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Showing 19 results for Abortion

Nayereh Aminisani , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and accounts for the majority of their deaths due to the cancer. Hence, diagnosing its risk factors is of great importance. In this study the association between abortion and breast cancer risk was investigated.

  Methods : In this Case- Control study in Mashhad, 105 patients with confirmed breast cancer were compared with 105 healthy women who were living in their neighborhood and were the same age. A questionnaire including demographic information as well as same questions regarding the factors associated with conception and emphasising abortion were used to collect the data, which then were analyzed using SPSS ver 9.

  Results : the findings indicated a relationship between breast cancer and history of abortion, compared to women with no history of abortion (OR=2.09 95% CI=1.18- 3.69). Also there was a significant relationship between the frequency of abortion and breast cancer (P=0.008 ). but odds ratio was not higher among women whose age at first abortion was less than 20 years. Also abortion before first full- term pregnancy increased breast cancer risk (OR= 5.97 95% CI=1.18-19.6). But the age at the time of abortion did not have any effect on the breast cancer risk.

  Conclusions : The findings suggested that the risk of breast cancer has a positive relationship with frequency of abortion and the risk is even higher if the abortion occurs before the first full-term pregnancy. Thus, health interventions seem to be necessary in this regard.

Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

  Background & Objective : Even though the medical sciences have developed increasingly, ectopic pregnancy is still an important cause of maternal mortality. Despite many researches on medical therapy of ectopic pregnancy (EP), surgery is still the first management of patients with EP. Most of these patients have become pregnant for the first time and keeping their fertility in the future is very important. Surgery especially salpangectomy can do nothing to keep this fertility. It seems that efficacy of medical therapy of EP, especially in Iran is unknown. This research was conducted to determine the efficacy of medical therapy of EP with Methotrexate in some patients.

 Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled clinical trial study 26 patients with EP were hospitalized in Yazd Madar hospital. Six of them did not have any indications of medical therapy and were treated surgically.20 patients were treated with Methotrexate considering all the requirements. These patients received Methotrexate 1mg/kg daily. For the prevention of side effects, folinic acid with a dose of 0.1 Methotrexate was given. The efficacy of treatment was determined afterwards with the serial measuring of serum level. The data were analyzed using Chi-Square test and SPSS software.

 Results: The average age of these patients was 27.19 years and most of them had spotting as a symptom. They had been married for 6.9 years on average and most of these patients (42.3%) were experiencing their first pregnancy. Fourteen patients (53.8%) had a history of infertility and 26.9% had a history of abortion. 50% had experienced a previous abdominal surgery. Four patients had recurrent EP and the average of gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 6.2 weeks. Finally fifteen patients (75%) were treated successfully. Four out of five patients, who had a failed medical treatment, had a serum level higher than 1000 IU/L. Five out of eight patients, (62.5%) who were followed, experienced normal intrauterine pregnancy after one year of treatment.

 Conclusions: Medical therapy of Ectopic pregnancy with Methotrexate seems to be safe and effective but when serum level exceeds 1000 IU/L it is less likely to succeed.

Homayoun Sadeghi , Nayereh Aminisani , Shahnam Arshi, Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2003)

 Background & Objective: World health organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the reproduction health, which plays a crucial role in women health care and its promotion. The purpose of this study is to determine reproductive factors among Ashayer women in Ardabil province.

 Methods: Part of the plan entitled Investigating health and disease among Ashayer in Ardabil which was conducted in 2003 aimed at determining the reproduction indices using a structured questionnaire. The present research was a cross-sectional study in which the data regarding the reproductive status of the Ashayer women were extracted, collected and analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics.

 Results: 268 women at the age of 10-49 completed the questionnaire. Mean age of marriage among women was 18.2, 8.6% of them had a history of stillbirth, 18.1% abortion and 38.19% unwanted pregnancy. 31.4% of the subjects did not have any reproductive health care, and 67.6% of those who did so were taken care less than four times.

 Conclusion: Improvement of reproductive indices among these women requires proper health care programs in order to enhance family planning services as well as reproductive health. This can prevent future outcomes such as unwanted pregnancy and other related complications.

