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Showing 63 results for Diabetes

Zahra Tazakori , Maryam Zare, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Diabetes is one of the most important world health problems and a chronic disease that needs continuous care. Therefore, these kinds of patients should take self- care education. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of nutritional education on blood sugar level and macronutrients intake in IDDM patients.

  Methods : 24 IDDM patients under 20 were selected for educational program on nutrition. The data were collected two times using food questionnaire (24- hour recall) and blood sugar level before and after education was estimated. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, using SPSS and Food Processor.

  Results : There was not statistically significant relationship between blood sugar level before and after education. Also the results showed that there was statistically significant relationship between macronutrients intake before and after education (P=0.35). After education, macronutrients were similar to WHO recommendations. HbA1C level in most of the patients was 9-12% which refers to the moderate control of this diseases and hypoglycemia decreased from 4.2% to 3%.

  Conclusions : There were no remarkable changes in blood sugar but the amount of HbA1C and Macro Nutrients showed that education had a positive effect on patients.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.

Seyedhashem Sezavar , Leili Abbaszadeh , Adalat Hosseinian , Manoochehr Iranparvar , Minaye Khodamoradzadeh ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus coexist more commonly than predicted by chance and the synergistic effect of these two diseases is the cause of early disability and high rate of mortality in these patients. Controlling the blood pressure has a critical role in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in diabetic hypertensive cases. The goal of this study is to determine the rate of recognition and treatment of hypertension in type II diabetic subjects referring to diabetes clinic of Bou-ali hospital, Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 300 type II diabetic patients were examined in terms of blood pressure control.

 Results: The patients who participated in this study ranged between 28 to 80 years of age (mean: 55.5 ± 11.4). About 61.6% of diabetic patients had hypertension (BP>140/ 90 mmHg) 76.7% of these patients were aware of their hypertension. Only 8.8% of these patients with hypertension had a well-controlled blood pressure and the rest of them (91.2%) had a poorly- controlled blood pressure (BP>130/80 mmHg). About 21.8% of hypertensive diabetics although aware of their hypertension were not on any anti- hypertensive agents.

 Conclusions: This study indicates poor control of hypertension in diabetic patients. It seems that reconsidering CME programs for the physicians, emphasizing the control of risk factors especially in high-risk groups and educating the diabetic patients will improve the control of hypertension in these patients.

Gity Rahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during the pregnancy. Diagnosis of this disorder can prevent complications in mother and her fetus during pregnancy. This study was an attempt to determine GDM prevalence in pregnant women referring to Ardabil health centers.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 601 pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestational age were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) using 50 gr of oral glucose. GCT was considered positive if the serum level of glucose was larger than or equal to 140 mg/dl. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was done on GCT+ subjects with 100 gr oral glucose. The diagnostic criteria were these of National Diabetes Data Group.

 Also a questionnaire was used to record history, age, height, blood pressure, weight before pregnancy and other characteristics. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: From 601 pregnant women, 64 cases (10.6%) were GCT+. OGTT indicated that from these 64 cases, 8 cases had GDM (GCT +, OGTT+). GDM prevalence was estimated 1.3%. There was a statistically significant relationship between BMI, mean age and mean diastolic blood pressure on the one hand and GCT and GDM positivity on the other (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between increasing of BMI and the prevalence of GDM positivity GCT (p<0.05), but the relation was not significant between increasing of systolic blood pressure and gravidity with prevalence of GDM and positive GCT.

 Conclusion: It seems that the prevalence of GDM in Ardabil is low and general screening is not necessary for all pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM showed an increase with the age of pregnant women, BMI and obesity.

Seyedhashem Sezavar , Nayere Aminisani , Seyedalireza Alavizadeh ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2004)

 Background & Objective: Cardiovascular disease is a major global health problem. Countries with low to moderate income contribute significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular disease accounting for 78% of all deaths and 86.3% of all disabilities. This study was an attempt to determine the factors contributing to premature myocardial infarction among young adults in Ardabil city.

 Methods: In this Case-control study 52 subjects, under 45, with myocardial infarction, admitted to Buali hospital in 2003-2004, were compared with 52 age and sex matched population based controls. Odds ratio and confidence interval of 95% were used to evaluate the risk factors such as smoking, physical activity, family history, history of diabetes and similar factors. Analysis of variance was used to compare the means.

