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Showing 29 results for Depression

Effat Mazaheri , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Adalat Hosseinian , Nasrin Fooladi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Today, with changes in health care systems, most of the patients, receive occupational and special cares at home after being discharged from hospital . The aim of this study was to assess the effects of follow up on physical and emotional status of the patients with recent myocardial Infarction .

  Methods : This experimental study was done on 60 patients with acute myocardial infarction, who referred to Boali Hospital during 2000-2001.The patients were chosen randomly and were set in two different groups with 30 subjects in each group . Then, a home care program was designed for case group. but there was no intervention for control group . This home care program was completed and one week later the physical and emotional status of the patients in two groups were analyzed by Spilbergar and Beck tests and finally the results were compared in two groups using X2 test.

  Results : The X2 test showed that there is a significant difference between resting heart rate of two groups with P<0.05 but the difference among systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, anxiety and depression was not statistically significant in two groups.

  Conclusions: Regarding the effects of follow-up on the physical and emotional status of the patients, nurses can improve the quality of the patienys life through active home - care and rehabilitation programs along with social supports.

Tahereh Seghatoleslam, Omidvar Rezaee , Kobra Aghighi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

 Background & Objective: Dependence on substance or addiction is a psychological disturbance. This is referred to as substance abuse in psychological classifications and is the second most common psychological disturbance. On the other hand depression is an instance of disturbance, which is observed among the victims of substance abuse. This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) of depression among patients with substance abuse.

 Methods: Using experimental method, 28 men and women (23-35 years, normal IQ) with substance abuse were randomly selected according to DSMIV criteria. These subjects had been under anti-addiction medication for two years, without adequate control, and were divided into two groups. The two groups received the following treatments for 6 weeks: 1- Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 2- No specific psychological treatment (control group). Two instruments were used to collect data namely Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate depression and demographic forms to record the information.

 Results: The data were analyzed using repeated measurements including a pretest and two posttests. In pretest, according to scores of both groups from Beck test, there was a severe depression among the subjects. However in the second and third posttests these scores fell significantly. The intra-group and inter-group tests showed that these reduction in scores was related to the intra-group differences.

 Conclusions: CBT has had an important role in treatment of depression among patients with substance abuse. Psychological intervention was able to help them change their cognition by decreasing depression and enable them to have a more positive belief in controlling themselves against dependency. It seems that taking psychologically team-approach (both theoretically and practically) about control strategies and treatment of depression in patients with substance abuse can deeply improve their life style as well as their individual and social relations.

Mohammadreza Ghodraty , Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Firooz Amani , Shahnaz Rahimi , Nasrin Shahab ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

  Background & Objective : Regional anesthesia is a method of choice in cesarean section. But in emergency cesarean sections general anesthesia is usually preferred. On the other hand, intravenous sedative drugs used in general anesthesia induction rapidly crosses the placenta and result in fetal depression. Because of higher prevalence of general anesthesia in Iran it is reasonable to conduct more researches in this field. This study set out to compare the effects of Propofol and Thiopental-Na as induction agents on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal hemodynamic status.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 60 pregnant women with ASA class I & II were studied. In a random way 30 patients received 2mg/kg Propofol and the rest of them were given 4mg/kg of Thiopental-Na. All these subjects had full term and normal fetus. Pre and post-induction status of the patients was monitored noninvasively after tracheal intubations and during 12 minutes after that. Also time intervals between induction and birth (cord clipping) and between uterus incision and birth were measured. Apgar score of neonates was evaluated through clinical examination in 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th minutes after birth. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi-square and ANOVA.

 Results: Apgar score in different times (1.5,10&15 minute) had no significant difference between two groups. (In the 1st minute Propofol was 7.1 ± 2.2 and Thiopental was 74 ± 1.8, in the 5th minute Propofol was 9.2 ± 0.7 and Thiopental was 9.1 ± 0.9) Maximum variation of heart rate and blood pressure in two groups were not significantly different. The time intervals between induction and birth (less than 8 minutes) on the one hand and uterus incision and birth(less than 130 seconds) on the other were similar in two groups.

  Conclusions : Thiopental-Na and Propofol can be used with similar results for induction of general anesthesia in cesarean section.

Afrouz Mardi , Parviz Molavi , Zahra Tazakori , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2003)

 Background & Objective: Postpartum depression is a problematic and important disease and if not recognized and treated on time, it can be aggravated or chronic. Exercise is strongly recommended in this regard to prevent any family disorders and improve the health of mother, child and family. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on mild postpartum depression among women referring to Ardabil health centers.

