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Showing 286 results for Ardabil

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .


Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.


Akbar Pirzadeh, Gholamhosein Ettehad ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Chronic otitis media infection exists among 1.5-2 percent of people and its purulent discharges can create some difficulties for the patients. Chronic otitis media is mainly due to pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous. Severe and irreversible damages should be expected unless follow up treatments are exactly performed in such patients. This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent microorganisms involved in otitis infection and their sensitivity to antibiotics.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 60 patients who referred to nose and throat clinics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences (2000-2001) were selected. Using applicator, some samples were taken from suppurative discharges of middle ear. These samples were then cultured in lactose broth and Nutrient broth. In order to isolate pathogenic microorganism, samples were also cultured in blood agar. Sensitivity of isolated pathogenic microorganism was determined against some antibiotics. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: 56 out of 60 patients were culture positive. Microorganisms isolated from suppurative otitis media were Staphylococcus areus (31.6%), pseudomonas aeuroginosa (26.6%), proteus (20%), candida albicans (6.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.6%), aeuromonas (1.6%) and others (6.4%) respectively. Sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was found to be Ciprofloxacin (94.6%), Co-trimoxazole (66.3%), Cloxacilin (64.3%), Chloramphenicol (64.3%),Cephalexin (64.3%), Erythromycin (60.7%), Amikacin (44.6%), Streptomycin (39.3%), Penicillin (5.4%) respectively.

 Conclusions: Since staphylococcus areus wasthe most prevalent micro-organism in otitis media infection, and isolated microorganisms were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, antibiogram test is necessary prior to the treatment of otitis media.


Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.


Farhad Salehzadeh , Shahnam Arshi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Control of TB is regarded as a health priority program in underdeveloped countries, and Iran in no exception in this regard. Annual risk of infection (ARI) is an important index in this program. This index shows the percentage of people in a society who have been contaminated, and consequently their skin test has changed from negative to positive. In this study, Tuberculin skin test is conducted on Ardabil primary school students and its changes, if any, after one year have been regarded using renewed skin test in order to show ARI in this age group.

 Methods: 780 students were selected from among 17 primary schools using simple random sampling method. They were 8-14 years old, (mean 9.92). Tuberculin skin test was performed on all subjects two times with a one- year interval (May 1998-1999). The test results were recorded and analyzed. In this study PPD over 10 mm was considered positive.

 Results: In 55 (7.1%) students the test was positive in both tests, and in 33 (4.2%) students, PPD changed from negative (first time) to positive (second time) and in 78 subjects the results were doubtful. 765 students (98.1%) had history of BCG vaccination.

 Conclusions: This study indicated that, firstly, over the time, BCG has little effect on Tuberculin skin test, and secondly, the high rate of tuberculin skin test changes from negative (first time) to positive (second time) represents probability of severe contamination in this area.


Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Mahdi Mohebali , Seyedhashem Sezavar, Arman Javanrozegar , Darioush Emdadi , Vahid Sepehram , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Backgrond & Objective: In recent years, malaria has been a serious problem in Parsabad (a north-western town in Iran). A lot of health-care funding has been allocated to malaria campaign program in this area. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical epidemiology of malaria during 1999-2000.

 Methods: The data collected through epidemiology forms filled for 509 malaria positive cases during 1999- 2000 was analyzed by EPI2000 software. Frequency tables, X2 test and one way ANOVA were used in this analysis.

 Results: All 509 Malaria cases diagnosed were P vivax. They belonged to the first seven-month of the year. 69.4% of malaria cases were related to the year 2000 and the others were related to 1999. The most frequent symptoms were chills in 488 cases (95.9%) and fever in 481 of them (94.5%). Sweating was found only in 3.9% of the reported cases. Mean age and standard deviation of patients was 22.9 + 15.6. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the distribution of fever and chills.

 Conclusions: The high prevalence of fever and chills was compatible with the findings of previous studies. If one of the two symptoms is positive in the residents of this area or those people traveling there, malaria should be suspected.


Ali Nemati , Mohsen Sagha ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Menarche is an important event during developing stages in females. Several factors can affect the determination of the menarche age including socioeconomic situation, family customs and nutritional status. Different researches show that obese girls become menarche earlier than thin ones. Regarding the importance of nutrition in menarche age, the present study was conducted to evaluate nutritional status among girls in Ardabil at menarche age (10-14 years old). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among anthropometrics (e.g. weight, height, BMI, MAC), nutritional status, economic factors and menarche age.

 Methods: This cross - sectional study was done on 612 primary and secondary school girls at the age of 10-14 during 1999-2000. Height, weight and MAC of these subjects as well as their BMI were calculated. Their nutritional status (24-hour recall and food frequency) and menarche age were studied. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS ver.9 and Food Processor.