 Results: The mean age of the subjects was 37.2 and 96.2% of them were male. The positive family history of cardiovascular disease with odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI=2.6-34.3) and current smoking with odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI=1.3-6.2) associated with myocardial infarction. Mean of the body mass index and mean of concentration of FBS, LDL and HDL were different in case and control groups. Physical activity with odds ratio of 0.4 had protective effect. (95% CI= 0.2-0.8). There was no meaningful relationship between passive smoking, total cholesterol, education and job with myocardial infarction risk.

 Conclusion: Family history, smoking, high Fasting Blood Sugar, high LDL, Low HDL and physical inactivity are the most important factors associated with acute myocardial infarction. Proper health interventions should be considered in order to lower the risk factors among young adults especially those under 45 years of age with a positive family history of myocardial infarction.

Mehri Jafari Shobeiri , Simin Atash Khoii ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

  Background & Objectives: It is estimated that as many as 75% of women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during the lifetime and about 5% will have recurrent infections. There are clear association between vaginal candidiasis and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-diabetic women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis have an impaired glucose metabolism.

  Methods: This case-control study was carried out with 32 patients suffering from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis as case group and 30 control patients who had negative history of vaginal candidiasis during the previous year and had referred to the clinics for reasons other than vaginal candidiasis. The case group had referrd to the gynecology clinics three times during the previous year and were recognized to have vaginal candidiasis. They were being treated by antifungal drugs and had at least one positive candida culture. Both groups underwent standardized oral glucose tolerance test with 75-gram dose of glucose. The data were analysed using Chi-square and t-test.

  Results: Women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis had a mean body mass index greater than the control subjects (23.4 versus 21.5, p=0.001). They had no more incidences of overt or preclinical diabetes mellitus than the control subjects, but a greater proportion of them had at least one glucose concentration above the 95th percentile (p=0.015). Glucose concentrations were significantly higher in recurrent vaginal candidiasis cases than in control subjecs at 30, 60 and 75 minutes after the intake of 75-gram dose of glucose (p<0.05). This amount of glucose led to a 15.8% increase in serum glucose level in case group compared to the control group.

  Conclusion: Glucose tolerance test was mildy impaired in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis. The plasma glucose concentration increased in 2 hours after 75 g glucose intake. Although the obtained results were not in the range of occult diabetes, it can designate the important of glucose tolerance test in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

Masuome Aghamohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: It is estimated that 4-10% of diabetic patients suffer from foot ulcer. About one in five people with diabetes enters hospital for foot problems. Regarding the importance of education for these patients, the present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of education on foot care among diabetic patients referring to Ardabil Buali hospital.

 Methods: From the diabetic patients referring to Buali hospital (diabetes center) 120 patients admitted for the first time, who had had no past training about diabetes, were selected. Each patient was asked to fill out a questionnaire on his reference to the hospital. The questionnaire had 38 questions, the first 8 of which were about the demographic status and the illness itself and the rest of them concerned priniciples of foot care. Following this, these diabetic patients participated in public classes in the center, and a month later they filled the questionnaire again. Finally their knowledge before and ofter the education period was compared using statistical analyses.

 Results: The level of knowledge of 73.33% of the subjects before education was medium whereas following the education this rose to 86.67%. Comparing the level of knowledge of patients before and after education using t-test indicated that the level of knowledge after education is significantly higher than before (p<0.001).

 Conclusion: with regard to the significant difference in knowledge of diabetic patients before and after education, it can be concluded that educational classes of diabetic center can improve the knowledge of patients about foot care. So they are strongly recommended to be held for all these patients.

Maziar Hashemilar, Daruoosh Savadi Oskoui , Mariam Jafaryani , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

 Background & Objectives: The ischemic stroke is defined as cerebral dysfunction due to brain infarct which is induced by vascular obstruction. The related risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardioembolism and hyperlipidemia are investigated in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of cerebral infarction in young adults ( - year-olds).

 Methods: All the patients in the age rang of - admitted to the neurology ward of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between 2004 and 2005 with a diagnosis of cerebral infarction were included in this study. A questionnaire including demographic data, personal and family history of stroke and cardiac infarct, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and hyperlipidemia was filled out for all patients. Blood sugar, cholesterol, anticardiolipin antibody and beta- glycoprotein were examined. The patients underwent echocardiography. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release ).