  Methods : This study was a double blind clinical trial. About 50 subjects with normal vaginal delivery were selected. The subjects had referred to health canters in the second week after delivery and were diagnosed to have mild depression using Beck depression test. They were randomly divided into two groups (exercise and non-exercise). Then Beck test was done 6 weeks after delivery again and the results were compared in two groups.

  Results : The findings indicated that between mildly depressed mothers, 36% were 26-30 years old, 82% were housekeeper, 44% had under diploma education, 60% had two previous deliveries. 56% of exercise group and 32% of non-exercise group were treated. 8% of experimental subjects and 18% of control ones needed psychological consultation 6 weeks after delivery. T-test showed significant differences between two groups (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Results showed that exercise had a positive effect on the treatment of mild postpartum depression. As a result it is recommended strongly in postpartum care.

Firooz Amani , Bahram Sohrabi , Saeid Sadeghieh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2004)

  Background & Objective :Depression is one of the most common disorders which can affect every individual. However some individuals (including the students of medical sciences) who are involved in health issues are more vulnerable in this regard. The early diagnosis of this disorder among the students can lead to primary prevention and avoid any further progression and deteriration. This in turn can result in mental health among these students as well as the society. The present study set out to investigate the rate of depression among the students of Ardabil university of medical sciences.

  Methods : This research is an analytic-descriptive study conducted on 324 students from Ardabil University of Medical Scinces. A questionnaire including two sections was used to collect the data. The first section was about the demographic information and the second section included questions about depression based on Beck depression test. The data were analyzed by SPSS soft waire using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Results : The results showed that 57.4% of total subjects (186 students) suffered from various degrees of depression. 128 of these students were suffering from clinical depression. The prevalence of depression among midwifery students was 21.4 %. Chi- square test showed a significant relationship among prevalence of depression in these students with their educational semester , the number of their siblings, any kind of major physical disorder in the subject or, a serious psychological problem among their family members , as well as any significant event during the previous year.

  Conclusions : According to obtained results there was a high degree of depression among medical university students and serious measures should be taken in the future in order to prevent this social concern.

Mohammad Narimani , Parvin Nakhostine Ruhi , Mahnaz Yosefi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2004)

 Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression, as a mental disorder, is seen in some women and can threaten their mental health as well as their infants. At least 7% of mothers suffer from this problem after parturition. Studies indicate that many variables are associated with this disorder during and after the gestation period. The aim of this study was to achieve the rate of postpartum depression and its relevant variables among women who referred to the parturition ward of Buali and Emam Hossein hospitals in Tehran.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study a questionnaire construced by researchers as well as Beck 21- item depression inventory were used to collect the data. The subjects (100 cases) responded to the questions individually in the hospitals. According to the type of variables, X2 nonparametric test was used in the data analysis.

 Results: The results of this study indicated that 17% of the subjects were suffering from moderate and severe depression and among the 14 predictive variables of the postpartum depression four variables, namely, matrimonial dissatisfaction, unwanted gestation, unemployment and low economical status of family have significant relationship with the postpartum depression.

 Conclusion: In comparison with the previous studies, the prevalence of postpartum depression is in higher level therefore, it is necessary to increase the information of parturition ward staff about this disorder and inform them to refer any cases of depression to the counseling centers.

Ali Reza Zahiroddin, Mortaza Hayati, Maede Jadidi, Seied Mahdi Samimi ,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Depression is the most common psychological problem in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The present study was conducted to determine the rate of depression in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients.

 Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. 120 chronic HD patients who referred to dialysis ward of Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBMU) hospitals were selected through an available (non-random) sampling and after exclusion of 20 patients due to study’s exclusion criteria, all were assessed for depression, using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). Statistical analyses were preformed by SPSS (rel 11.5) using analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent t-test, Chi- Square and coefficient of correlation.

 Results: Totally, considering the intensity of depression, 69% of patients were in depression spectrum (BDI>9), but the rate of depression was 45% (BDI >15) among chornic hemodialysis patients. There was no significant difference between the intensity of depression and various parameters, but unemployment associated with higher rate of depression (p=0.018).

 Conclusion:It seems the screening of HD Patients with BDI followed by referring the depressed patients to a psychiatrist for more evaluation is necessary so that at least some of the suffering, morbidity and mortality of the patients will be diminished.

