predispose to the development of serious complications leading to cellular damage. This suggest that diabetic patients may need more antioxidants than normal. Supplementation with medical or non-medical free radical scavengers such as vitamins E and C or foods untaining vitamin C (sitrus fruits) have a potential role in reinforcing antioxidant defence and can be important in diabetic patients.

Akram Kooskki, Mahdi Golafrooz Shahr ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Oxidative stress has a role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes due to increase in insulin resistance or disorder in insulin secretion and atherosclerosis. Food antioxadants including carotenoids protect against diabetes by preventing oxidation reactions. Therefore, this study was conducted in Sabzevar to study the relationship between carotenoids and blood sugar and lipids in type II diabetic patients.

 Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on type II diabetic patients who were randomly sampled. Their height and weight were measured and relevant data on nutritional intake and frequency in 3 successive days were collected through 24-hour recall. Measures were domesticated and converted to grams. Carotenoids of the intakes were calculated. Blood sugar, triglycerides and serum cholesterol after 12 hours fasting were measured through enzymatic procedures. Data analysis was carried out by descriptive statistics and partial correlation.

 Results: 75 type II diabetic patients with mean age of 54.05±14.2 years, mean BMI of 27.02±5.03 Kg/m2 participated in the study. Their mean blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol were 196.36±87.82, 262.84±147.89 and 243.98±60.76 mg/dl respectively. Mean daily intake of beta carotene was 1236.56±810.21 mcg, alpha carotene 878.170±149.04 mcg, lutein 1163.40±819.77 mcg, zeaxanthin and lycopen were 2195.77 ±988.70 mcg.

 Conclusion: Our results showed that most carotenoids negatively correlated though not significantly with their blood sugar and lipids.

Gholamreza Sharifirad , Aziz Kamran , Mohammadhasan Entezari ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Diabetes is one of diseases in which the main part of treatment depends on the patient's responsibility. Therefore their knowledge of the various aspects of nutrition has great importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diabetic diet education on nutritional behaviors. FBS and BMI of patients with type II Diabetes mellitus in Iranian Diabetic Association.

  Methods: 88 type II diabetic patients from Iranian Diabets Association (Karaj Branch) participated in this study. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (44) and control group (44). Data were collected with a valid and reliable questionnaire (58questions) and checklist in two stage of before and one month after intervention.

  Results: After the intervention in the experimental group regarding diabetes and nutritional behaviors, there was a significant increase in mean score of knowledge (from 57.50 to 80.18) and a significant decrease in the mean of BMI (from 28.3 to 27.9) and in the mean of fasting blood sugar (from 167.9 to 134.5) (p<0.001). However, there was no significant change in the control group.

  Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated the efficacy of education on FBS and BMI in patients with type II diabetes.

Tooraj Rashidi, Azarmdokht Alamdari Mahd, Arash Dadvand,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Background & Objectives: Candida Albicans is a fungus that frequently infects diabetic patients. Because it is very common infection in diabetics, we tried to determine the prevalence of infection and the asymptomatic carriers and show factors like age, sex, duration of diabetes and quality of disease control that  probably  have effect on infection.
Methods: In this study 200 diabetic patients were chosen randomly and blood samples were taken for FBS and HbA1C and then skin smears were performed from body folds (Axillaries groin interdigital folds) and probable lesions. The skin samples were cultured in Chrom-Agar medium. Then the gathered data were analyzed.
Results: Overall, from 200 patients, there were 180 (90%) negative culture and 20 (10%) positive cultures. Candidial infection in men and older patients were relatively higher than others. Candida infection in poor controlled diabetes was considerably higher .Infection in type-1 diabetes was more than type-2 diabetes. There was no correlation between duration of diabetes and prevalence of infection.
Conclusion: Candida infection is more common in diabetic patients with poor control, male and older ones.
Jabraeil Farzi, Parviz Salem Safi, Alireza Zohoor, Farbod Ebadi Fard Azar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)


Background & Objectives: In addition to the socio-economics costs, Diabetes is a major cause of illness and death at all groups. Diabetes affects over %10 of adults in the world. Despite promising trend in improving many aspects of health Care and treatment in the last decade in our country, little attention has been paid to the subject of registering Diabetes on an international standard. Quality improvement of treatment, identifying high risk groups, controlling, preventing and evaluating of diabetes, would materialize only when the national Diabetes Registry System is established and its data are collected and completed on time. The aim of this study was to suggest Diabetes registry system in Iran, to meet the health and medical needs.

Methods: This Comparative Cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the developed national diabetes registry systems in 2003. In this study national diabetes registry system in Britain and USA was evaluated by library resources, Websites and Email communication with internal and external specialist. Suggestions were made on the basis of economic cultural and geographic situations. These axes included aims, structures, data elements, registration, data collection processing, and classification and control of quality of system.

