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Showing 6 results for Rahbar

Khosro Hazrati Tappeh , Mohammad Rahbar , Sasan Hejazi, Mahiar Mostaghim ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

 Background & Objectives: Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoa parasite belonging to subphylum of Apicomplexa. Although it is globally widespread and its species exist all over the world, this parasite was unknown until several years ago. Nowadays it is considered as an important infective agent in Immunocompromised hosts especially patients with AIDS. Due to high mortality rate of this infection in immunocompromised and cancerous patients and because of the popularity of Urmia as one of the animal husbandry regions in Iran and since this disease is likely to transfer from animals to human beings this study was conducted to determine the rate of contamination with this parasite.

 Methods: This case-control study was performed on 72 children (case) with cancer who referred to oncology clinic of Urmia Imam Hospital during 2001. Another 30 children with normal immune system were selected as controls. To determine the amount of contamination with parasite, two fecal specimens were collected from each patient. After being concentrated with Formalin–Ether, these specimens were examined using modified acid fast method.

 Results: Three cases ofcryptosporidiosis was seen in the patients (4.16%). Of these, there were 2 patients from the rural area and 1 from urban region. There was no significant relationship between the presence of cryptosporidiosis and living in rural or urban areas.

 Conclusion: Cryptosporidium was detected in three cases of the patients under study who were undertaking chemotherapy. However since the population under study was small, no statistically significant relationship was found between being immunocompromised and contamination with parasite.

Mohammad Rahbar , Roghaiye Sabourian , Mahnaz Saremi , Mohammad Abbasi , Hosein Masoumi Asl , Mahmood Soroush ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

 Objectives: Cholera is an endemic disease in Iran and some cases of this disease are reported throughout the world annually. The aim of this study was to determine epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype ELTor serotype Inaba in 2005 summer outbreak in Iran.

 Methods: Stool samples were collected from patients suspected of having cholera who were admitted to hospitals and clinics and then were cultured in TCBS. Specimens examined by confirmed bacteriological methods and ultimately they were serotyped by special antiserums. Finally 5% of the isolates were sent to Cholera Reference Laboratory for confirmation, serotyping and susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion methods and E-test minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) as recommended by NCCLS.

 Results: Totally, 1118 patients were to have cholera the epidemicity. The Disease was reported from twenty six provinces. The majority of cases were reported from Tehran, Qum and Hamedan with 219, 190 and 150 cases respectively. 50% of patients were between 15-34 years old. 53% of patients were male and 47% female. 97.7% of patients had Iranian nationality, 2.3% were from Afghanistan and Pakistan. 20% of patients were hospitalized and 80% were treated as outpatients. Case mortality rate was 1%. 1104 isolates were Inaba serotype and only 14 cases were ogawa serotype. Our studies revealed that the origin of Vibrio cholerae was consumption of raw vegetables that were watered by sewage. We also isolated V. cholerae from sewages. All isolates were resistant to Co-trimoxazole, Nalidixic acid, Furazolidone, and intermediate to Chloramphenicole. All isolates were susceptible to Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, and Erythromycin. MIC for Co-trimoxazole and Nalidixic acid were over 256µg/ml and 1.5µg/ml for Erythromycin. The antibiogram results showed that all isolates had the same origin.

 Conclusion: Our study reveals that, unlike previous epidemics, the causative agent of cholera in summer outbreak of 2005 was V. Cholerae ELTor, serotype Inaba. Concering the similar antibiogram pattern they had the same origin.

Seyed Hashem Sezavar , Maryam Valizadeh , Mazyar Moradi , Mohammad Hosein Rahbar,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (spring 2010)

  Background & Objectives : In spite of effective advances in diagnosis and management, ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a major health problem in industrialized world and an increasingly important problem in developing countries. Considering the role of age and gender in Myocardial Infarction (MI) and socioeconomic and cultural changes in Iran in recent decades which can affect the epidemiology of the disease, we aimed to determine trend of changes in age and gender of patients with first STEMI in recent decade.

  Methods :This observational cross-sectional study was based on completing check lists for patients with first STEMI in Rasul-e-Akram Hospital from 1998 to 2007. The Data were analyzed with ANOVA, chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests at = 0.05 using SPSS 14.

  Results :Out of 1829 patients with first STEMI, 76.4% were men and 23.6% women who had mean age of 59.09 ± 12.7 years totally. The mean age of men (56.9 ± 12.2 years) was significantly lower than women (66.1 ± 11.6 years) (p < 0.001) ­.