Hosein Doostkami , Adalat Hosseinian, Gholam Hosain Fatehi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (4-2006)

  Background & Objectives: Coronary artery diseases are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrial countries and in Iran. Myocardial infarction and unstable angina are essential clinical syndromes of coronary artery diseases, with the difference that the mortality and morbidity of NonST-elevated myocardial infractions is more than U/A and requires more intensive care. Rapid differentiation and diagnosis of NSTEMI from U/A plays a major role in effective treatment of patients and improvement of their prognosis. This study was designed to determine the incidence of nonST-elevated MI among patients hospitalized with initial diagnosis of U/A.

  Methods: This is a descriptive and analytical study performed on patients hospitalized with U/A diagnosis between 2001 and 2002 in Ardabil Buali hospital. The data (including demographic characteristics, patients’ clinical findings, ECG changes, laboratory findings) were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Results: mean patient age was 61 and prevalence of nonST-elevated MI among patients with U/A was 23 patients (22.1%). Mean age of patients with NSTEMI was 60.5 and its prevalence was greater in male (69.9%) than in female (30.4%). The most prevalent ECG change in patients was T wave inversion and ST depression (78.3%) and in U/A patients it was T wave inversion (60.5%). The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). 64.7% of the NSTEMI patients and 27.4% of the patients with U/A had severe chest pain (p<0.004).

  Conclusion: Prevalence of NSTEMI was about 1/5 of patients hospitalized with diagnosis of U/A and ECG changes among these patients (as T wave inverison and ST depression along with negative T wave) is more prevalent compared to those with U/A. Clinical manifestation and complications were more severe in these patients than U/A group.

Fariba Sadeghi Movahhed , Farideh Mostafazadeh, Mehrnaz Mashoufi ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

 Background & Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common disease in psychiatry which increases anxiety in approximately 2% of the world population. Recent reports suggest that OCD starts in menstruation, Pregnancy, post-partum periods which causes failure in women's quality of life. The aim of study was to determine the onset of (OCD) in fertile women.

 Methods: In a descriptive study in 2006, 53 women with DSM-IV were interviewed for obsessive disorder at psychiatry clinic of Fatemi hospital. A questionnaire including two parts on demographic information and 8 questions on the onset of obsessive disorder in menstruation, pregnancy, puerperium periods was completed. Data were analyzed through SPSS.

 Results: In 3.8%, the onset of obsessive disorder was with the first menstruation period. In 12.5% it was during pregnancy. In 57.1% (4) of obsessive samples onset of obsessive was in second pregnancy. In 16.24% onset of OCD was after delivery. In 28.8% it was after first delivery and 30% after first delivery had affective disorders.

 Conclusion: The menstruation, pregnancy, post partum may be a periods of risk for recurrence or onset of obsessive compulsive disorder and women should be taken care of more in order to avoid disorders like depression. Midwife clinicians caring for women need to be aware of the impact of these symptoms and attention for mental health in women.

Samad Ghaffari, Reza Zerehpoush,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2007)

  Background & Objective: Electrocardiography is a useful method in predicting coronary artery occlusion site, left ventricular function and the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Accurate localization of coronary artery occlusion and the extent of ischemic area are very important in decision making for invasive procedures to restore coronary perfusion.

  Methods: In this prospective study the abnormal findings of first recorded electrocardiogram in 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction w ere compared with coronary angiography findings and the value of ST-T changes in predicting coronary artery occlusion site was evaluated.

  Results: In acute anterior wall infarction, ST elevation in aVR (p=0.001), right bundle branch block (p=0.001) and ST depression in V5 strongly predicts LAD occlusion at its proximal part. Also ST depression, especially equal or more than 1 mm, in inferior leads indicates proximal LAD occlusion. The absence of such ST depression in these inferior leads correlates with distal LAD occlusion (p=0.01).ST depression of aVL also is a sign of distal LAD occlusion (p=0.01).In acute inferior wall infarction ≥ 1 mm ST depression in leads I, aVL and greater ST elevation in lead III than lead II refers to RCA involvement.

  Conclusion: In acute anterior myocardial infarction electrocardiography can help to differentiate proximal LAD lesion from its distal involvement. Also it is useful in determining the culprit vessel in acute inferior wall infarction and helps to recognize high risk patients with major benefit from invasive reperfusion strategies.

Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaei , Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksariie, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Zhila Mohamadrezaei,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (4-2008)

Background & Objective: Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence especially in child-bearing women. This study was done to determine relationship between postpartum depression and its various risk factors.
Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study on 600 women referring to health centers in Tabriz. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including 5 parts: demographic characteristics, mother-newborn characteristics, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Holms stress scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. These data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods in SPSS 14/win software.
Results: In this study 34.7% of mothers were depressed (scores>12). Significant risk factors for postpartum depression were: Marital dissatisfaction, relationship with mother, mother-in law and husband's family, job dissatisfaction, house condition, having an unpleasant
pregnancy experience, unplanned pregnancy, baby care stressors, infant feeding method, nursing problems, mother's self-esteem and stress level.
Conclusion: Concerning high prevalence of postpartum depression in this study and other similar studies and effects of some factors in this disorder, it seems to be necessary to improve the knowledge of mothers and health care staff about this risk factors for reducing effects of this disorder on physical and psychological health of newborns, mothers and
Naeima Khodadadi , Haeideh Mahmoodi , Nooshaz Mirhagjoo ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2008)

  Background & Objective: postpartum depression is a kind of psychiatric disorder that psychosocial factors relate with it . This study was performed in order to determine relationship between postpartum depression and psychosocial effects and Determine the rate of postpartum depression in mothers visiting health-medical centers in city of Rasht .

  Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 350 women were selected in the Random cluster manner. The instruments for gathering data were two questionnaires including psychosocial effects and Edinbugh test. The reseacher completed these questionnaires through interview.

  Results: The results indicated that 16% of samples suffered from postpartum depression. The results indicated a significant correlation between the satisfaction of life and husband's relatives (p=0.021) the lifes life's unpleasant events (p<0.0001) the psychological disorder history in family (p<0.0001) the post partum depression history in family (p=0.008) the unwanted pregnancy (p=0.041) tendency to abortion (p<0.0001) the satisfaction of mothers about the neonatal gendel (p=0.034) the satisfaction of husband's family about neonatal gentiv (p=0.005) the kind of communication with husband (p<0.0001) The kind of communication with husband's family (p<0.0001) and the postpartum depression .

  Conclusion: Nurses have important roles in secondary prevention and screening women suffering from postpartum depepression, and also in appropriate and quick refering them to psychiatrist. Nurses need to be knowledgeable about high-risk factors and share the information with mothers and their families .

Davood Adham, Parviz Salem Safi, Mohammad Amiri, Behrooz Dadkhah, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Naser Mozaffari, Zekrollah Sattari, Saeid Dadashian,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)

Background & Objectives: Since the students majoring in different Fields of medicine are going to play key roles regarding Community health in the future, it seams necessary to characterize problems threatening their mental health. This study was performed in order to evaluate students’ mental health status in Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 352 students were selected through census and were requested to fill out general health questionnaire (GHQ) with 28 questions as well as personal information questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi- square.
Results: The findings indicate that students have problems in physical (1.7%), and social function (4.3%), anxiety and insomnia (2.3%) of them suffer from severe depression (2%). Also according to cut point (23) 22.7% students were suspected of mental disorders. In this research, there was no significant difference in mental disorders between male and female students, but there was a meaningful relationship between status with paternal educational degree and family size and mother's job (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: according to the findings, student's psychological evaluation and counseling service in different fields to promote student mental health, is recommended

Fariba Sadeghi Movahed, Mohammad Narimani, Sooran Rajabi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2008)


Background & Objectives: Mental Health is a phenomenon which has been considered by psychologists, medical doctors and religious scholars and it is a combination of physical, social and cognitive factors. Due to the effectiveness of teaching coping skills in increasing mental health, this study was done to achieve the effect of teaching coping skills in providing mental health in students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.       

Methods: Due to the nature and aims of the study, the study method was experimental research method. The samples of the present study comprised all male and female students (n=112) at Ardabil University of medical Sciences in 2006-2007 and gained 23 or more in GHQ-28 questionnaire (which evaluates four subscales of anxiety, depression, physical symptoms, and disorder of social functioning). At the next stage the samples (i.e. 80 female and male students) were selected randomly and divided in to two groups. Then, coping skills were taught to the experimental group for 4 weeks (two sessions in a week) and no variable was exposed to the control group during this period. At the end, the data from 62 (Dropt=18 case) individuals were analyzed by independent t test.   

Results: the results showed that teaching coping skills affects on decreasing mental disorders symptoms especially somatization of symptoms and anxiety of students suspected to the mental disorder (R< 0.001). But the teaching coping skills do not affect on decreasing depression and disorder of social functioning of students.

Conclusion: This study showed that teaching coping skills is a good method in decreasing mental disorders symptoms among the students suspected to the mental disorder. Therefore it is suggested that in order to prevent and decrease mental disorders symptoms, the coping skills should be taught to students.