Abbas Aflatoonian , Hajar Hojat , Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Background & Objective: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. 10% of maternal death is due to EP and only one-third of women with previous ruptured ectopic pregnancy could have a normal delivery in future. Research about prevalence and risk factors of this kind of pregnancy, could help early diagnosis and treatment of EP and improve the prognosis of fertility rate in the future.

Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study, seventy-two patients with EP diagnosis admitted and treated in Yazd hospitals were studied. The data were collected using a questionnaire and hospital records. Sonography and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS using Chi-Square test.

Results: 11176 pregnancies were recorded in Yazd between March 1999 and March 2000 and seventy-two of these pregnancies were ectopic. So prevalence of EC in yazd was found to be 0.5%. Most of the patients (58 cuses) were 20 to 39 years old. 52.8% of the patients had primipar. 25% had a history of one to three times abortion. From 43 patients who used contraceptive, 19 ones used OCP (oral contraceptive). 39 patients had a history of previous surgery, 7 patients had a history of EP and 25 patients had a history of treatment of infertility. The most common symptom of patients was abdominal pain. Only 4 out of 72 patients were treated with a medical method using methotraxe and the rest of them were operated. Three out of these four patients were finally obliged to undertake surgery.

Conclusion: The prevalence of EP was 0.5%, which is lower than the national scale. 
Homayoun Sadegi Bazargani , Shahnam Arshi, Ali Akbar Mortazazadeh, Jafar Bashiri , Naiere Aminisani, Saied Hashem Sezavar , Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahram Seifnejad, Ali Ruhi, Hale Shahlazadeh ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2005)

 Background & Objectives : Providing health services for all population subgroups of a community is a major hallmark for health administration. Little is known about health status of Ashayer population in Iran. This study aims at evaluating health status and quality of health service delivery to them.

 Methods: In a cross-sectional research 320 households (1800 persons), entered the study. Moreover, blood samples from 458 dogs were taken and studied with both Direct Aglutination Test (DAT) and a newly presented dipstick test . All children under 12 were also studied with DAT. In computing the sample size the generalizability for 63 variables with a minimum and maximum probability level of 90% and 97% respectively were taken into account and since the cluster sampling was employed, the Design Effect would be at least 1.56 and for different variables in the first sample it would be at most 4.

 Results: Only 30 households(9.7%) used piped water supply inside their houses while most of the other families (41%) obtained their water from mobile water tanks. Residual water chlorine was measured to be zero in 88.7% of the samples taken from drinking water of Ashayer. 89 (27.8%) households had lavatories and 22 (7%) households had bathrooms inside their houses. 90.4% of those using raw vegetables washed them only with plain water. Monthly incidence rate for accidents was 230 per 10000. 18.1% of women in reproductive age had a history of abortion. Unwanted pregnancy rate was 38.9%. 47.1% of women with a labor history in past three years had never been visited by any person legally allowed to do so. Women in reproductive age had a poor knowledge about contraceptive methods. The minimum delay for vaccination was 16.9 (SD= 19.26) days regarding the third dose of OPV and the highest delay in vaccination was 46.44 (SD=60.7) days belonging to the third dose of HBV. From all 503 persons above 12 years old, 77 cases had hypertension. Periodontal easy bleeding was observed in 13.7 % and pyorrhea in 19.3%. 10.2 % had aching neck, 18.7% had backache and arthralgia was shown in 13.5%. The unmet need for physician's visit was 64.8%. The frequency of positive cases of leshmaniasis was 3.4% and 3.06% for boys and girls respectively. 28 male and 6 female dogs were positive in DAT test making an overall positive rate of 7.4%. Sensitivity of dipstick test was higher than 80 percent only when golden standard was considered to be DAT ≥ 1 /640.

  Conclusion: Many of the health indices of Ashayer except for vaccination were suitable. This requires further attemps on the part of govermental and health outhorities. Kale-azar disease can spread to the north of the province as well as the neighboring provinces due to the migration of these tribes. It is predicted that Bilesavar and Parsabad cities will be added to the andemic regions of this disease in coming years. Using dipstick test recently offered by WHO is recommended to be used to screen the infected dogs.