 Results: There was a significant relation between height and menarche age (P<0.05). Menarche age reduced with increasing of weight and BMI, and the differences were significant (p<0.05). Menarche age of girls whose MAC was less than 22cm was lower than individuals with MAC≥22 cm and this difference was significant (P<0.01). Girls with≥40% caloric intake from fat had lower menarche age than the other groups but this difference was not significant. Food frequencies showed that the most frequently used foods in each week were two kinds of local bread (Lavash and Barbary), sugar, vegetable oil, chocolate, cheese, apple and rice.

 Conclusions: Menarche is affected by anthropometrical factors and nutritional status (particularly fat intake).


Firooz Amani , Saeid Sadeghieh , Ahad Azami , Habib Ojaghi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: In order to avoid amblyopia, the welfare organization of Iran performs a special program every year. Since there was no research regarding the mistake rates made by the educators, this study was conducted to determine the probable differences between educators and optometrists in terms of their mistakes in examining amblyopia. The study aimed also at decreasing the amount of this difference and programming for the better performance of amblyopia examination in the future.

 Methods: This study was performed on 260 children in 22 nursery schools of Ardabil using systematic sampling method. These children were first examined by the educators and after some time they were examined for a second time by optometrists using retinoscopy and the fingertip. The data was collected using a questionnaire filled out by both the educators and the optometrists. This data was then analyzed by X2 tests and ANOVA using SPSS program.

 Results: 51.2% of the subjects were male and the rest of them (48.8%) were female. 63.5% of the nursery schools (day- care centers) were private and the others were run by the ministry of education. 13.8% of the subjects used eye glasses and 8.1% were under the control of a physician. 36.4% of the centers did not observe the standard interval. 18.8% of the educators were not skillful enough. 17.7% of the children suffered from astigmatism and 5.3% of them had a weak eyesight. Because of these factors, there was a 17.7% difference between the examination of educators and that of the optometrists.

 Conclusions: It seems necessary for the authorities to have better and more careful programs in the future for examining amblyopia.


Manoochehr Barak, Nayereh Aminisani , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Hepatitis C Virus is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C in multiply transfused patients.

 Methods: 45 patients with B- thalassemia major, 4 patients with hemophilia and 1 patient with aplastic anemia were studied prospectively during 2000. An initial questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding age, sex, duration and interval of at blood translation family history and the type of blood product received and the date of first infusion and then a blood sample was taken for detection of antibody against HCV.

 Results: 62% of the subjects were male and 38% of them were female with the age range of 6 months- 29 years old. 92% of the patients used packed red blood cells. 27 patients had a positive family history of thalassemia and two seropositive patients (4%) had thalassemia. Duration and mean amount of blood transfused were significantly higher in patients with HCV infection. Data analysis showed now significant relationship among variables of the study and hepatitis C cases.

 Conclusions: It is concluded that multiply transfused thalassemic patients are at high risk for HCV infection. Thus, routine screening of blood and anti- HCV test in these patients is necessary.


Zahra Tazakori , Maryam Zare, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Diabetes is one of the most important world health problems and a chronic disease that needs continuous care. Therefore, these kinds of patients should take self- care education. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of nutritional education on blood sugar level and macronutrients intake in IDDM patients.

  Methods : 24 IDDM patients under 20 were selected for educational program on nutrition. The data were collected two times using food questionnaire (24- hour recall) and blood sugar level before and after education was estimated. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, using SPSS and Food Processor.

  Results : There was not statistically significant relationship between blood sugar level before and after education. Also the results showed that there was statistically significant relationship between macronutrients intake before and after education (P=0.35). After education, macronutrients were similar to WHO recommendations. HbA1C level in most of the patients was 9-12% which refers to the moderate control of this diseases and hypoglycemia decreased from 4.2% to 3%.

  Conclusions : There were no remarkable changes in blood sugar but the amount of HbA1C and Macro Nutrients showed that education had a positive effect on patients.


Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi , Naser Mozafari , Abdollah Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

Background &  Objective: Burning is a problem that occurs quite frequently every day, and brings about a lot of psychophysical problems for both the burnt individual and his  family. Hospital infection,burn infection and lack of the precsie care on the part of nursing staff is one of the hospital insufficiencies.This increases the duration of hospitalization and leads to the wastage of costs and as a result is very life threatening. This study was conducted to determine the quality of burn wound dressing in burn ward of Fatemi hospital.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, 100 cases of burn wounds were selected using simple sampling method, and were studied in terms of dressing quality.The data were collected using questionnaire and observation cards. The questionnaire included 9 questions regarding demographic specification and the observation card had 14 questions about the patient, 20 questions for attentive persons and 16 questions regarding equipment and solutions and 16 questions about the environment.This collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential test.

