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Showing 8 results for Salehzadeh

Farhad Salehzadeh , Shahnam Arshi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (Autumn 2002)

 Background & Objective: Control of TB is regarded as a health priority program in underdeveloped countries, and Iran in no exception in this regard. Annual risk of infection (ARI) is an important index in this program. This index shows the percentage of people in a society who have been contaminated, and consequently their skin test has changed from negative to positive. In this study, Tuberculin skin test is conducted on Ardabil primary school students and its changes, if any, after one year have been regarded using renewed skin test in order to show ARI in this age group.

 Methods: 780 students were selected from among 17 primary schools using simple random sampling method. They were 8-14 years old, (mean 9.92). Tuberculin skin test was performed on all subjects two times with a one- year interval (May 1998-1999). The test results were recorded and analyzed. In this study PPD over 10 mm was considered positive.

 Results: In 55 (7.1%) students the test was positive in both tests, and in 33 (4.2%) students, PPD changed from negative (first time) to positive (second time) and in 78 subjects the results were doubtful. 765 students (98.1%) had history of BCG vaccination.

 Conclusions: This study indicated that, firstly, over the time, BCG has little effect on Tuberculin skin test, and secondly, the high rate of tuberculin skin test changes from negative (first time) to positive (second time) represents probability of severe contamination in this area.

Afshar Tamook, Farhad Salehzadeh, Naiere Aminisani , Goubin Moghaddam Yeganeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

 Background & Objectives: The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia disease is noticeable. Studying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its related factors is a step to reduce its incidence and remarkable treatment expenses. On the other hand, due to lack of on time recognition and suitable treatments, this disease can cause irreversible neuro-cerebral complications. This study was conducted to examine the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its associated signs, in order to provide on time and suitable treatment measures.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2003 on neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Ardabil Sabalan hospital. The data obtained from their conditions, clinical examination, and measurment of total and direct bilirubine was used to fill out a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (release 10).

 Results: From among 132 neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, 50% were male and others were female. 85.6% of these subjects were fullterm births and the rest were premature. 56% of these neonates were born by C/S. 6.8% of hyperbilirubinemia cases, which were considered as “pathologic”, occurred during 24 hours after birth. 72% were related to the second to seventh days of birth, 17.2% to second week of birth, and the rest (4%) had prolonged Icter. 65% of these neonates were the first children of the family. The average time of hospitalization was 4.8 days. 34.8% of these neonates had pathologic signs beside hyperbilirubinemia and had a clinically serious condition. About 23% of these neonates were born by C/S and only 11.8% of them were vaginal births. 46 cases (34.8%) had accompaynig pathologic problems in addition to Icter, among whom 33 children (25%) had evident infection. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia were Crigler-Najjar syndrome in one case, ABO in 11 cases (8.33%) and RH discord in 4 cases (2.8%). Generally speaking the precise cause of 36.89% of Hyperbilirubinemia was determined.

 Conclusion: Some factors such as children by C/S, neonatal infection, prematurity, ABO discords and RH discords play an important role in hyperbilirubinemia incidence and severity.

Farhad Salehzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)


 The term periodic fever and diseases classified under periodic fever, have particular situation in pediatrics. Periodicity and fever are the hallmark of these syndromes, though there could be other symptoms and signs in each syndrome. On the other hand, most of these syndromes have familial pattern. Since some of these syndromes are common in north-west Iran, the understanding and recognition of these diseases seems to be necessary. Nowadays at least seven periodic fever syndromes have been explained in pediatrics: The first one is FMF and the last and new one is PFAPA. The rest of them are: Hyper IgD, FCAS, Muckel- Wells, CINCA, and TRAPS.


Farhad Salehzadeh , Dina Emami , Aliasghar Zolfeghari , Abbas Yazdanbod , Shahram Habibzadeh , Bahman Bashardoost , Manoochehr Barak , Eiraj Feizy , Hormoz Azimi , Marina Jastan , Jafar Khalafi ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (Autumn 2006)

 Background and Objectives: Familial Mediterranean fever which is the prototype of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes is common in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. Regarding the geographical position of the northwest of Iran, having Turkish originality and its vicinity to the Mediterranean Sea , the incidence of this disease is significant in Ardabil. The goal of this study was to introduce Familial Mediterranean Fever as a disease with significant outbreak in this area.

