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Showing 69 results for Mohammadi

Mohammadali Mohammadi , Hosein Doostkami , Behrooz Dadkhah , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (Summer 2002)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : Coronary artery disease is one of the most important mortality causes in developed and developing countries. Many risk factors can influence coronary artery disease some of which can be controlled and prevented. Information should be given to people for controlling these factors and prior to this information – giving, the primary awareness of them about risk factors needs to be ascertained. This research is a study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Ardabil people about CAD risk factors.

  Methods : This descriptive analytic study was done on 384 individuals (female and male) over 20 years old. These subjects were selected from five clusters. Synthetic questionnaire was used for data collection through direct interview at home. The collected data was then analyzed by SPSS software.

  Results : 50.5% of samples were females. 27.3 % of the subjects were high-school graduates. Most of them (70%) were aware of stress and lesion as risk factors. 66.9% of them were aware only of the effect of immobility on coronary artery disease but 13% of them had regular physical activity. 52.1% of them were aware of the harmful effect of salt on CAD, but 15% of them had low salt intake. 48.2% of people were aware of benefit of liquid oil on health, but only 25% of them consumed it. Results showed that, 48.2%, 51.3% and 40.9% of individual had moderate knowledge, positive attitude, and weak practice, respectively. The relationship among variables was significant (P<0.0001), and practice of people has been increased with increasing of knowledge and attitude.

  Conclusion : Regarding these results, regular programs are necessary for increasing awareness and practice of people as primary preventive steps for controlling CAD.


Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (Autumn 2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women and the second leading cause of death from cancer among them. The mortality rate of breast cancer is directly related to the stage of the disease when diagnosed, and is reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This survey is carried out to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Ardabil about BSE.

 Methods: In this descriptive study, 150 women with 20-25 years of age, were selected through systematic cluster sampling. Knowledge, attitude and practice of them about BSE were investigated through face to face interview, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics.

 Results: 44% of women had some information about breast cancer. 44.7% of them had average information about BSE. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of BSE on the one hand and age, marital status and history of previous breast examination on the other. 52% of them believed in BSE for early detection of breast cancer. Their attitude towards BSE was positive (51.3%) and there was a significant relationship between their knowledge and attitude. 18% of the subjects practiced BSE at least once, and their overall practice was in a weak level (46.7%).

 Conclusions: Qualitative researches could be recommended to recognize the factors effective in the improvement of acceptance of breast cancer screening methods among women.


Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi , Naser Mozafari , Abdollah Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)
Abstract

Background &  Objective: Burning is a problem that occurs quite frequently every day, and brings about a lot of psychophysical problems for both the burnt individual and his  family. Hospital infection,burn infection and lack of the precsie care on the part of nursing staff is one of the hospital insufficiencies.This increases the duration of hospitalization and leads to the wastage of costs and as a result is very life threatening. This study was conducted to determine the quality of burn wound dressing in burn ward of Fatemi hospital.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, 100 cases of burn wounds were selected using simple sampling method, and were studied in terms of dressing quality.The data were collected using questionnaire and observation cards. The questionnaire included 9 questions regarding demographic specification and the observation card had 14 questions about the patient, 20 questions for attentive persons and 16 questions regarding equipment and solutions and 16 questions about the environment.This collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential test.

Results: The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound regarding the patients was weak (73%),average (27%) and good (0%). The equipment and solutions used were weak (52%), average (35%) and good (13%). In relation to environment weak (92%) average (8%), good (0%) and regarding attentive person weak(73%), average (27%), good (0%). There was a signnificant correlation among working experience, marital status and age of attentive personnel, and quality of burn wound caring.

Conclusions:The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound caring was weak. It is also recommended that more attention should be given to caring burn wounds by nursing staff.
Adalat Hosseinian , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Mohammadtaghi Nikneghad , Farid Ghosseili, Zahra Mussavi , Eilnaz Mohammadi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (Summer 2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Despite all improvements in diagnosis and treatment, one third of patients with Myocardial infarction lose their life. Different studies have shown that cardiac arrhythmia are the most common cause of death in MI, and cardiac blocks are one of the important groups of these arrhythmia, which are effective in prognosis, duration of hospitalization and hospital mortality of the patients.

  Methods : In this study, 630 patients with AMI, who were admitted in CCU of Bou-Ali hospital in Ardabil from January 1998 to January 2001 were studied and the data were callected with the help of questionnaires and secondary data analysis method. The data were analyzed with statistical methods.