 Results: The total number of the patients was , including females (71.1%) and males (28.9%). The mean age was (SD= ). The etiologic factors based on their frequency were: cardioembolism ( ), positive antiphospholipid antibodies (35.5%), hyperlipidemla ( ), smoking ( ), hypertension ( ), oral contraceptive use ( ) and diabetes mellitus (13.7%).

 Conclusion: The most frequent etiologies of the cerebral infarcts in the young adults in this study were cardiogenic embolism and positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Other background factors were hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, oral contraceptive use and diabetes mellitus respectively. Most of these etiologies can be intervened and prevented. The identification of these factors before occurrence of cerebral infarction can prevent this debilitating event.

Faride Golfooroshan, Effat Khodaeiani , Shahla Babaei Nejad , Delara Laghosi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinically and genitically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in blood. The skin is involved both in the effects of acute metabolic changes and in the chronic degenerative compilications of diabetes. Skin lesions are frequently observed in diabetic patients and it is generally stated that about 30% of these patients have cutaneous disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin lesion in patients with diabetes mellitus referring to dermatology and diabetes clinic of Sina hospital in Tabriz .

  Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on diabetic patients with skin lesion who referr e d to diabetic and dermatology clinic of Sina hospital of Tabriz during 2003. Data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which included some variables such as age, sex, job, type of diabetes, its duration, control of blood glucose, receiving regular treatment, type of lesion. The questionnaire was filled out for each patient with skin lesion individally. Skin lesions due to burn were excluded from our study. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-aquare and Fisher test.

  Results : From a total of 500 patients, 80 patients (16%) had skin lesions. 57.5% of these patients was male and 91.2% had type II DM. Mean age of the patients with skin lesion was 56.86±1.54 years and mean diabetes duration was 10.87±0.82 years. Patients over 50 years had the most skin lesion . The most common type of skin lesion in the diabetic patients were 30 cases of necrotic ulcer (6%) and 22 cases of diabetic dermopathy (4.4%) respectively. Other skin lesions such as infection, sclerodermoid, punched out lesions, neuropathic ulcer, diabetic bulla, dermatitis and lichen planus were not common . 97.5% of diabetic patients with skin lesion had poor control of blood glucose. Twelve percent of the patients had some kind of diabetic foot ulcer (Neuropathic Necrotic, punched out and cellulitis ulcer altogether) of which 21.6% underwent amputation.

  Conclusion: The results showed that rate of skin lesions in diabetic patients is decreased. compared to the past. This may be due to increase of knowledge and attitude of patients regarding diabetes and its complications.

Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus may be associated with the imbalance between protective effect of antioxidants and increased free radical production with regard to discrepancies of the findings in previous researches the present study set out to determine the changes of plasma malondialdehyde and erythrocyte antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2005 using random sampling. 38 patients with type II diabetes mellitus who referred to 5th Azar diabetes center and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were selected for this study. Heparinated blood samples were taken from the cases. The separated plasma was tested for blood sugar, lipid peroxidation and blood cells (for glycolisated Hb and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 10) using t-test.

  Results: The level of plasma malondialdehyde from type II diabetes mellitus patients (6.27±0.80 nmol/ml) was significantly different from that in control group (3.56±0.98 nmol/ml)(p<0.05). Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity from type II diabetes mellitus patients (678.78±59.36 U/gr Hb) was significantly lower than control group (1056.47±52.98 U/gr Hb) (p<0.05).

  Conclusion: The significant difference between the increase in malondialdehyde and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in patients with type II diabetes mellitus may predispose to the development of serious complications leading to cellular damage. This suggest that diabetic patients may need more antioxidants than normal. Supplementation with medical or non-medical free radical scavengers such as vitamins E and C or foods untaining vitamin C (sitrus fruits) have a potential role in reinforcing antioxidant defence and can be important in diabetic patients.

Reza Rastmanesh , Rahebe Shaker , Mehrdad Shoa , Yadollah Mehrabi , Lida Navayi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

  Background and Objectives: Early diagnosis of diabetes can prevent many unwanted and irreversible consequences which require a lot of expenses as well as advanced treatment methods and experts. The present study set out to compare prevalence of diabetes in first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glucose intolerants and controls.