 Methods: This research is a descriptive study which has been done during one year from October 2004 to October 2005. According to the Tel-Hashomer criteria, the patients suffering from Familial Mediterranean Fever were collected from private clinics and pediatric rheumatology clinics records. Then from 112 patients only 74 ones were studied. All of the patients were interviewed and filled out a questionnaire.

 Results: Familial Mediterranean fever is common among children under 18 (76%) and more common in male than female. Abdominal pain has been the most common complaint (74%) and abdominal pain and fever (95% and 84% respectively) were the main clinical symptoms. The most common period of pain was 12-72 hours and the common recovery (attack free) period was from 1 week to 1 month (63/5%). Majority of the patients had hospital admission for diagnostic work up (85%) and some of them (32%) had been under surgical operation mistakenly. On the whole 92% of the patients had taken medications as a result of wrong diagnosis and 20% had positive familial history. 50% of the patients' parents were first degree relatives and in 59.5% delay in diagnosis was more than 3 years.

 Conclusion: Results of this study and introduction of this group of patients in a one-year research indicate that: Familial Mediterranean Fever is more common in the Northwest of Iran although physicians are not familiar with that. The common age for manifestation of this disease is under 18 and its presentation after the age of 40 is very rare.

Hasan Anari, Farhad Salehzadeh , Ramin Mirmohammadi , Simin Monshari ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

 Background & Objective: Developmental dislocation of hip (DDH) as an inherited joint disorder results from external location of the head of femora from the acetabulum.Early diagnosis of this disorder is very important and any delay may result in long life handicap. Nowadays new methods such as sonogrphy are recommended in diagnosis of this disorder. Radiology and physical examination are traditional methods. This study was designed to evaluate the results of sonographical, radiological and physical examination findings in 100 infants who were suspected to have DDH.

 Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was done in private clinics from June 2004 to June 2005. The one hundred infants who were suspected to have DDH in physical examination entered the study. A questionnaire was completed for each infant, and then sonography and radioghray have been done for them. The data were collected and analyzed by statistical programs.

 Results: Among 100 infants 48% were female and 52% male, with mean age 42±7.23.In 44% they were the firstborn.58% had normal delivery and 42% cesarean section. 15% had breech presentation. In 28% radiological and 56% sonographical methods showed findings in favor of DDH.

 Conclusion: This study showed, simultaneous physical and sonographic examination especially during the first month result in early and precise diagnosis of DDH, on the other hand it does not have radiologic side effects.

Vahed Alaei, Farhad Salehzadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (Autumn 2008)

 Background & Objectives: Identifying urinary tract infection, especially in infants and young children is very important from the viewpoint of start of treatment, and if it is delayed probably the children are affected by risk of failure to thrive, sepsis and chronic problems such as renal scars, increase of arterial blood pressure and renal failure. Increasing usage of antibiotics, result in AB resistance microorganism. This study was done because of bacterial differences in resistance in different regions and the change in the rate of resistance in UTI.

 Methods:This research is a descriptive-prospective study 510 children under the age of 12 as the study samples were chosen. These children were referred to clinics of Ardabil Aliasghar and Sabalan Hospitals in 2006. Their urine culture colony was above 100000. Data gathering was accomplished by their parents through questionnaire and interview's then gathered Data were analyzed by computer software programs of the SPSS and Excel.

 Results:Findings of research showed that symptoms of malodorous urine (54.7%) in children under 12 months, dysuria (58.9%) in 1-3 years age groups, frequency (54.8%) in 3-6 years old groups dysuria (49.2%) in 6 years old groups and above were most prevalent symptoms which were reported. From the viewpoint of gender differences UTI in girls was 4 times more than that of boys that this difference in 1-3 years old groups was highest range (4.8 to 1). About antibiotical resistancy of microorganisms, Ampicillin with 78.9% resistance, Co-trimoxazole with 66%, Cephalexin with 62.8% and cephazoline with 33.3% were most resistant antibiotics respectively. E-coli resistance against gentamicine was 15.8%, that compared with other microorganisms is very high and its resistance against ceftriaxon was 8%, which is low compared with other microorganisms.