  Results : 9.4% of cases in this study had AV block and 30.2% had bundle branch block. 40.5% of men and 37.6% of women had at least one kind of block(in AV node or bundle branch), but no significant relation was found between sex and these blocks. Also, 62% of in-hospital mortalities of patients with AMI were in association with blocks (AV or bundle branch) and only 38% of mortalities were without blocks. This showed a meaningful relation between hospital mortality and these kinds of blocks (p <0.05 ).

 Conclusions: The total frequency of AV and bundle branch blocks due to AMI, was 39.6% which is similar to other studies, but what is remarkable in this study, is the higher prevalence of bundle branch blocks due to AMI.


Ali Nemati , Hosein Ali Mohammadi , Hamdollah Panahpoor , Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Foods of high fat may increase the risk of coagulation heart attacks. They can also increase coagulating factors and lead to higher mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and heart attacks. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of saturated (butter) and unsaturated (sunflower oil) fat intake on coagulating factors such as factor VII and fibrinogen as well as Bt, serum cholesterol and triglycerides.

 Methods: In this clinical trial 46 male healthy individuals from Ardabil University of Medical Sciences took part in this study (age: 18-28 years old) in 2002. These individuals were divided into two groups. The first group consumed 30 g of butter and the second group took 30g of sunflower oil everyday, for 14 days. Before the fat intake and at the end of first and second week blood sample was taken test to fibrinogen, factor VII, cholesterol, BT and triglycerid. Also during the study the 24-hour food-recall was taken three days a week. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS and Food Processor.

 Results: The results indicated that butter intake increases factor VII significantly at the end of the first and second week (p<0.05). But no significant about sunflower oil. BT decreased after butter intake at the end of first and second week. This decrease was significant at the end of first week (p<0.05). Bt increased significantly after sunflower oil intake at the end of second week (p<0.05). Serum fibrinogen after butter intake decreased significantly at the end of first and second week (p<0.05), but was not significant after sunflower oil intake (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in serum cholesterol and triglyceride level after butter intake, but at the end of first week after sunflower intake serum cholesterol decreased significantly (p<0.05).

 Conclusions: We concluded that the intake of saturated fat can affect factors in a short period of time and sunflower oil can decrease serum cholesterol level and as results increase the bleeding time.


Naser Mozaffari, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Behrouz Dadkhah , Abdollah Mahdavi ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (Winter 2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Haemodialysis has been used as a replacement therapy in patients with end- stage renal failure for several decades. But it is not clear yet how much haemodialysis a uremic patient needs? ‏ There are different methods for the assessment of needs and adequacy of dialysis. One of these methods was measurement of KT/V of haemodiolytic patients. The aim of this study was to determine dialysis adequacy of haemodialytic patients in Ardabil dialysis center .

  Methods: In this descriptive study, all of the hemodialytic patients (70 cases) in 2002 were studied. Urea and blood cells were determined in the patients' blood samples both before and after dialysis. KT/V methods were used to determine the adequacy of dialysis. The data were collected and analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive (mean,standard deviation) and analytical (X2) statistics.

  Results: The findings showed that KT/V was smaller than 1.2 in 90% of cases. 54.3% of patients were dialysed three times a week mean of dialysis duration was 2.4 ± 1.63 years. Mean of hemoglobin was 8.27 ± 1.69 gr/dl. There was no significant relationship between dialysis adeqnacy and instrument type.

  Conclusion: 90% of haemodialytic patients in this center did not have adaquate dialysis in terms of KT/V criteria. As a result it seems necessery to pay more attention in order to improve the present condition.


Ahad Azami, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi , Rahim Masoomi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Narcotic abuse is one of the main problems in the world today, and individuals ’ view towards it is important for managers and social problem analysts.Regarding the threats and harms of the prevalence of narcotics in society, this research was done to determine the rate of tendency to narcotics among people over ten years old in Ardabil province.

 Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional research. A two-section questionnaire was used to collect the data. 600 men and women over ten years of age were chosen through systematic cluster sampling and the required information was gathered by referring to their houses and interviewing them. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.

 Results: 3.5% of the samples had positive family history of using narcotics. 18% were smokers. 84.7% believed that one can use narcotics everywhere. 30% claimed that using narcotics reduces one ’ s physical discomfort, and 30.2% expressed that one can give up the narcotics whenever necessary. On the whole the tendency towards addiction among the subjects was 53.57%. This tendency was higher in rural areas compared to the cities (56.72% versus 49.81%). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Illiterate people had the most tendency rate towards addiction (55.61%). There was a statistically significant relationship between tendency towards addiction and positive family history (p< 0.05). The highest tendency rate (54.33%) was seen in 11- 20 age group.