  Methods: In This case-control research, 277 healthy subjects (129 males and 148 females) with the age of 11-95 were selected from among FDR in three groups, namely those with type II diabetes, glucose intolerants and controls and were evaluated in terms of diabetic condition. World health organization criteria were applied to recognize case(s) of diabetes and glucose intolerants.

  Results: Odds ratio of being type 2 diabetic or IGT, in FDR of patients with T2DM and subjects with IGT, 5.261 compared to controls was (with 95% CI of 2.15-12.82). Prevalence of T2DM and IGT in both male and female FDR of patients with T2DM and with IGT, was significantly higher than that of controls (p< 0.005).

  Conclusion: Significantly higher prevalence of T2DM and IGT in FDR of patients with T2DM and with IGT, compared to controls, offers a very quick and cost-effective method of diagnosing covered cases of diabetes in country's health care systems.

Akram Kooskki, Mahdi Golafrooz Shahr ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2006)

 Background and Objectives: Oxidative stress has a role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes due to increase in insulin resistance or disorder in insulin secretion and atherosclerosis. Food antioxadants including carotenoids protect against diabetes by preventing oxidation reactions. Therefore, this study was conducted in Sabzevar to study the relationship between carotenoids and blood sugar and lipids in type II diabetic patients.

 Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on type II diabetic patients who were randomly sampled. Their height and weight were measured and relevant data on nutritional intake and frequency in 3 successive days were collected through 24-hour recall. Measures were domesticated and converted to grams. Carotenoids of the intakes were calculated. Blood sugar, triglycerides and serum cholesterol after 12 hours fasting were measured through enzymatic procedures. Data analysis was carried out by descriptive statistics and partial correlation.

 Results: 75 type II diabetic patients with mean age of 54.05±14.2 years, mean BMI of 27.02±5.03 Kg/m2 participated in the study. Their mean blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol were 196.36±87.82, 262.84±147.89 and 243.98±60.76 mg/dl respectively. Mean daily intake of beta carotene was 1236.56±810.21 mcg, alpha carotene 878.170±149.04 mcg, lutein 1163.40±819.77 mcg, zeaxanthin and lycopen were 2195.77 ±988.70 mcg.

 Conclusion: Our results showed that most carotenoids negatively correlated though not significantly with their blood sugar and lipids.

Bahman Bashardoust , Saeid Sadegie Ahari , Firooz Amani , Fatemeh Haedar Pour,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

  Background & Objectives: Uremia polyneuropathies especially peripheral neuropathy in chronic hemodialysis patients are very common and its orevalance different and reported between 18-80%. This study was designed to investigate prevalence of neuropathy and its relation ship with duration and adequacy of dialysis in Booali Hospital.

  Methods: This study was an analytic-descriotive study that has been done on 30 patients under hemodialysis and the examinations of which was done by neurologists. To analyze the KT/V for dialysis adequacy, a software from HDCN site was used EMG and NCV to the lower and upper parts were performed to all patients by a neurologist.

 The required tests were extancted from patients' serial tests. In this study patients with hepatitis C, D, diabetes and Amiloid were excuded from the study. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical method in SPSS program.

  Results: EMG showed that 40% of patients had carpal tunnel syndrome (65.7% Mild, 13.3% Moderate, and 13.3% Sever in which then was no significant relationship between efficacy and time length. In 56.7% of patients KT/V had higher than 1.2 (Normal), 16.7% had KT/V between 1-1.2 (Acceptable) and 16.7% have KT/V less than 1 (Non Acceptable).

  Conclusion: Inspite of the new and improved method of hemodialysis, in comparson with the past the prevalence of neuropathy was higher in hemodialysis patients and there was no change in the prevalence of neuropathy. There is no significant relationship between dialysis efficacy and neuropathy. It seems that caulative factors neuropathy like urea were not prevent and they are made within the body.

Khalil Rostami, Abbas Yazdanbood , Nayereh Amini Sani, Faranak Moharami ,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2007)

 Background & Objectives: One of the most common gastrointestinal diseases is gallstone and its complications, that leads to hospitalization and expensive cost. Since Causative factors in this disease are so many that some of them can be preventable and there has not been a study on the risk factor and gallstone, this study investigates the relationship between riskfactor and gallstone,

 Methods: This was a case-control. study A total of 150 patients with gallstone using the simple nonrandomized method were selected and were compared with 150 hospital controls with which they were matched. The risk factors for gallstone formation (age, gender, family history, parity, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia) were assessed in all of subjects. The association of gallstone with all these risk factor was evaluated with statistical tests including chi-square, ANOVA.

