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Showing 517 results for Ari

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Mohammadreza Ghodrati , Hamid Ebadizare , Khatereh Isazadehfar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & objective : Recovery state or post - anesthetic awakening is one of the most dangerous anesthetic stages . Respiratory, cardiovascular and other complications such as nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain and restlessness have been reported . This study designed to investigate prevalence of this complications and its probable risk factors in Ardabil Fatemi and Alavi hospitals.

  Methods : In this prospective study, 160 patients were selected in Alavi and Fatemi hospitals during winter of 2001. We completed a sheath for everybody about their history of medical diseases, pervious history of anesthesia, addiction, drug abuse, smoking, physical class of ASA, type of anesthesia, time and place of surgery . Data was analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : These results were obtained in patients after surgery in recovery room: shivering
36.3 % , pain 26.9 % , restlessness 21.3 % , respiratory complications 13.8 % , cardiovascular complications 12 % , nausea and vomiting 8.8 % . We found significant correlation between some risk factors with complications, e. g: shivering with history of medical diseases, drug abuse and place of surgery and so, pain with restlessness, respiratory complication and place of surgery .

  Conclusion : This study according to similar studies revealed higher prevalence of some of post - anesthetic complications as shivering, pain and restlessness in our samples .

Parvin Dibajnia, Maryam Bakhtiari ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : Entering the university is an urgent event in the life of the young’s, that causes a lot of changes in their social relationships. This study was performed in order to evaluate students mental health in the Faculty of Rehabilitation at Shahid Beheshti University in spring 2002.

  Methods : For this descriptive and analytical study,120 students were selected including

  86 female and 34 male of whom 109 were single and 11 were married. The sampling method was unrandom. These students were requested to fill General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as well as personal information Questionnaire.

  Results : According to this study, the mean score of students’ GHQ was 21.96(with 8.76 S.D) and 31.6% of students were suspected suffering from a kind of mental disorders .

  Conclusion: Statistical method in this research showed no significant difference between men and women, single and married and different age groups. This study suggests further psychological evaluation and adequate counseling service to promote students mental health.

Saryeh Golmohammadlo , Farzaneh Bromand ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objective : One percent of emergency ward receptions are acute abdomen problems. Gynecological causes include 20%of them. Relation between physiology of women and abdominal pains challenges diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis in these cases have no substitution and studies about accuracy of diagnosis helps to correct future clinical diagnosis .

  Methods : A cross-sectional study conducted over 148 women whom admitted for acute abdomen causes and operation in Urmia Kosar Hospital during 1375-79. Data of history and Para clinical and also pre and post operation diagnosis Collected by related questionnaire and interpreted .

  Results : Ectopic pregnancy (39.9%), ruptured ovarian cyst (23.6%), ovarian cyst torsion(18.2 % ), abdomen masses unrelated to gynecological system (4.1%), were respectively common causes. Two cases were normal. Five appendicitis cases diagnosed after laparatomy. We observed 76% similarity of diagnosis before and after laparatomy, which coordinated with other studies. Ectopic pregnancy with 66 cases of diagnosis before and 53cases confirmation after operation was related to over diagnosis and 22 cases of ovarian cyst ruptures before operation and 36 cases of them after operation were related to under diagnosis .

  Conclusion : Considering the results, common causes of acute abdomen incur most frequent misdiagnoses. So keeping in mind that sometimes common cases appear atypically and on time using of paraclinic measures can help the surgeon to diagnose correctly before laparatomy .

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2002)

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.

Farnaz Ehdaivand ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease. The prevalence of endometriosis in the reproductive age of women varies between 3-10%. Cesarean scar endometriosis is a rare event and rare cases have been reported in gynecologic and surgical articles. The incidence of cesarean section scar endometriosis is not accurately determined but ranges from 0.03% to 0.15% and in some other articles the incidence up to 1% has been reported. Frequently the cesarean scar endometriosis is not diagnosed until before surgery (80%) and usually the patients are operated on the basis of some pre-operative diagnoses such as kelloid, hematoma, suture granuloma, incisional herina and neoplasm. The most common symptom is cyclic and periodic pains in the area of operation which appear approximately 1-7 years after cesarean section. The accurate diagnosis is made by pathology. In this article a patient with cyclic and severe pain in cesarean scar area for 8 years is reported. The patient had been treated with anti- inflammatory drugs for several years without any diagnosis. The patient was operated with diagnosis of subcutaneous mass and probably suture granuloma and the final pathologic report was Endometriosis. The choice treatment for cesarean scar endometriosis is surgery, and awareness about this unusual complication of it will increase the probability of preoperative diagnosis.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.