Reihaneh Ivanbaga , Leila Norousi Panahi , Morteza Ghojazadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksaraee, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi Mamagani ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2009)

  Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of the most important problems during post partum. Several new medications have been introduced for treatment, but considering their side effects and also breast feeding women's desire for dietary complements rather than chemical drugs, this research was done to determine comparison of effectiveness of Omega-3 fatty acids with placebo in treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression.

  Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial study was done on 120 women with postpartum depression, who had the required criteria. First by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in women who gave birth 2 weeks to 3 months before, postpartum depression approved for determining the severity of depression, Beck Depression Inventory scale (BDI) was used. Women with mild to moderate depression who had a score 46 on the (BDI) and did not have any tendency to use anti-depressant drugs under the supervision of the psychiatrist, enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive either 1gr of Omega-3 capsules or placebo for 8 weeks. Severity of depression was measured before treatment and weekly during treatment in both groups. The data analyzed through T-Test, repeated measurements of one way ANOVA and chi square test in SPSS 14/Win.

  Results: There were no significant differences between two groups with respect to demographic characteristics. Results show that Mean Depression Scores before treatment in Omega-3 group (35.4 ± 9.2) decreased after treatment (17.7 ± 7.0), which was significant (p<0.0005). Mean Depression Scores before treatment in placebo group (34.2 ± 3.4) decreased after treatment (33.6 ± 9.3) which wasn't significant (p=0.57). There was a significant difference between reductions of Depression Scores in two groups(P<0.001).

  Conclusion: According to research results, use of Omega-3 1gr/day for 8 weeks improves postpartum depression.

Hasan Farahi, Robabeh Del Azar,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2009)

  objective : The research literature extensively indicate that religion often operates as strong protective factor against psychological and psychosomatic disorders. The ways of influence of religious beliefs and rites on psychological and psychosomatic disorders has not explored enough. Thepresent study aims at studying suicide ideation in patients with depression performing religious rites at different levels.

  Method: This cross-sectional study were done on 66 patients with depression who referring to Toluo psychiatric and psychological clinic and Shafa psychiatric hospital in Rasht were selected by convenience sampling. Unstructured interview was used for diagnosing depression by psychologist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Beck Depression Inventory. The degree of performing religious rites by subjects was determined using a researcher-designed, self- administrated rating scale, and subjects assigned in two group of patients with depression performing religious rites strongly (N=33) and patients with depression performing religious rites weakly (N=33). In addition to Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Scale of Suicide Ideation were applied for assessing hoplessness and suicide ideation, respectively.

  Results: Statistical analysis by T-test showed no significant (/867) between two groups regarding degree of depression (/847). BW the degree of hopelessness (/034) and suicide ideation (/0005) BW there were significant dirences between two groups from view pe of the heyer of hopelessness and (0.034) suicide ideation (0.0005).

  Conclusion: We conclude that phenomenology of depression in patients strongly performing religious rites differ in terms of degree of suicide ideation and hopelessness with patients weakly performing religious rites.

Parviz Molavi , Zahra Shahrivar , Javad Mahmodi Garaee, Sajjad Bashirpor , Afshan Sharghi, Fatemeh Nikparvar ,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2011)

  Background & Objectives: Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is a childhood critical disorder with negative course and outcome consequences. The aim of this study was determination of six-month outcome predictor factors (recurrence rate, the rate of hospitalization, severity of illness and recovery rates) in manic and mixed bipolar disorders of children and adolescents admitted in Tehran Rozbeh hospital.

  Methods: In this prospective Cohort study, 80 patients with bipolar disorder (10-18 year's old) admitted in Tehran Roozbeh Hospital from January 2009 to July 2010 were selected. The available sampling method was used for selection. Participants at admission, discharge, and follow-up at 3 and 6 months, were evaluated by using researcher made questionnaires, K-SADS (to confirm the diagnosis), CDI ( Children Depression Inventory) or BDI ( Beck Depression Inventory) , YMRS ( Young Mania Rating Scale) , CGI- S ( Clinical Global Impression Scale) , CGAS ( Children's Global Assessment Scale), CGI-S ( Clinical Global Impression Scale) and PAS ( Premorbid Adjustment Scale) . The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and Multivariate regressions .