  Results: In this study, 117 cases (78%) were female and the other 33 cases (22%) were male. 42 persons (28%) were between 40-49 years old and about body mass index 63 persons (42%) were at the range of 25-299 (overweight). The mean serum level of triglyceride in women of case-group was 152.7 ± 7.5 in comparison with 117.8 ± 57.7 mg/dl in control group (p=0.001). Mean duration of oral contraceptive pills in case was 6.9 ± 4.9 in comparison with 3.1 ± 2.9 years in control group. There was a positive correlation between Goldstone, BMI and mean serum trighyceridz level in women (p=0.001, p=0.001). There was not any arelationship between the parity, smoking, hyper chlostrolemia, hypertriglyceride (in men), positive family history and gallstone.

 Conclusion: In this study, bidy mas index, the period of taking oral contraceptive pills and triglyceride play roles in gallstone formation. Since these factors can be interventional, it is essential that good plannings be devised to improve them.

Fariborz Akbarzadeh , Naser Aslan Abadi , Abdolrasool Safaiyan ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Many risk factors are important in genesis of coronary artery disease. Their effect and prevalence are different in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cardiac risk factors in hypertensive patients and compare those in normotensive patients.

  Methods: With descriptive cross sectional study and random sampling, 976 of 3000 patients’ units who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) during year of 2004 were studied. Demographic and angiographic data were collected. Data entry and analysis were done by SPSS 11.5 and EPI 6 statistical software.

  Results: Prevalence of patients who underwent CAG was 60.5%. Mean age of patients were 58.6 and 53.9 years and prevalence of CAD were 84 and 84.5 percent in hypertensive and non hypertensive patients respectively. Prevalence of two and three vessel disease was higher in hypertensive patients. Male gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and age were main predictors of CAD in hypertensive patients but in normotensive patients male gender, smoking, familial history and age were major predictors.

  Conclusion: Prevalence of HTN, RFs and CADare high in patients who underwent CAG and pattern of CAD in our country follows western country patterns. Male gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and age were main predictors of CAD in hypertensive patients, respectively regarding to high prevalence of cardiac risk factors and their severe effect on genesis of CAD in hypertensive patients rapid health measures are needed for control of HTN in general population.

Nayereh Amini Sani , Darioush Savadi Oskoui, Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran, Saeid Dastgiri , Mazyar Hashemilar, Maryam Jafariani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates have declined in some countries during recent decades. Changes in mortality rates over time could be attributed to changes in disease incidence or case fatality rate. Very few studies have provided information regarding survival after stroke. We aimed to determine the case-fatality rate (28 days) among patients with first-ever stroke from a population-based study in Ardabil province, Northwest of Iran.

  Methods: This study was conducted between May 2005 and February 2006, all individuals with an acute stroke who were residents in Ardabil province and hospitalized at Alavi Hospital, were registered prospectively and assessed according to standardized diagnostic criteria. The data were analyzed through SPSS, Chi square and variance analysis.

  Results: A total of 352 patients with first-ever stroke were registered, and 346 (96%) were followed up. 288 (81.8%) ischemic stroke, 16.2% (57) ICH and 2% SAH. By 28 days, 70 patients (20.3%) had died. Hypertension, diabetes and cardiac disease history were reported in 61.6%, 16.8% and 26.1% respectively and 19.8% of patients were smokers. Mean age of survivors was different from patients who died at 28 days after index event (64.2±12.9 VS 69.1±10.9, p=0.03). The proportion surviving 28 days varied from 16.2% among patients with ischemic stroke to 43% among ICH and SAH. For ischemic stroke, Survival rates were similar for men and women, whereas men with ICH had lower survival than women.

  Conclusion: Case fatality rate after first-ever stroke is substantial. Rates of mortality differ according to patients diagnosis, age, sex, and heart disease. These data highlight the importance of long-term secondary prevention.

Gholamreza Sharifirad , Aziz Kamran , Mohammadhasan Entezari ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Diabetes is one of diseases in which the main part of treatment depends on the patient's responsibility. Therefore their knowledge of the various aspects of nutrition has great importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diabetic diet education on nutritional behaviors. FBS and BMI of patients with type II Diabetes mellitus in Iranian Diabetic Association.