Results: The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound regarding the patients was weak (73%),average (27%) and good (0%). The equipment and solutions used were weak (52%), average (35%) and good (13%). In relation to environment weak (92%) average (8%), good (0%) and regarding attentive person weak(73%), average (27%), good (0%). There was a signnificant correlation among working experience, marital status and age of attentive personnel, and quality of burn wound caring.

Conclusions:The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound caring was weak. It is also recommended that more attention should be given to caring burn wounds by nursing staff.
Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Vahid Sepehram, Behrokh Mahmoodzadeh , Akbar Mortezazadeh , Masoud Shabani ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: The prevalence of pediculosis in communities is one of the criteria for individual hygiene and one of the important diseases among students. Pediculosis capitis is very important in boarding schools. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and relative factors among boarding school students.

 Methods: This study with a descriptive, analytic and cross - sectional method was performed upon 417 girl students from Ardabil boarding schools who were selected using systematic method. Pediculosis was diagnosed through direct observation by trained general practitioners. The data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed by EPI 2000 and SPSS10.

 Results: 116 students (27.8%) complained about itching of scalp.41.2% of the students never took a shower in school and only 45.2% of them took a bath in school once a week or more. 74.3% of the students said that there was a bathroom in their school and about the accessibility of these bathrooms, 53 students (12.7%) had previous involvement with head lice. 21 cases (5%) had previous treatment of pediculosis capitis. 119 of the students (28.5%) suffered from head lice. There was a significant relationship among suffering from head lice and previous illness and existence of bath in home. No significant relationship was observed among this disease and sharing devices such as comb or head scarf in school or home. Prevalence of the disease among rural students was more common than urban ones.

 Conclusions: some boarding school in Ardabil did not have enough hygienic facilities and the students of these schools were mostly from rural areas.


Effat Mazaheri , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Adalat Hosseinian , Nasrin Fooladi ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Today, with changes in health care systems, most of the patients, receive occupational and special cares at home after being discharged from hospital . The aim of this study was to assess the effects of follow up on physical and emotional status of the patients with recent myocardial Infarction .

  Methods : This experimental study was done on 60 patients with acute myocardial infarction, who referred to Boali Hospital during 2000-2001.The patients were chosen randomly and were set in two different groups with 30 subjects in each group . Then, a home care program was designed for case group. but there was no intervention for control group . This home care program was completed and one week later the physical and emotional status of the patients in two groups were analyzed by Spilbergar and Beck tests and finally the results were compared in two groups using X2 test.

  Results : The X2 test showed that there is a significant difference between resting heart rate of two groups with P<0.05 but the difference among systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, anxiety and depression was not statistically significant in two groups.

  Conclusions: Regarding the effects of follow-up on the physical and emotional status of the patients, nurses can improve the quality of the patienys life through active home - care and rehabilitation programs along with social supports.


Akbar Pirzadeh , Abdollah Mahdavi , Jelveh Charkhtab,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Swallowing foreign bodies and their impaction in esophagus is common among children and proper diagnosis and treatment of this problem will decrease its complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate esophageal foreign bodies.

  Methods : 62 patients with complaining about foreign body ingestion were studied and factors such as age, sex, the kind of foreign body, the treatment done, its complications and the length of hospitalization were considered.

  Results : Of sixty- two patients, 30 were male and 32 were female. Coin was the most common foreign body in children (24 cases) while in adults bone (chicken or fish) was more common (19 cases). In the patients most of the foreign bodies were impacted in the upper esophagus at the cricopharengeal junction. In all patients except one case (in which endoscopic forceps was used to remove the foreign body) esophagoscopy was performed under general anesthesia to remove the impacted foreign bodies. Complication was seen in one case as bleeding.

 Conclusions: Since the esophageal foreign body is prevalent among children it is necessary to prevent it through offering adequate to parents.


Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.


Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.

  Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.

  Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.

  Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.


Ali Nemati , Mohsen Sagha , Hojatollah Nouzad Charvadeh, Mohammadhosein Dehghan ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Nutritionists have traditionally recognized breakfast as the most important meal of the day. The importance of eating breakfast is for growing and nutritional well being of children. While health habits such as eating breakfast, maintaining weight, and sleeping regularly are related to the longevity of adults, very little is known about the health habits of disadvantaged school-age children. This study set out to evaluate eating breakfast among adolescent girls and its relationship with body mass index, weight and nutrient intake.

  Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on 611 adolescent primary and secondary school girls (10-14 years old) in Ardabil. Anthropometric studies (height, weight, and MAC) and nutritional status (24 hour recall and food frequency) were done, and the students were asked about eating breakfast and other snacks. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 9 and Food Processor.

  Results : About 16.85% of girls had come to school without eating breakfast. BMI and body weight of these students were significantly more than those of girls who ate breakfast (P<0.05). On the other hand snack intake among the girls who did not use to eat breakfast was more than that among breakfast eaters (P<0.05). The amount of calorie, protein, thiamin, niacin, calcium and iron intake in breakfast-eating girls was more than those among non-eaters (P<0.05). The amount of folacin, riboflavin, calcium and zinc intake in non-eaters was less than recommended dietary allowance of WHO. The result of food frequency showed that the consumption of food such as protein different types of bread, potato, and legume among breakfast eaters was more than their consumption among non-eaters.

  Conclusions : This study indicated that eating breakfast can provide adequate calorie and nutrients but its omission can not only lead to lower calorie and nutrients intake but also have an unfavorable effect on food habit and weight of the students.


Masoud Entezari-Asl , Fariba Motamedi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: The quality of services given to emergency patients at a hospital as well as these patients ’ satisfaction of the services is an index of overall services in that hospital. This study is an attempt to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among the patients referring to the emergency rooms of the hospital of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences during fall and winter 2000.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective study, 600 emergency patients referring to emergency rooms of Alavi, Fatemi, Buali and Aliasghar hospitals were selected. They filled a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software.

 Results: The findings indicated that 78.1% of the whole subjects were generally satisfied with the services. The greatest degree of satisfaction belonged to specialty services (93.8%) and the physicians ’ and nurses ’ contact (92.3% and 91.8% respectively). The least degree of satisfaction belonged to hospital charges (40.2%), and unavailability of non-emergency drugs in hospital pharmacy (42.9%).

 Conclusions: According to the results of this study the medical centers need to offer more coverage of national health insurance services. Furthermore it seems necessary to equip these emergency rooms with round the clock pharmacies and provide the required drugs.


Afshar Tamook, Nayereh Aminisani , Joubin Mogadam Yeganeh , Afrooz Mardi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : When a cesarean is necessary, it can be a life-saving technique for both mother and infant. In recent twenty years, the cesarean childbirth rate has increased dramatically. Moreover a cesarean costs nearly twice as much as a vaginal birth. The world Health organization states that a cesarean rate greater than 10-15% cannot be justified. The aim of this study was to determine the cesarean rates and its indications in social security hospital of Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study was conducted all of the deliveries (both cesarean and normal delivery) in Ardabil social security hospital were investigated using a questionnaire including the characteristics of indication. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

  Results : 45.4% of the deliveries were done using cesarean and 54.6% of them with a normal procedure. 55.8% of all the cesareans had an accepted indication. 44.2% of cesareans were controversial or elective, 22.7% were repeated cesarean, 8.4% were breech presentation and 2.3% were golden baby and 10.8% of the cesareans did not have a clear indication.

 Conclusions: The cesarean section rates in this study were higher than world rates. As a result the rising cesarean birth rate must be stopped and reversed with health interventions.


Adalat Hosseinian , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Mohammadtaghi Nikneghad , Farid Ghosseili, Zahra Mussavi , Eilnaz Mohammadi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Despite all improvements in diagnosis and treatment, one third of patients with Myocardial infarction lose their life. Different studies have shown that cardiac arrhythmia are the most common cause of death in MI, and cardiac blocks are one of the important groups of these arrhythmia, which are effective in prognosis, duration of hospitalization and hospital mortality of the patients.

  Methods : In this study, 630 patients with AMI, who were admitted in CCU of Bou-Ali hospital in Ardabil from January 1998 to January 2001 were studied and the data were callected with the help of questionnaires and secondary data analysis method. The data were analyzed with statistical methods.

  Results : 9.4% of cases in this study had AV block and 30.2% had bundle branch block. 40.5% of men and 37.6% of women had at least one kind of block(in AV node or bundle branch), but no significant relation was found between sex and these blocks. Also, 62% of in-hospital mortalities of patients with AMI were in association with blocks (AV or bundle branch) and only 38% of mortalities were without blocks. This showed a meaningful relation between hospital mortality and these kinds of blocks (p <0.05 ).

 Conclusions: The total frequency of AV and bundle branch blocks due to AMI, was 39.6% which is similar to other studies, but what is remarkable in this study, is the higher prevalence of bundle branch blocks due to AMI.



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