Sarie Golmohamadloo , Farzane Broomand, Mitra Asadi Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2005)

 Background & Objectives: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Despite abundant efforts by lranian family planning authorities during the last decade, unintended pregnancy and its consequences such as infected abortions is still a common problem. The aim of this descriptive study was to examine the causes of unintended pregnancy in Kosar Hospital, Urmia.

  M e thods : In this descriptive-analytical study the data were collected from 330 unintendedly pregnant women (out of 1830 pegnant women) visiting gynecology unit at Koshar Hospital in Urmia in 1999. These subjects were interviewed to fill out a questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS using t-test and Chi-square.

 Results: 83.6% of the cases were illiterate and 96.36% were housewives. 59.69% of the cases were above 30 79.09% had 3 or more children. The subjects used the following prophylaxy.

 Methods: thads. Pills (40%), withdrawal (25.5%), IUD (10%), injection (6.4%), minipills (4.5%), condom (3.6%) breast feeding (2.7%), rhythmic (0.9%) and tubectomy (0.6%). The remaining 5.8% had not used any prevention methods. We found a significant correlation between aging and number of unwanted pregnancies (P<0.0001 r = 0.44) and a negative meaningful correlation between literacy and rate of pregnancy (P<0.0001 r = 0.39). Reasons for failure were irregular use of pills, minipills or condom (90% each), unfamiliarity with prevention affter forgetting to take the pill (0.77%), IUD extraction, interrupted use of DMPA method and incorrect use of breast feeding method.

 Conclusion: This study reveals that desptie available prevention methods, due to lack of knowledge irregular use and misconceptions about complications of prevention methods, the subjects used unreliable methods which are more likely to lead to failure. Therefore, new measures should be taken in family planning centers to increase awareness among women concerning risk of unitended pregnancy.

Naeima Khodadadi , Haeideh Mahmoodi , Nooshaz Mirhagjoo ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2008)

  Background & Objective: postpartum depression is a kind of psychiatric disorder that psychosocial factors relate with it . This study was performed in order to determine relationship between postpartum depression and psychosocial effects and Determine the rate of postpartum depression in mothers visiting health-medical centers in city of Rasht .

  Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 350 women were selected in the Random cluster manner. The instruments for gathering data were two questionnaires including psychosocial effects and Edinbugh test. The reseacher completed these questionnaires through interview.

  Results: The results indicated that 16% of samples suffered from postpartum depression. The results indicated a significant correlation between the satisfaction of life and husband's relatives (p=0.021) the lifes life's unpleasant events (p<0.0001) the psychological disorder history in family (p<0.0001) the post partum depression history in family (p=0.008) the unwanted pregnancy (p=0.041) tendency to abortion (p<0.0001) the satisfaction of mothers about the neonatal gendel (p=0.034) the satisfaction of husband's family about neonatal gentiv (p=0.005) the kind of communication with husband (p<0.0001) The kind of communication with husband's family (p<0.0001) and the postpartum depression .

  Conclusion: Nurses have important roles in secondary prevention and screening women suffering from postpartum depepression, and also in appropriate and quick refering them to psychiatrist. Nurses need to be knowledgeable about high-risk factors and share the information with mothers and their families .

Hosein Alimohammadi, Nasrin Fouladi , Firouz Amani , Mehran Safarzade, Farhad Purfarzi , Effat Mazaheri ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2008)

 Background & Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis parasitical disease. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in transmission of parasite to fetus or its reactivation among immune-compromised persons can lead to server clinical symptoms. The aim of study was to determine immune level of Toxoplasmosis among women who were to get married and have referred to Health Center of Ardabil.

  Methods: In this study 272 blood samples of women who had referred to health center of Ardabil in 2007 were collected. Samples were tested with ELISA method to detect Anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG Antibodies.