Farhad Salehzadeh , Shahnam Arshi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Background & Objective: Control of TB is regarded as a health priority program in underdeveloped countries, and Iran in no exception in this regard. Annual risk of infection (ARI) is an important index in this program. This index shows the percentage of people in a society who have been contaminated, and consequently their skin test has changed from negative to positive. In this study, Tuberculin skin test is conducted on Ardabil primary school students and its changes, if any, after one year have been regarded using renewed skin test in order to show ARI in this age group.

 Methods: 780 students were selected from among 17 primary schools using simple random sampling method. They were 8-14 years old, (mean 9.92). Tuberculin skin test was performed on all subjects two times with a one- year interval (May 1998-1999). The test results were recorded and analyzed. In this study PPD over 10 mm was considered positive.

 Results: In 55 (7.1%) students the test was positive in both tests, and in 33 (4.2%) students, PPD changed from negative (first time) to positive (second time) and in 78 subjects the results were doubtful. 765 students (98.1%) had history of BCG vaccination.

 Conclusions: This study indicated that, firstly, over the time, BCG has little effect on Tuberculin skin test, and secondly, the high rate of tuberculin skin test changes from negative (first time) to positive (second time) represents probability of severe contamination in this area.

Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Mahdi Mohebali , Seyedhashem Sezavar, Arman Javanrozegar , Darioush Emdadi , Vahid Sepehram , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

 Backgrond & Objective: In recent years, malaria has been a serious problem in Parsabad (a north-western town in Iran). A lot of health-care funding has been allocated to malaria campaign program in this area. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical epidemiology of malaria during 1999-2000.

 Methods: The data collected through epidemiology forms filled for 509 malaria positive cases during 1999- 2000 was analyzed by EPI2000 software. Frequency tables, X2 test and one way ANOVA were used in this analysis.

 Results: All 509 Malaria cases diagnosed were P vivax. They belonged to the first seven-month of the year. 69.4% of malaria cases were related to the year 2000 and the others were related to 1999. The most frequent symptoms were chills in 488 cases (95.9%) and fever in 481 of them (94.5%). Sweating was found only in 3.9% of the reported cases. Mean age and standard deviation of patients was 22.9 + 15.6. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the distribution of fever and chills.

 Conclusions: The high prevalence of fever and chills was compatible with the findings of previous studies. If one of the two symptoms is positive in the residents of this area or those people traveling there, malaria should be suspected.

Afrooz Mardi , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2002)

  Background & Objective : Several studies have introduced different methods to facilitate the fetal expulsion. One of these methods is episiotomy during the second stage of labor followed by instant repair of episiotomy incision. Perineal repair, its different methods and the outcomes have long been a matter of discussion and research. This study was performed in order to compare results of two different methods of perineal repair, namely standard (three stage) and two-stage method (leaving the skin unsutured).

  Methods : This study is a randomized clinical trial in which, 80 mothers were selected continuously and divided randomly into the two stage and three stage repair groups. A scaled pain ruler, a questionnaire and information checklist were used to collect the data. The setting of this study was the labor room, the postpartum unit and subjects’ homes.

  Results : The finding of this study showed no significant difference between the outcomes of the two groups in terms of perineal pain in the first 4-6 hours, the 2nd day, 15th and 21st day, incision recovery on the 15th and 21st day, dyspareunia and the first postpartum pain-free intercourse.

  Conclusions : The findings of this research indicated that the results obtained from the two above-mentioned methods are not significantly different. However, since the two stage method requires spending less time and energy and reduces the time that mothers should stay in labor room, it is suggested to be used as one of the perineal repair methods.

Manoochehr Barak, Nayereh Aminisani , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

 Background & Objective: Hepatitis C Virus is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C in multiply transfused patients.

 Methods: 45 patients with B- thalassemia major, 4 patients with hemophilia and 1 patient with aplastic anemia were studied prospectively during 2000. An initial questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding age, sex, duration and interval of at blood translation family history and the type of blood product received and the date of first infusion and then a blood sample was taken for detection of antibody against HCV.

 Results: 62% of the subjects were male and 38% of them were female with the age range of 6 months- 29 years old. 92% of the patients used packed red blood cells. 27 patients had a positive family history of thalassemia and two seropositive patients (4%) had thalassemia. Duration and mean amount of blood transfused were significantly higher in patients with HCV infection. Data analysis showed now significant relationship among variables of the study and hepatitis C cases.