Results: The results show that in order to optimize the diabetes registry system, structure, data elements, information gathering process, main goals, registration criteria, Classification systems and quality control mechanism of the current national diabetes registry system should be reevaluated.

Conclusion: Considering the results and international diabetes institutes recommendation, the decrease in poor registry and increase in quality can be the advantages of model suggestion in comparison with the country's current system.

Alireza Ebadi , Saeid Golbidi, Mohsen Taghaddosi, Zarichehr Vakili , Bahareh Arbab , Shokouh Sarboluki , Batool Zamani ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2008)

  Background & Objectives: With respect to the importance of diabetes mellitus prevalence and contradictory role of treatment with metformin on vitamin B12 and folic acid serum levels and this study was done in order to determine of Vitamin B12 and folic acid serum level in patients with diabetes mellitus under treatment with metformin. This research was performed in diabetes center of Kashan in 2004.

  Methods: Information about research method, target and conclusions were given to patients. Those who were under treatment with anti acids, and chemotherapy drugs and also those who were alcoholic and had gastrointestinal diseases and hepatic diseases were excluded among all samples of this research, then patients were divided in to 2 groups: The first group were under treatment with metformin, second group were with other drugs for diabetes treatment. All of people were under treatment for at least 6 months folic acid, vitamin B12 serum level of them were checked after 14 hours fasting and the findings were studied with SPSS software and X2 tests, T test fisher exact test.

  Results: there were 145 (84.31%) female and 27 male (15.69%) between 172 patients. Average age of patients was 52.1±12.7 years. Duration of disease was 5.42±9.1 and average Body Mass Index was 27.7±4.7 kg/m2. Folic acid average was 9.2±5.1 (ng/dl) in patients who consumed metformin and was 8.7±4.6 (ng/dl) in patients without consuming of metformin that did not show significant difference (p=0.557). B12 vitamin average was 5.43±342.54 (pg/dl) in patients under treatment with metformin and was 516±32.16 (pg/dl) in patients without consuming metformin in statistical findings between these 2 groups was not significant. (p=0.639). Significant correlation was observed between age of patients whom were studied and serum folic acid level of them. (p=0.07), But did not show significant correlation between age with serum B12 level (p=0.095). There was no significant correlation between age, length of disease, body mass index and level of B12 and folic acid.

  Conclusion: Correlation between reduction serum level of B12 and folic acid with consuming of metformin was not found. Difference between results of this study with other studies is likely because of more use of routine vitamin supplement that is consumed by patients without physician’s recommending, genetic differences or drugs composition.

Manoochehr Iranparvar, Fathemeh Ghannadi-Asl,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Adherence to a diabetic diet is one of the most important aspects of diabetes management. Compliance with a diabetic diet has usually been described in terms of total intake. We examined indexes of the use of specific foods that would normally be either recommended or prohibited by Food Frequency Questionnaire.

  Methods: In order to study the dietary habits of the patients with type II diabetes 228 outpatients with type II diabetes referring to Ardabil Diabetic Clinic were randomly selected.

  Results : A common diabetic diet was reported by 87.8% of women (N = 115) and 77.1 % of men (N = 74). The dietary habits of the patients showed their awareness of limiting use of simple sugars. Use of foods with high simple sugars (e.g.: honey, jam, soft drink) were low among the patients. Potato was consumed by 58.8% of the female and 74.2% of the male, and of 43.8% of the subjects used mulberry with tea.

  Conclusions: Our result showed that there should be a greater focus on counseling, education and improving dietary of patients with diabetes.

Hosein Khadem Haghighian , Alireza Farsad Naimi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari , Akbar Ali-Asgharzadeh , Ali Nemati ,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Background & Objectives: Different types of diets and several chemical and herbal drugs are used for decreasing the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin resistance in type II diabetic patients. New herbal medicines including cinnamon have been considered for controlling diabetes. Since few reports have been presented in other countries and many studies have been done in animal models in laboratory condition, this study was aimed to investigate cinnamon supplementation effects on fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin resistance among type II diabetic patients .

 Methods: In a clinical trial study, 60 male and female patients with type II diabetes mellitus (30 patients in control and 30 patients in treatment group) were selected in Tabriz city, during 1388. The intervention group received 1.5 g of cinnamon (as a capsule containing 500 mg powder, three times daily) for 60 days and control group received placebo. Blood samples obtained from patients to determine the levels of fasting blood glucose, the glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin, before and after cinnamon consumption. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA score and data were expressed as Mean ± SD and analyzed statistically by Student t-test. p<0.05 was considered as significant .

 Results: After 60 days, the fasting blood glucose levels, the glycosylated hemoglobin and the insulin resistance decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to controls (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the fasting blood glucose levels, the glycosylated hemoglobin and the insulin resistance in the control group at the end of 60 days.