 Conclusion: the results showed that the consequent dangers of addiction are not known for people and that the great tendency for narcotics shows the need to inform the society in order to prevent the addiction.


Gollam Ali Hamedbarghi, Afshin Mohammadi , Abdoll Rasool Safaeian,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Patients in unstable condition with blunt abdominal trauma require rapid evaluation of abdominal organs to assess the need for laparatomy. Ultrasonography is a fast technique which can be used in the resuscitation area to detect free intraperitoneal fluid as an indication of intraabdominal injury. This prospective study was designed to determine the efficiency of emergency abdominal sonography for evaluating patients with blunt abdominal trauma and to compare the accrurcy of ultrasonography with the results of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT scan.

  Methods: Emergency sonography was performed prior to diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT scan on 174 patients with blunt abdorminal trauma. Sonography was performed with FAST ( Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma) technique and six area of the abdomen where examined to detect free intraperitoneal fluid.

  Results: The results of this study revealed that ultrasonography has a sensitivity of 95% a specificity of 80.8%., and an overall accuracy of 89.4% for detecting free intraperitoneal fluid. The positive and negative predictive value of sonography was 89.4% and 90.1% respectively.

  Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a reliable method for the emergent evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma and can be used instead of diagnostic peritoneal lavage.


Fariba Kahnamoei Aghdam , Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Bahrooz Dadkhah, Firooz Asadzadeh , Melina Afshinmehr,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Summer 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Unwanted pregnancy is a general and worldwide issue that has an impact on not only the women but the families and societies as well. It may be caused by a failure to use contraceptive methods and paying less attention to family planning methods. This may result in negative effects on community health. This study is an attempt in this regard.

  Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 600 pregnant women referring to health care centers in Ardabil were selected through cluster sampling (5 clusters). The data were collected in the form of questionnaires filled in by the researchers interviewing the subjects. These data were then analysed by SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The subjects ranged between 13 to 44 years old (Mean=25.13). Among them 93.5% were housewives and 18.5% were illiterate. Majority of them (72%) wanted to have two children. 30.8% of the present pregnancies were unwanted and 11.2% of the women had the experience before. Age average in unintentionally pregnant women was greater than that of intentionally pregnant ones (28.5 and 23.7 years old respectively). This difference was statistically significant. 75.7% of the unwanted pregnancies had happened despite using family planning methods. The rate of unwanted pregnancy among illiterate women was significantly greater than that among the educated ones (52.34% and 26.7% respectively). Also there was a significant relationship between the type of pregnancy on the one hand and the husbands’ education and the wife’s employment on the other (P<0.0001).

  Conclusion: With regard to 30.8% prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and irregular use of contraceptive methods, it can be claimed that training the pregnant women and providing them with necessary information have been insufficient. It seems necessary to teach them the methods of contraception and follow them up.


Masuome AghaMohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: It is estimated that 4-10% of diabetic patients suffer from foot ulcer. About one in five people with diabetes enters hospital for foot problems. Regarding the importance of education for these patients, the present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of education on foot care among diabetic patients referring to Ardabil Buali hospital.

 Methods: From the diabetic patients referring to Buali hospital (diabetes center) 120 patients admitted for the first time, who had had no past training about diabetes, were selected. Each patient was asked to fill out a questionnaire on his reference to the hospital. The questionnaire had 38 questions, the first 8 of which were about the demographic status and the illness itself and the rest of them concerned priniciples of foot care. Following this, these diabetic patients participated in public classes in the center, and a month later they filled the questionnaire again. Finally their knowledge before and ofter the education period was compared using statistical analyses.

 Results: The level of knowledge of 73.33% of the subjects before education was medium whereas following the education this rose to 86.67%. Comparing the level of knowledge of patients before and after education using t-test indicated that the level of knowledge after education is significantly higher than before (p<0.001).

 Conclusion: with regard to the significant difference in knowledge of diabetic patients before and after education, it can be concluded that educational classes of diabetic center can improve the knowledge of patients about foot care. So they are strongly recommended to be held for all these patients.


Firooz Amani, Saeid Sadegie Ahari , Saedollah Mohammadi, Ahad Azami,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Opium addiction is a major social, psychological and health problem in the world. In past decades addiction to legal and illegal drugs has been widespread and over 1000 kinds of narcotics have been recognized, which are used in different ways including eating, smoking, injection and inhaling. Statistics published by international organizations such as UNDCP, WHO and UNSCO indicated an increasing trend in drug abuse worldwide. The countries are different only in the pattern of drug abuse. This study investigates the pattern of drug abuse in last 5 years in Ardabil.