  Methods: 88 type II diabetic patients from Iranian Diabets Association (Karaj Branch) participated in this study. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (44) and control group (44). Data were collected with a valid and reliable questionnaire (58questions) and checklist in two stage of before and one month after intervention.

  Results: After the intervention in the experimental group regarding diabetes and nutritional behaviors, there was a significant increase in mean score of knowledge (from 57.50 to 80.18) and a significant decrease in the mean of BMI (from 28.3 to 27.9) and in the mean of fasting blood sugar (from 167.9 to 134.5) (p<0.001). However, there was no significant change in the control group.

  Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated the efficacy of education on FBS and BMI in patients with type II diabetes.

Tooraj Rashidi, Azarmdokht Alamdari Mahd, Arash Dadvand,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Background & Objectives: Candida Albicans is a fungus that frequently infects diabetic patients. Because it is very common infection in diabetics, we tried to determine the prevalence of infection and the asymptomatic carriers and show factors like age, sex, duration of diabetes and quality of disease control that  probably  have effect on infection.
Methods: In this study 200 diabetic patients were chosen randomly and blood samples were taken for FBS and HbA1C and then skin smears were performed from body folds (Axillaries groin interdigital folds) and probable lesions. The skin samples were cultured in Chrom-Agar medium. Then the gathered data were analyzed.
Results: Overall, from 200 patients, there were 180 (90%) negative culture and 20 (10%) positive cultures. Candidial infection in men and older patients were relatively higher than others. Candida infection in poor controlled diabetes was considerably higher .Infection in type-1 diabetes was more than type-2 diabetes. There was no correlation between duration of diabetes and prevalence of infection.
Conclusion: Candida infection is more common in diabetic patients with poor control, male and older ones.
Jabraeil Farzi, Parviz Salem Safi, Alireza Zohoor, Farbod Ebadi Fard Azar,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)


Background & Objectives: In addition to the socio-economics costs, Diabetes is a major cause of illness and death at all groups. Diabetes affects over %10 of adults in the world. Despite promising trend in improving many aspects of health Care and treatment in the last decade in our country, little attention has been paid to the subject of registering Diabetes on an international standard. Quality improvement of treatment, identifying high risk groups, controlling, preventing and evaluating of diabetes, would materialize only when the national Diabetes Registry System is established and its data are collected and completed on time. The aim of this study was to suggest Diabetes registry system in Iran, to meet the health and medical needs.

Methods: This Comparative Cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the developed national diabetes registry systems in 2003. In this study national diabetes registry system in Britain and USA was evaluated by library resources, Websites and Email communication with internal and external specialist. Suggestions were made on the basis of economic cultural and geographic situations. These axes included aims, structures, data elements, registration, data collection processing, and classification and control of quality of system.

Results: The results show that in order to optimize the diabetes registry system, structure, data elements, information gathering process, main goals, registration criteria, Classification systems and quality control mechanism of the current national diabetes registry system should be reevaluated.

Conclusion: Considering the results and international diabetes institutes recommendation, the decrease in poor registry and increase in quality can be the advantages of model suggestion in comparison with the country's current system.

Adalat Hosseinian , Firouz Amani , Ebrahim Hajizadeh , Shahram Habibzadeh ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2008)

 Background & Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in the world. Statistics shows that mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease in Iran is going up, so quality of management and treatment of these patients need to be better. For these reasons, determination of survival rates and factors affecting it is important and is also the aim of this study.

  Methods: This is a survival analytic prospective study, done on 800 patients, admitted in Ardabil Bouali Hospital CCU. All of the patients were followed up one year and a questionnaire about them was obtained. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. For survival analysis Kaplan Maier, life table, logReng test and Cox regressions model were used.

 Results: Mean age of patients was 60.6±12.4 years. Total number of mortality in one year was 84 persons (10.5%). 582 patients were men and 218 were women. 47.4% were smokers, 33.4% had hypertension, 18.1% had diabetes mellitus, 15.3% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had arrhythmia. Survival rate in the first 10 days, 28 days and one year were 94%, 93% and 90% respectively.

 Conclusion: Factors that affected survival in Cox regress ional model were: diabetes mellitus, age, use of streptokinase, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate and heart block. Knowledge from survival rates and relative risks can help health managers in better health service preparation.

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