 Conclusion: Findings of research showed the variety of UTI symptoms in children and also showed that drug resistancy against Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Cephalexin and cephazoline is high.


Farhad Salehzadeh, Morteza Eslami,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (spring 2016)

Background & objectives: FMF is an auto-inflammatory and hereditary periodic disorder. The symptoms can occur in more than 80% during the first decade of life. With regard to high prevalence of FMF in northwest of Iran, this study was conducted to introduce especial features of FMF in this area.

Methods: This is a descriptive study performed on 403 patients with diagnosis of FMF according to the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Information obtained from patients' file and entered in the questionnaire. Data analyzed by SPSS v20 using simple descriptive statistical analysis.

Results: In this study 228 (56.6%) patients were male, and the mean age of patients was 21.03 years. The common symptoms were abdominal pain in 93.3% and fever in 88.1% of patients. Abdominal pain was the main complaint(49.6%), the average duration of pain was 43.3±34.5 hours and the average attack-free period was 36.5±29.6 days. 15.1% of patients had positive family history and 12.7% had history of appendectomy. Delayed diagnosis was more than three years in 52.3% of patients. Genetic analysis has been done in 239 patients in which 21.33% had no mutations, 39.7% were compound heterozygous genotype, 25.52% heterozygote and 13.38% had compound homozygous mutations. The most common mutations were M694V/V726A (10.46%) and the most common alleles were M694V (20.9%) and V726A (12.7%). The M694V-V726A genotype (12.7%) was the most common combined mutations in male and the common mutations in female was M694V/M694V (10.4%). Among the patients with abdominal pain M694V/V726A (12.5%) was more common. The genotypes of M680I/V726A (13.9%), M694/V726A and M694V/R761H (16.7%) and the M694V/M694V (33.3%) had the common mutations in patients with fever, chest pain and joint symptoms respectively.

Conclusion: First decade is usual age to presentation of FMF. M694V is the most common mutation and M694V-V726A is the common compound heterozygous mutation. MEFV mutations in this study are similar to Arabs results. It seems that clinical criteria still are the best way in diagnosis of FMF in spite of the fact that erysipelas like skin rash  is not common as a clinical criteria in this area

Farhad Salehzadeh, Afshan Sharghi, Atena Moteyagheni, Saeid Hosseini Asl, Mahsa Mottaghi, Sepehr Sarkhanloo,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (spring 2019)

Background & objectives: MEFV gene has a major role in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) as an auto-inflammatory disorder. FMF is most often seen in the people of the Mediterranean area. Considering the significant role of the MEFV gene in many rheumatologic diseases and even non-rheumatologic disorders, it is necessary to identify different variations of these mutations in the healthy and normal population of this area.
Methods: 224 healthy people entered into this study. The blood samples were screened for the 12 most common MEFV gene variants according to manufacturer’s instructions. (FMF Strip Assay, Vienna lab, Vienna, Austria)
They filled a questionnaire containing the required information. All patients were initially evaluated for the FMF symptoms and signs in themselves and their first-degree relatives based on clinical criteria. Chi-squared test and t-test were employed for statistical analysis using SPSS ver.24.  
Results: Among 224 cases, 113 cases (50.4%) were male, and 111 cases (49.6%) were female. MEFV mutations were detected in 57 patients (25%) of them, 28 cases were male (49.1%) and 29 cases were female (50.9%). The most frequent mutations were E148Q (18.3%, 41cases), followed by P369S (3.1%, 7 cases), V726A (2.2%, 5cases), A744S (1.3%, 3cases), F479L, M694V and R761H (0.8%, each 2 cases), and eventually K695R (0.4%) respectively. Some mutations such as M694I, M680I (G/C), M680I (G/A), I692del were not seen in these samples. There were compound heterozygous mutations of E148Q/P369S, E148Q/V726A, E148Q/P369S, and P369S / F479L in normal population without any findings in favor of FMF.
Conclusion: Twenty-five percent of the normal population of the northwest of Iran carrying a heterozygous variant of the MEFV gene, E148Q (18.3%) as a most common mutation, which can be considered as a normal variant in the healthy population. The presence of M694I, M680I (G/C), M680I (G/A) and I692del mutations in the normal population can be interpreted with cautiously, while particular compound heterozygous mutations can be considered as normal variants.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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