  Results: The tests showed that 42.3% of women were IgG Positive, 57.2% were IgG negative and 2.6% women were IgM positive and also IgG positive. They have ( IgG positive women) 11.3% family history of abortion, 96.5% eating raw vegetables, 92.2% eating half cooked meat, 89.6% not washing the vegetables with disinfectants, 29.6% animal contact, 57.4% contact with raw meat and 94.8% used piped water.

  Conclusion: Since 57.7% of women who were to marry in Ardabil city were negative from the view point of Toxoplasmosis, health education for elimination of risk factors especially within pregnancy period seems mandatory.

Masoumeh Hajishafiha, Shaker Salari Lac , Minoo Khairi Tabar , Siyamak Naji, Mahzad Sadaghiani , Nahideh Asadi ,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2011)

  Background & objectives : Today there is a significant progress in the treatment of female infertility but there is no main improvement for the rate of implantation and live birth. This is because of non-implantation and early abortion that lead to decrease the rate of live birth. Genital infections such as bacterial vaginosis are common cause of this problem.

  Distinction and treatment of bacterial vaginosis is easy and non-expensive. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis could results in improving the rate of implantation and then live birth.

  Methods: We considered 209 infertile women treated with ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection). This study was performed in infertility clinic of KOSAR hospital affiliated to Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

  Before transferring of embryo, a sample was taken from posterior culdesac secretions by sterile cotton swap and fixed it on lamella. Then bacterial vaginitis was graded by a pathologist. The relationship of bacterial vaginosis with implantation and early abortion was studied. Data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed by t-test and Chi-Square test. p<0.05 is considered statistically significant.

  Results: Bacterial vaginosis was significantly more frequent in patients with tubal and ovulatory disorder (p=0.013). In women undergoing ICSI, bacterial vaginosis was not associated with decreased conception rate (p=0.892) and with increased rate of early pregnancy loss (p=0.44).

  Conclution: Bacterial vaginosis is prevalent in women with infertility. It is also the most important cause of infertility in patients with tubal and ovulatory disorder. Bacterial vaginosis does not affect fertilization rate.

Roya Motavalli, Leila Alizadeh, Maryam Namadi Vosoughi, Samira Shahbazzadegan,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Induced and unhealthy abortion is common condition in the worldwide, particularly in developing countries as Iran which accompanies with maternal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to obtain the prevalence, risk factors and complications of induced abortion.

  Methods : A retrospective study was conducted in 1200 women, who referred to health centers of Ardabil. The eligible participants were included by random sampling. We used a prepared questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, pregnancy history and contraception methods. To determine the validity and reliability of questionnaire the content validity and re-test methods were used respectively. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software (pakage 16) using t-test and chi-square.

  Results: The prevalence of induced abortion was 8.3%. The main reason was represented having desired number of children. Other reasons were economic hardship situation, low pregnancy interval, undesirable fetus gender, parents age, academic education and occupation of mother and increased duration of being married (p<0.0001). The complication of induced abortion were vaginal bleeding (70/5%), bleeding and infection (7/4%), and hospitalization (49/5%).

  Conclusion: According to the results of this research it is expected that authorities and health personnel detect the high risk group of society and present necessary education and individual consultations to more awareness and change their attitude and beliefs on acute complication resulted from induced abortion.

Afsaneh Vaisy , Shirin Lotfinejad , Faiegh Zhian,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2013)

  Background & Objectives: Cervical cancer is the third common cancer among women in United States and in developing countries cervical cancer is supposed as the first or second common cancer of female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cervical cancer and its risk factors in Iranian women.

  Methods: This is an observational, retrospective study. A total of 128 patients with confirmed diagnosis of cervical cancer were compared with the control group of 128 healthy women. The risk factors such as age, age of the first pregnancy, abortion, termination of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and the socioeconomic status were compared and analyzed by Student's t-distribution test, Fisher’s and Pearson’s statistical methods.

  Results: The following odds ratio can be concluded from the study: Marital status 2.71, having multiple sexual partners 3.33, marriage under the age of 16 1.61, use of oral contraceptives 3.072 and using cauterization and cryotherapy were 0.6.

  Conclusion: This study showed that marital status, having multiple sexual partners, low marital age and history of using oral contraceptive consumption increase the possibility of cervical cancer.