  Methods : This is a descriptive, analytical and prospective study. To obtain the trend of substance abuse the records of all addicts in 1998 (684 cases) and 2002-2003 (341 cases) were studied. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (rel.11) using descriptive statistics.

  Results: The findings indicated that in the last five years the use of hashish, opium extract and other substances has decreased whereas the trend of heroin and opium use has increased. The use of opium has increased from 48.07% in 1998 to 67.4% in 2002-2003. Also the heroin use has increased from 8.5% in 1998 to 27.5% in 2002-2003. Moreover, the use of hashish, opium extract and other narcotics has decreased. The highest decrease (23.5%) belonged to opium extract and the highest increase (19%) to heroin.

  Conclusion : According to the results we could say that the pattern of substance abuse in Ardabil in the last five years has changed and heroin and opium consumption has increased.


Akbar Pirzadeh, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammad Ali Mohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: The hearing organ has a special role in establishing communication among people and their education. Hearing loss causes disorders in communication between human and environment. In growing ages, hearing loss may lead to general educational failure . T his study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between hearing loss and educational failurs.

  Methods: In this case control study 110 failed students in 5th grade elementary school (case) and 110 other ones (control) were selected by systematic random sampling. Both groups underwent the audiometric tests. The Data were analyzed by EPI 2000 software.

  Results: The results of this study showed that 9.1% of cases and 0.9% of controls needed sonic energy more than 30db in left ear to hear. The difference was significant (P<0.05) whereas there was no significant relationship between hearing loss and educational failure in rigth and left ear in both groups when the sonic energy used is more than 20db.

  Conclusion: The failed students are strongly recommended to be annually examined and evaluted by a specialist and if necessary be treated.


Khatere Seylani, Masoome AghaMohammadi, Khlil Rostami, Vadood Noroozi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is the most common complication of anesthesia with an approximate prevalence of 30% up to 70% (in high risk patients). In recent years several articles have investigated the effects of antiemetic and anesthetic drugs on postoperative nausea and vomiting, but the nonpharmacological methods, which are cost-effective and have no side effects, are rare. Since it is essential for patients to be on fast before surgeries which require general anesthesia, occurrence of dehydration and extra cellular fluid volume deficit and subsequently nausea and vomiting are expected and anticipated. Thus in this study the effect of preoperative intravenous fluid on postoperative nausea and vomiting was explored.

  Methods: This clinical trial study was performed in two experimental and control groups, with 30 subjects in each. Experimental group were given a 1- liter bolus of intravenous normal saline preoperatively in addition to routine IV fluid. Finally the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was observed and compared between two groups.

  Results : According to statistical tests, the differences between age, preoperative and postoperative NPO duration, use of antiemetics and the duration of hospitalization in two groups were statistically significant but the differences between other demographic variables and the volume of intraoperative intravenous fluid received during the surgery were not. Results showed that experimental group had significantly lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (20% and 10% respectively) in comparison with control group (50%). According to chi-square test, the rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly different in two groups. (p=0.015 and p=0.001 respectively) Also, preoperative NPO duration had significant relationship with postoperative vomiting (p= 0.05).

  Conclusion: Regarding the positive effect of intravenous fluid therapy on postoperative nausea and vomiting as a cost effective and harmless method in surgery, its use is recommended.


Mohammad Ali Mohammadi , Behroz Dadkhah,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: With due attention to the modern technology developments in medical sciences, human resource training and optimization looks necessary. Although its importance and necessity has been regarded by many investigatores and scientists and they have emphasized its accurate and comprehensive execution, unfortunately, the training of nurses has encountered some problems, the solution of which demands great attempts. This study has been done to determine the state of Continuous medical Education (CME) from the view of the nursing personnel working in the hospitals under Ardabil university of medical sciences in 2002.

 Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 386 nursing personnel working in hospital under Ardabil university of medical sciences. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software.

 Results: 79% of the sample was female and 81.9% were nurses. 35.6% of them had not participated in CME courses. 28.6% of them had information about CME law. 25% found the lectures less practical and 56.5% of them appraised moderate the subjects presented. 60% of them believed in the positive influence of conferences in hospitals on their better functioning. 59.8 % said that their educational needs is not evaluated before the conference is held. 75.4% stated that new books in nursing are not available in the hospitals. 49.7% have appraised educational programs in the hospitals as moderate. 43.8% stated that the operation of modern medical equipment is not trained completely and only 4.6% said that specialists have scientific discussion with nurses. Overal, 55.2% of the nurses evaluated education by specialists as moderate.

 Conclusion: 50.8% of nurses assigned a moderate value to CME. It seems necessary to reconsider the subjects and the execution procedures and perform needs analysis prior to this education.