 Conclusions: It is concluded that multiply transfused thalassemic patients are at high risk for HCV infection. Thus, routine screening of blood and anti- HCV test in these patients is necessary.

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi , Naser Mozafari , Abdollah Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

Background &  Objective: Burning is a problem that occurs quite frequently every day, and brings about a lot of psychophysical problems for both the burnt individual and his  family. Hospital infection,burn infection and lack of the precsie care on the part of nursing staff is one of the hospital insufficiencies.This increases the duration of hospitalization and leads to the wastage of costs and as a result is very life threatening. This study was conducted to determine the quality of burn wound dressing in burn ward of Fatemi hospital.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, 100 cases of burn wounds were selected using simple sampling method, and were studied in terms of dressing quality.The data were collected using questionnaire and observation cards. The questionnaire included 9 questions regarding demographic specification and the observation card had 14 questions about the patient, 20 questions for attentive persons and 16 questions regarding equipment and solutions and 16 questions about the environment.This collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential test.

Results: The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound regarding the patients was weak (73%),average (27%) and good (0%). The equipment and solutions used were weak (52%), average (35%) and good (13%). In relation to environment weak (92%) average (8%), good (0%) and regarding attentive person weak(73%), average (27%), good (0%). There was a signnificant correlation among working experience, marital status and age of attentive personnel, and quality of burn wound caring.

Conclusions:The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound caring was weak. It is also recommended that more attention should be given to caring burn wounds by nursing staff.
Alireza Zohoor , Masoud Bozorgmagham ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

  Background & Objective : Head trauma is one of the most common causes of death in accidents and it is irreversible. More than 10000 cases of brain death occur annually in Iran and less than 10% of them are donors. That is why the number of organ transplantation in Iran is much lower than Europe and America. This study was conducted to investigate the attitude of 20-60 year-old citizens of Tehran about organ donation in brain death.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed on 730 subjects (384 females and 346 males ( in 2000. The questionnaire and multi-stage sampling methods were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Chi-square tests.

  Results : about 44% of the subjects believed that the brain death is virtually irreversible and 93% of these subjects agreed with transplantation. 88% of those who agreed with transplantation accepted to fill out special donation forms. Humanitarian considerations and heavenly rewards were two main reasons mentioned by these people.

  Conclusions : According to this study, it is necessary to train people in order to increase their knowledge regarding brain death and create a positive attitude about organ donation. meanwhile passing some laws in this regard which are in accordance with Islam is recommended.

Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Vahid Sepehram, Behrokh Mahmoodzadeh , Akbar Mortezazadeh , Masoud Shabani ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2002)

 Background & Objective: The prevalence of pediculosis in communities is one of the criteria for individual hygiene and one of the important diseases among students. Pediculosis capitis is very important in boarding schools. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and relative factors among boarding school students.

 Methods: This study with a descriptive, analytic and cross - sectional method was performed upon 417 girl students from Ardabil boarding schools who were selected using systematic method. Pediculosis was diagnosed through direct observation by trained general practitioners. The data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed by EPI 2000 and SPSS10.

 Results: 116 students (27.8%) complained about itching of scalp.41.2% of the students never took a shower in school and only 45.2% of them took a bath in school once a week or more. 74.3% of the students said that there was a bathroom in their school and about the accessibility of these bathrooms, 53 students (12.7%) had previous involvement with head lice. 21 cases (5%) had previous treatment of pediculosis capitis. 119 of the students (28.5%) suffered from head lice. There was a significant relationship among suffering from head lice and previous illness and existence of bath in home. No significant relationship was observed among this disease and sharing devices such as comb or head scarf in school or home. Prevalence of the disease among rural students was more common than urban ones.

 Conclusions: some boarding school in Ardabil did not have enough hygienic facilities and the students of these schools were mostly from rural areas.

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.

Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2003)

  Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.

  Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.

  Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.

  Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.

Simin Atash Khoii,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

  Background and Objective : Today, laparoscopic surgeries, because of reducing postoperative complications, are increasingly developing. Intraperitoneal insufflations of CO2and systemic absorption of it during laparoscopy results in hypercarbia. Using N2O during maintenance of anesthesia in these patients can enhance hypercarbia. This is because N2O increases the volume of pneumoperitoneum. This study was performed to determine the effect of N2O in enhancing hypercarbia during laparoscopy.