Parviz Amri Maleh, Mojdeh Camvar ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Background & objectives: Eisenmenger syndrome associated with pregnancy increases the maternal morbidity and mortality . Therefore, in the most of such patients the termination of pregnancy is recommended.

  Case report: A 29 -year-old woman at the 7 th week of gestational age was candidate for therapeutic abortion with history of Eisenmenger syndrome due to atrial septal defect (ASD) . Spinal a nesthesia was performed in sitting position at the L4-5 interspace with 10 mg of bupivacaine . The p atient was laid in the supine position after 2 minutes. The surgery lasted about an hour . Blood pressure and heart rate did not change significantly during operation.

  Conclusion : Modified s pinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is recommended for therapeutic abortion in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome.

Fariba Kahnamuie Agdam , Haleh Shahlazadeh , Mina Ataee ,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2014)

  Primary Extra nodular non-Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy is rare with occurrence rate of 0.8 in 100000 pregnancy. In this report, the case of a 19-year-old woman during week 14 of her intrauterine pregnancy with primary extra nodular non-Hodgkin lymphoma is described. The staging consisted with thyroid open biopsy. After induced abortion the subject underwent chemotherapy with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 6 cycles.

M Bonyadi , A Mohammadi , M Khalajkondori, S Taghavi ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2015)

Background & objectives: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined by two or more consecutive miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine salvage pathway and has two important isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2. The adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism (ADA*2) increases the level of adenosine. Adenosine may play a protective role against recurrent spontaneous abortions, since it regulates blood flow into the uterus and placenta. In consideration of the effect of decreased enzymatic activity of adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism on adenosine levels we evaluated the protective effect of ADA*2 allele against recurrent spontaneous abortions in north-west of Iran. 

Methods: A total of 100 women were recruited to form two groups. First one, with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (N=50), and the second one, without a history of abortions (N=50). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood with a commercial kit and PCR-RFLP analysis was used to identify the G22A genetic polymorphism. Fisher's exact test and odds ratio values were used to compare the proportions of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between women with and without a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (p<0.05). 
Results: The frequency of homozygotes (AA) was 2% in control group, whereas no homozygote (AA) was found in the case group. The frequency of heterozygotes (AG) was 20% in control group and 8% in the case group (p<0.05). The frequency of homozygotes (GG) was 78% in control group and 92% in the case group (p<0. 05). A significant increase in the frequency of AG genotype in controls (p=0.014, OR=0.348) relative to women with the history of RSA demonstrates the protective effect of AG genotype in controls.
Conclusion: The data suggest that women carrying the G22A polymorphism (ADA*2 allele) and AG genotype which is associated with the lower enzymatic activity are better protected against recurrent spontaneous abortions.

Zahra Mirzakhani, Sayed Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18) using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05.

Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea.

Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.

Rana Alizadeh Hajikhajehlu , ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Background & Objectives: Infertility (abortion & stillbirth) is one of the most common medical problems during pregnancy. Approximately 10-15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are lost before the birth. Pregnancy loss is a multifactorial phenomenon. This study was an attempt to analysis the cytogenetic abnormalities of the parents with frequent spontaneous abortion and stillbirth.

Methods: In this study, the samples were analyzed by GTG-banding technique.

Results: From a total of 200 reviewed blood samples, 188 persons (94%) had natural karyotype and 12 persons (6%) had chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal aberrations were found in 5 (2.5%) females and 7 (3.5%) males. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was as follows: 5(41.6%) pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, 3 (25%) polymorphism 15p+, 1(8.3%) translocation, 1 (8.3%) polymorphism 15ps+, 1 (8.3%) polymorphism 1qh+ and 1 (8.3%) unknown chromophil band on the short arm of chromosome 21.

Conclusion: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions and stillbirth, and genetic counseling helps to make a correct decision on further options of reproduction.