 Conclusion: This study showed the consumption of cinnamon can be useful in the fasting blood glucose, the glycosylated hemoglobin and the insulin resistance control among type II diabetic patients .

Robab Sheikhpour,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2011)

  Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder resulting from insulin deficiency or resistance. One of the most common problem in diabetic patients is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease which induced by hyperlipidemia. Primary strategies for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are lowering of the lipids level by food and drugs. Zinc as an essential trace element may affect plasma lipid status . The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc on the levels of plasma lipids in patients with type II diabetes.

  Methods: In this clinical trial study, 60 diabetic patients were divided intwo groups. The first group received 25 mg/kg/day zinc and second group received 50 mg/kg/day zinc for 8 week. The levels of fasting serum lipids, lipoproteins and zinc were evaluated in each group before and after administration of zinc. SPSS software (V.11.5) and t-test were used for statistical analysis.

  Results: In the study procedure in each group 8 patients were excluded and 22 patients completed the study. There were not significant changes in the levels of zinc and serum lipids between before and after zinc treatment in the first group (25 mg/kg/day). The serum levels of zinc significantly increased after administration of 50 mg/kg/day zinc in the second group (160 ± 30 μg/dL vs 140 ± 30, p = 0.002). There also were significant changes in the levels of LDL-Cholesterol, total cholesterol before and after zinc supplementation in the second group (50 mg/kg/day). LDL significantly reduced after supplementation (123.9±33.53 vs 96.5±32.50, p=0.001), cholesterol reduced (226.68±31.40 vs 199.8 ±37.8 p=0.001), HbA1C reduced after zinc supplementation (9.7±1.86 vs8.9±1.5, p=0.02).

  Conclusion: It seems that Zinc at higher doses (50 mg/kg/day) is effective to decrease the levels of serum lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients.

Amir Ziaee , Sima Hashemipoor, Taktom Karimzadeh, Azadeh Jalalpoor, Amir Javadi ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2012)

  Background & objectives: There are growing evidences about relationship between vitamin D metabolism and occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has a role in secretion and possibly the action of insulin and modulates lipolysis and might therefore contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether serum vitamin D3 level in patients with diabetes is lower than that in non-diabetics and if its level has any relation to indices of metabolic syndrome.

 Methods: Sixty nine subjects were enrolled in this case-control study (23 diabetic patients with good control of blood sugar, 23 poor control diabetic patients and 23 healthy subjects as control group). Serum 25(OH) D3, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), (2 hour postprandial blood sugar) BS 2hpp, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and HbA1C were measured. We also measured blood pressure, body weight, height and abdomen circumference for individuals. The data were analyzed by Anova, Chi-square and Pearson correlation.

 Results: Serum levels of Vitamin D3 were significantly lower in diabetics compared to non diabetics. (36/5±16/6 v.s. 56/6±19/1 nmol/lit, p<0/001). There was no statistical difference between the group with good control diabetes and poor control diabetes. There was no significant correlation between low serum vitamin D and metabolic syndrome parameters. These findings suggest the need for ongoing evaluation of possible protective role of vitamin D3 supplement in the development of diabetes.

 Conclusions: Based on our results vitamin D deficiency is prominent in patients with diabetes. It appears the vitamin D level should be monitored in diabetic patients.

Tavakkol Mousazadeh, Manoochehr Iran Parvar, Roya Motavalli,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Chronic disease such as cancers and diabetes are leading causes of deaths and involved in psychological problems in patients with these illnesses. The mental health condition is one of the most effective factors in improving condition of these patients. This study was aimed to investigate and compare three psychological variables, self- concept, Locus control and defense mechanism and their interaction with each other in two diabetic and normal individuals groups.

  Methods: This study was done by comparison method. In this study 80 samples (40 diabetes and 40 normals) were selected by convenience sampling and matched and assessed by three standard questionnaires Rajers's self- concept, Ghamari's Defense mechanism and Rater's Locus of control. There are suitable validity and reliability for used questionnaires. The data analyzed by T student, chi-square and regression.

  Results: There was positive significant difference between self- concept and defense mechanism but no significant difference was found between two groups for a locus control. There was negative relationship between locus control and defense mechanisms.

  Conclusion: Regarding significant difference between two groups on investigated psychological variables, it is necessary to consider patients mental health by clinical staff in order to advance health in patients.

Behzad Babapour , Shahram Habibzadeh, Mehdi Samadzadeh, Bita Shahbazzadegan, Tahereh Mohammadi, Elham Atighi ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (11-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a major cardiovascular risk factor such as HTN, HLP and smoking. A primary diabetic cardiomyopathy represents a high risk factor for heart failure in the absence of ischemic, valvular and hypertensive heart disease in the diabetic population. CAD is more common in diabetic patients and it is almost asymptomatic.

  Unquestionably, an early detection of LV damage and CAD is a major goal for the prevention of cardiac disease in the diabetic population.