  Results: The results showed that disease outcome was not associated with age. Gender (male) had correlation with mania severity in 6-month follow-up. Disease duration predicted recurrence rate and severity of disease. Manic type disorder was related with mania severity, and mixed mania predicted mania severity negatively in 6-month follow-up. Therapeutic compliance was correlated with mania severity (negative correlation) and improvement rate (positive correlation). Presence of psychosis was correlated with recurrence rate positively in 6-month follow-up. Co-morbidity with ADHD ( Attention Deficient /Hyperactivity Disorder) predicted clinical global improvement (CGI-G) negatively and mania severity positively in 6-month follow-up. Pre-morbid coping showed negative relationship with mania severity and positive relation with global improvement rate in 6-month follow-up.

  Conclusion: Our results showed that gender of patients, duration and manic type of disease, presence of psychosis at admission have a direct relation with inappropriate outcome of manic and mixed bipolar disorders of children and adolescents. These findings emphasize necessity of special curing during treatment.

Fariba Sadeghi Movahhed , Parviz Molavi , Farid Gossili , Touraj Rahmani , Firouz Amani , Amir Masoud Rostami ,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (4-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders in the world. It causes disruption in daily activities and increases the risk of major depression. Hence, clinically the appropriate and persistent treatment of insomnia is very important. Using of hypnotic drugs such as benzodiazepines is the common treatment for insomnia but they show several side effects and it seems that new medications should be used for treatment of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was comparison between the effects of electromagnetic therapy and conventional drug usage in the treatment of insomnia.

  Methods: In a blind randomized clinical trial study, 60 people referred to the private office of the psychiatrist and experienced more than 3 months extended primary insomnia were selected. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria and had no other underlying problems. The subjects were divided in two groups: 30 people in each and treated electromagnetically or with Alprazolam for 3 weeks. Before treatment, immediately and one month after treatment, quality of sleep and severity of the insomnia were evaluated by using the standard questionnaires and finally, the results were analyzed statistically.

  Results : In this study, 60 individuals participated from whom 28 were male (46.7%) and 32 patients were female (53.3%).The mean age was 37.3 years old in a range of 17- 65. The mean point of each questionnaire, before and immediately after treatment significantly didn't show any difference but one month after treatment, there was a significant difference in both groups.

  Conclusion : To treat insomnia, electromagnetic therapy appears to be used as a replacement for sedative medicines. It also has more stability in comparison with other sedative medicines and no side effects have been reported yet.

Eiraj Feizi, Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi , Alireza Rahimi , Seddigheh Nemati,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2012)

  Background & Objective: Today obesity and depression are two important diseases which are growing all over the world and threat the human health. That how much these two affect each other is a major health question. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depression in female students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.

  Method: In a descriptive study 230 female students were selected through classified random sampling and their height and weight were measured. To measure the rate of depression a Beck test, and to analyze the data a descriptive method, and finally to indicate the relationship between BMI and depression Pearson correlation through SPSS15 software were used.

  Results : 40% of the students in the depression test were in the normal level, 29% had mild depression, 24% moderate depression and 7% severe depression. In addition 77% of the students, regarding body mass index were in an acceptance level, 14% were overweight and 9% were underweight. Pearson correlation method showed that there was a positive significant relationship between BMI and depression among female students (p≤ 0.01).

  Conclusion: The prevalence of depression in female students of university is 60% and the prevalence of obesity is 14% and there is positive significant relationship between BMI and depression.

Mohammadreza Pirmoradi , Behrouz Dolatshahi , Reza Rostami, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani, Asghar Dadkhah,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2013)

  Background & Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) in reduction the signs and symptoms of depression, such as cognitive, bodily and negativity-worthlessness in recurrent major depression.

  Methods : It was used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with control group , a sample consisting of 32 patients who had recurrent depression on the basis of DSM-IV,SCID and BDI-II scale & Hamilton scales, were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group underwent 20 sessions of rTMS as the independent factor and both groups (control &experimental) had 12 sessions of psychotherapy and drugs treatment. Upon the intervention, both groups were tested with triplex tests, to determine the effect of the independent factor on the dependent factor of rTMS. Data were analyzed using Chi square, T- test, covariance and repeated measures analysis of variance.

  Results : With comprise between pre &post-test, we understand the effect of rTMSin cognitive, bodily and negativity-worthlessness scalesthe difference of two groups was significant, but the decrease of cognitive scale was higher than other two scales. All the tests showed the reduction of signs and symptoms of recurrent depression in participants .

  Conclusion: The rTMS is effective in treatment of triple signs andsymptoms (cognitive, bodily and negativity-worthlessness) in patients with recurrent major depression.

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