Mortaza Nourmohammadi, Hosein Hamidinejat, Mohammadreza Tabandeh, Saad Goraninejad, Somaye Bahrami,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background & objectives: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals as well as human worldwide. Determining the parasite genotype in intermediate hosts  is crucial in  evaluating the role of these types in human infections as wll as in prevention programs. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and detect the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in aborted fetuses of ewes in Lorestan province.
Methods: Identification of the parasite was performed  on the brain and liver tissues of 142 aborted fetuses using  a conventional PCR based on amplification of highly repetitive 529 bp region of the parasite genome. Genotyping of positive samples, which were isolated from the brain and liver, was performed by PCR-RFLP based on SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 molecular markers.
Results: From a total of 142 samples  obtained from  brain  and fetus, 10 cases (7%) were determined as positive samples based on conventional PCR. The precence of parasite DNA was also confirmed in the liver of  3 positive samples. Evaluation of RFLP pattern of amplified SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 genes showed the presence of various types of parasites, incuding type I in 3 samples, type II in 2 samples and atypical type in 5 samples.
Conclusion: Isolation of types I, II and atypical type of T. gondii from ewes in  Lorestan province suggests the need for greater attention to parasite transmission from livestock to human, particularly in pregnant women and people with weakened immune system.
Faiba Kahnamooi, Firooz Amani, Mahsa Vallaei , Mahnaz Azari,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background & objectives: Therapeutic abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy can be done by a number of medical or mechanical methods. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol with and without letrozole and combination of misoprostol and laminaria in preoperative cervical ripening among women with under second-trimester abortion.
Methods: In this interventional study, 120 pregnant women with the gestational age of 20 weeks, who were candidates for therapeutic abortion, were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n=40). Proper counseling was done and a written informed consent was obtained before starting the treatment regimen. The first group received vaginal misoprostol alone and the second group received misoprostol in combination with laminaria and oral placebo. In the third group, in addition to cervical placebo on the first and second days, letrozole was prescribed, and on the third day, the patients were hospitalized and received vaginal misoprostol and third dose of letrozole. The patients were regularly examined every 4 hours, and in the absence of abortion, vaginal misoprostol was repeated after 4 hours.
Results: The results showed that termination of pregnancy was caused by embryo anomaly in 23 cases and fetal death in 97 cases. In this study, response to treatment was 90% in the group receiving laminaria and misoprostol 85% in the group receiving letrozole and misoprostol and 67% in the group receiving misoprostol. Regarding the duration and amount of bleeding, the groups receiving laminaria and misoprostol had the lowest duration and severity of bleeding, but this difference was not statistically significant. Combination of misoprostol and laminaria caused a significantly shorter time interval from the initiation of intervention to abortion, and pain relief was also higher than the other two groups.
Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, a combination of misoprostol and laminaria is recommended for induction of second-trimester therapeutic abortion.
Ziba Jahani, Seyyed Saeid Hosseini Asl , Homa Akhavan ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (4-2018)

Background & objectives: The spontaneous abortion, loss of the fetus until the twentieth week of pregnancy, is one of the most common medical problems in reproductive age. Approximately 15 to 20 percent of all clinically recognized pregnancies lead to abortion. Failure in pregnancy involves economic costs, physical and mental problems for the family and the society. Recurrent spontaneous abortion is a multifactorial phenomenon and this study analyzed chromosomal abnormalities and the prevalence of consanguineous marriages in parents with recurrent spontaneous abortions in Ardabil province.
Methods: A total of 350 patients with at least two spontaneous abortions were analyzed using GTG-banding cytogenetic technique.
Results:  Parental chromosomal abnormalities were found in 18 cases (10.28% of couples). Most of abnormalities were structural (72.2%). chromosomal aberrations were found in 10 (55.6%) females and 8 (44.4%) males. Translocations were the most common chromosomal abnormalities (55.6 %) diagnosed in this study. Also, there was a significant correlation between recurrent spontaneous abortion due to consanguineous marriage and chromosomal abnormalities (p<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the significant correlation between recurrent spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities in this study and previous studies, and also the high rate of consanguineous marriages in Ardabil province population, analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is necessary after genetic counseling for both parents with recurrent spontaneous abortions.
Keywords: Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion; Chromosomal Abnormalities; Consanguineous

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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