  Trend of change in mean age for men, women and overall had no specific patterns of change in 10 years. Premature MI occurred in 15% of patients without any particular change during study period. No statistically significant change in proportions of gender and risk factors was seen in a period of 10 years. The most common risk factors were smoking (43.7%) and hypertension (32.8%) respectively. 23 . 7% of patients had hyperlipidemia and 18.8% were diabetics.

  Conclusion: Trend of changes in age and gender of mentioned patients had no significant change over 10 years which can indicate main role of biologic factors. Although this was an observational study unchanged major risk factors in a decade may mark out inadequate primary prevention.

Sara Rahbar, Naser Ahmadiasl,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (autumn 2012)

  Background & Objectives: Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the effects of acute resistance exercises on the structure and the function of heart, but little works done on effects of chronic resistance exercises. So, the objective of current study was to investigate the long term effect of regular exercises on cardiac function and oxidative stress.

  Methods: Forty male Wistar rats in the weight range of 250- 300 g were used in this study. They were divided in 2 following groups: The 3 months exercises test group and control group which remained without exercises. Regular resistive exercise was carried out according to the model proposed by Tamaki et al. Test group rats exercised for three months. Finally the hearts of 10 rats in each group were taken for homogenization, oxidative stress measurement and the other ten were examined for heart function. Malondialdhyde as an index of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxides and catalase as an indicator of antioxidant capacity with special kits were specifically measured.

  Results: Regular resistive exercise didn't significantly affect the rats' weight, but heart weight in exercise group showed a significant increase (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in heart rate in exercise group (p<0.05). Left ventricle contraction strength and coronary flow had a significant increase in exercise group in comparison with control group (p<0.05). There was not any significant difference in Malondialdhyde and antioxidant enzymes activity.

  Conclusion: This study showed that, heart efficiency had a significant improvement under effect of regular resistive exercise. Meanwhile, regular resistive exercise didn’t have any significant effect on oxidative stress and heart antioxidant defense capacity.

Leila Arbabi, Mina Boustanshenas , Maryam Adabi, Sara Fathizadeh, Samira Rasouli Koohi , Mastane Afshar, Mohammad Rahbar, Ali Majidpour, Malihe Talebi, Mahshid Talebi-Taher ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (winter 2016)

Background & objectives: Enterococci are among the normal microbial flora in human and animals digestive tract. The nosocomial pathogenicity of enterococci has emerged in recent years and has caused great concern due to developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the prevalence of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococcus) within Enterococci isolates obtained from different parts of the hospital.

Methods: Putative Enterococci (n=120) were isolated on Membrane Filter Enterococcus Selective Agar Medium and supplemented with 2, 4 and 8 µgr/ml vancomycin in medical samples. A total isolates passed the standard biochemistry tests for the genus and species as well as their specific primers. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method for 8 antibiotics. Microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) of vancomycin was also done using Agar-dilution assay by CLSI recommendations.

Results: Results showed that 38 and 84 of the isolates were E. faecium and E.faecalis, respectively. According to antimicrobial susceptibility tests 45, 88, 103, 42, 83, 73, 54 and 95 of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, penicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin, respectively. MIC test on 70% of the isolates was>256 µgr/ml.

Conclusion: Despite the fact that the prevalence of VRE strains belongs to two species, E. faecium had high resistance to a broad range of antibiotics. The results of this study indicate the important role of medical samples as reservoirs of resistance elements. Early detection of VRE with their virulence trait will help in preventing the spread of vancomycin resistant enterococcus species and urgent infection control is required in hospital setting

Roghieh Saboorian, Mohammad Rahbar, Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami , Parvaneh Saffarian,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (summer 2019)

Background & objectives: Antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae is a crucial matter in the world. Objective of this study was the improvement of cholera surveillance by assessing the antimicrobial resistance pattern and bacterial  resistance genes in V. cholerae O1 isolates, reffered to Iranian Reference Health Laboratory, in cholera outbreaks during 2012- 2015.
Methods: This study is a cross sectional- descriptive research. Antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) to 8 antibiotics was performed on 113 V.cholerae O1 isolates using E-test method. For all isolates, conventional PCR method was used to detect the presence of tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB and tetC) and the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance genes (sul2 and dfrA1).
Results: All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, temocillin, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and 64% of strains showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. The resistance rate of nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline were 90%, 71% and 50% respectively. However, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains varied across the years. The frequency of resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, sul2 and dfrA1) were 70%, 34%, 58%, 66% and 70% respectively.
Conclusion: AST should be used to determine the resistance profile at the beginning of a cholera outbreak and to monitor the resistance profile of circulating strains as part of surveillance of the disease. A prominent association was observed between phenotypic resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and presence of dfrA1gene. Determining the presence of resistance genes is necessary for understanding the epidemiology and routes of transmission of antibiotic resistance genes

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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