  Methods: This study was done as Cross-Sectional method. The study sample consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without hypertension and cardiac symptoms (mean age 47 years) who recourse to diabetes clinic of Ardabil Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2009-2010. Left ventricular (LV) function was studied by echocardiography and exercise test using Bruce protocol. Data from the patients were collected and analyzed using SPSS 17 software.

  Results: All studied cases had a normal systolic function. 22 cases (55%) had diastolic dysfunction and 8 people (20%) had a positive stress test, which all had diastolic dysfunction too.

  Conclusion: This study showed that an impairment of left ventricular diastolic function occurs early in the natural history of diabetes mellitus and CAD is more common in diabetic patients with diastolic dysfunction.

Samira Babaeian , Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mitra Niafar , Sarvin Sanaii,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2013)

  Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is one of the prevalent metabolic disorders in the world and mostly it is related to Obesity. Central obesity results in higher risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemia is the main reason of central obesity disorders. Studies have been shown that the fruits, vegetables and drinks are rich in phenolic and antioxidants components may alleviate diabetes diseases. One of these fruits is pomegranate that is rich in flavonoids. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effect of unsweetened pomegranate juice consumption on insulin resistance, inflammatory factor and anthropometric measures in diabetic patients.

  Methods : In this clinical trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30-50 years were recruited into the study and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) intervention group (n=25) who drank 240 ml unsweetened pomegranate juice daily and (2) control group (n=25) who drank 240 ml water daily for two months. Fasting blood glucose, inflammatory factors including hs-CRP, anthropometric measures including weight, height, waist and hip circumference, BMI were determined at the baseline and after 8 weeks. Nutritionist IV program, Independent sample t-test, Paired sample t-test were used for data analyses.

  Results : Comparison of fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, body mass index, hs-CRP between the two groups before intervention did not reveal a significant difference. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in insulin resistance, body weight, hip circumstance, waist circumstance in intervention group ( p <0.05 ، p <0.01 ، p <0.05 ، p <0.05 respectively) w hereas no significant changes were found for serum glucose, HbA1C, hs-CRP in this group .

  Conclusion : These findings indicate the beneficial effect of the daily consumption of unsweetened pomegranate juice on insulin resistance, body weight, waist and hip circumstances.

Sima Nasri, Mahmood Abedinzade, Masoumeh Jamal Omidi, Farzad Noursabaghi ,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2013)

 Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is recognized with severe metabolic complications. Many herbal medicines have been recommended for treatment of diabetes. In this study, the antidiabetic and analgesic effect of hexanic and alcohlic extract Trigonella-foenum graecum was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

 Methods: Present study was carried out in 2011 at Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 48 male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 gr) were divided into six groups: control, type 1 diabetic, and 4 treat ed groups that received intraperitonealy hexanic and alcoholic extract of fenugreek (100, 200 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Two experimental models were used (acetic acid, and hot-plate tests) in order to characterize the analgesic effect. Blood glucose was measured with glucometer. Data analyzed with spss software 16 and one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. P<0.05 was statistically significant.

 Results: Compared to control rats, both of the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in all diabetics groups. This effect was stronger in groups that received Hexanic extract (p<0.05) . All groups received the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract showed analgesic effect but this effect was more clear in the Hexanic 200 mg/kg group (p<0.05).

 Conclusion: Fenugreek extract possesses hypoglycemic , and analgesic effects .

Fahimeh Esfarjani, Fatemeh Rashidi, Seyied Mohammad Marandi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2013)

  Background & Objectives: Elevated apolipoprotein B-100 and decreased Plasma HDL due to hypertriglyceridemia are common abnormalities in insulin-resistant subjects that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks progressive aerobic exercise (AE) on blood glucose, lipidand lipoprotein profile, and aerobic power in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  Methods: Twenty nine women with type 2 diabetes (mean age 43.4 ± 1.7 years and blood glucose range of 150 to 230 mg/dl ) were divided into a control (n=14) and exercise (n=15) groups. Exercise group participated in an aerobic training program 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The intensity of aerobic exercise was 60–75% of HR max. The control subjects were asked not to alter their physical activity patterns. All subjects underwent anthropometric, lipid profile and aerobic power evaluation, at the baseline and 48 hours after last session training. Following a 12 h overnight fasting, a venous blood sample was drawn for the analysis of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and (apoB100). Paired t test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data.

  Results: Significant improvement was observed in FBS, aerobic power, percent body fat, (Apo) B-100 and triglycerides (p< 0.05) for the exercise compared with the control group after training. No significant difference was observed in TC, LDL and HDL between two groups.

  Conclusion: According to our findings moderate intensity physical exercise can be effective in preventing the atherosclerosis via significant improvement in blood sugar, cardiovascular endurance, Apo B-100 and triglyceride in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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