  Methods : Sixty Patients, with physical status I or II, undergoing outpatient diagnostic gynecologic laparoscopy according to ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) scaling took part in this clinical and single blind trial, and were randomly divided in to two groups, each with 30 patients. In all patients, general anesthesia with end tracheal intubation was administered. The technique of anesthesia and ventilation were the same in all patients. Only, during the maintenance of anesthesia, N2O was not administered to group I (control) of patients, but in group II (case), patients received N2O, in 50% concentration in oxygen. The variables under study were evaluated and recorded at certain times and finally the data were analyzed using chi-square test, student t-test and EPI-5software.

  Results : There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of demographic data, homodynamic variables (heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and electrocardiogram changes), oxygen saturation, and the use of any additional analgesic drug (instead of N2O in group I). Comparing the End tidal CO2 (Etco2) in two groups indicated that Etco2 increases in those patients who used N2O during maintenance of anesthesia (p=0.02).

  Conclusions : With regard to significant difference between two groups in the enhancement of intraoperative hypercarbia (although it was not associated with homodynamic changes in this study), it is better not to use N2O in general anesthesia for laparoscopic procedures.

Masoud Entezari-Asl , Fariba Motamedi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

 Background & Objective: The quality of services given to emergency patients at a hospital as well as these patients ’ satisfaction of the services is an index of overall services in that hospital. This study is an attempt to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among the patients referring to the emergency rooms of the hospital of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences during fall and winter 2000.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective study, 600 emergency patients referring to emergency rooms of Alavi, Fatemi, Buali and Aliasghar hospitals were selected. They filled a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software.

 Results: The findings indicated that 78.1% of the whole subjects were generally satisfied with the services. The greatest degree of satisfaction belonged to specialty services (93.8%) and the physicians ’ and nurses ’ contact (92.3% and 91.8% respectively). The least degree of satisfaction belonged to hospital charges (40.2%), and unavailability of non-emergency drugs in hospital pharmacy (42.9%).

 Conclusions: According to the results of this study the medical centers need to offer more coverage of national health insurance services. Furthermore it seems necessary to equip these emergency rooms with round the clock pharmacies and provide the required drugs.

Adalat Hosseinian , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Mohammadtaghi Nikneghad , Farid Ghosseili, Zahra Mussavi , Eilnaz Mohammadi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

 Background & Objective: Despite all improvements in diagnosis and treatment, one third of patients with Myocardial infarction lose their life. Different studies have shown that cardiac arrhythmia are the most common cause of death in MI, and cardiac blocks are one of the important groups of these arrhythmia, which are effective in prognosis, duration of hospitalization and hospital mortality of the patients.

  Methods : In this study, 630 patients with AMI, who were admitted in CCU of Bou-Ali hospital in Ardabil from January 1998 to January 2001 were studied and the data were callected with the help of questionnaires and secondary data analysis method. The data were analyzed with statistical methods.

  Results : 9.4% of cases in this study had AV block and 30.2% had bundle branch block. 40.5% of men and 37.6% of women had at least one kind of block(in AV node or bundle branch), but no significant relation was found between sex and these blocks. Also, 62% of in-hospital mortalities of patients with AMI were in association with blocks (AV or bundle branch) and only 38% of mortalities were without blocks. This showed a meaningful relation between hospital mortality and these kinds of blocks (p <0.05 ).

 Conclusions: The total frequency of AV and bundle branch blocks due to AMI, was 39.6% which is similar to other studies, but what is remarkable in this study, is the higher prevalence of bundle branch blocks due to AMI.

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2003)

  Background & Objective : Despite the ever increasing use of oral contraceptives there is uncertainty about the stroke risk associated with their use. Some cases of pulmonary Emboli and stroke have been reported among women taking these pills. The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between taking contraceptive pills and the risk of ischemic stroke.

  Methods : In a case-control study, women with definite ischemic stroke were selected from Alavi Hospital in Ardabil who had no prior stroke. The control group was age-matched ( ± 3years) to cases and were selected from other wards of the same hospital. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information about prior exposure to various risk factors, including the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver. 12) and statistical methods such as chi-square, multivariate regression and ANOVA. The risk factor were estimated by odds ratio.

 Results: OCP consumption was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR=5.4 95% CI=1.1-5.3), and after adjustment for other risk factors of stroke it was OR=2.7 (95% CI=0. 95-7.2) with p=0.05.

 Conclusions: According to this study there was weak evidence for an association between ischemic stroke and OCP consumption. Extended studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk of stroke and the present/ past use of OCP.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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