Samad Gaffari, Ali GolMohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common causes of admissions in industrialized countries and each year a lot of deaths occur due to this disease. AMI is commonly associated with leukocytosis and an elevated neutrophil count. It is not clear whether neutrophilia is a cause or effect of acute myocardial injury and heart failure. Nevertheless, proving such a correlation will have a lot of clinical utilities.

  Methods: From among 146 patients hospitalized by AMI diagnosis in the CCU ward of Shahid Madani hospital, 68 patients (having our inclusion criteria) took part in this cross-sectional and analytical study. The criteria for AMI were clinical symptoms, ECG criteria and paraclinical findings. CBCH1 was performed for the patients. All the patients were evaluated for presence or absence of congestive heart failure (CHF) in first 4 days of hospitalization. The data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Chi-square.

  Results: Mean neutrophil count was 11291 in patients with evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and 8440 in those without it (P =0.01). This difference was statistically significant. Among 23 patients with CHF, 16 had neutrophil counts >8500, but among 45 patients without CHF only 19 cases showed this value (Odds ratio=3.12, P=0.03). Also among 35 patients with neutrophil counts >8500, 24 patients had ejection fraction (EF) of less than 45% and 11 cases had EF>45%(P=0.015).

Conclusion: In this study we found a direct correlation between neutrophilia on admission and the presence of CHF and echocardiographic left ventricular dysfunction in first 4 days of hospitalization. So the patients with high neutrophilia need more invasive treatments to reduce the possibility of CHF.
Behrooz Dadkhah, Mohammad Mohammadi, Naser Mozaffari ,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Since the students majoring in different fields of medicine are going to play key roles regarding community health in the future, it seems necessary to characterize problems threat e ning their mental health. This study was performed in order to evaluate students’ mental health status in Ardabil university of medical sciences.

 Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 426 students, selected nonradomly were requested to fill out General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with 28 questions as well as personal information questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-squre.

 Results: The findings indicated that fear to speak among peers (31.2%), lack of concentration (24.2%) and losing self-confidence (18.1%) were obsessing the students. According to cut point 23, 28.1% of students were assumed to have mental disorder. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of mental disorders but there was a meaningful relationship between their status and their economic problems, living place as well as their interest in their course (p<0.05).

 Conclusion: This study suggests further psychological evaluation and adequate counseling service to promote students’ mental health.

 


Hasan Edalatkhah, Faride Golforoshan, Hamide Azimi, Parviz Mohammadi, Ahad Razi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: In spite of extensive advances in diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous diseases, cutaneous fungal infections are still one of the important reasons to refer to dermatology centers. Incidence of dermatophytosis species is different in various regions. Recognition of these agents has important role in its treatment and eradication. The aim of this study was to determine the various species of dermatophytes in patients referring to Haft-e-Tir Hospital, Tabriz.

 Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 518 patients referring to Haft-e-Tir hospital from 1997 until 1998. Direct examination in their cutaneous and nail lesions was positive for dermatophytosis. All the samples from their lesions were cultured in special culture media including dextrose agar and sabouraud's dextrose agar plus chloramphenicol and cyclohexamide. The collected data were analysed by SPSS software.

 Results: There were positive cultures in 70.3% of the cases. Trichophyton verrucosom was the most common agent in all of cutaneous and nail infections. Involvement was more common among the subjects under 15 as well as among males and villagers. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical form of the disease.

 Conclusion: The findings indicated that zeophilic species and anthropophilic respectively are the most common dermatophytosis species in the region under study. Culture was positive only in 3/4 of the samples.


Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Behrouz Dadkhah, Hashem Sazavar , Naser Mozaffari ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Controlling diet to regulate blood pressure in hypertensive patients has always been a challenging issue. On the other hand, insufficient supporting systems, non efficient follow-up programs, patients inability to do treatment measures in relapsing period, insufficient following of diet and drug taking, unplanned discharge and poor knowledge of risk factors are among controllable factor that lead to the readmission of the patients. The aim of this study is determining the effect of follow up on blood pressure control in hypertentive patients.

  Methods: In this interventional study, hypertensive patients referring to emergency ward were randomly divided into two case groups (100 patients) and two control groups (100 patients). After collecting data, case group patients were trained in their homes about the role of nutrition, mobility and regular drug use in blood pressure control for 3 months. Then, blood pressure in case and control groups was controlled and mean blood pressure in two groups was compared. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Result: 55.4 % of the case and 54.3% controls had family history of blood pressure. Before intervention mean BMI in case and control group was 26.8±5.56 and 28.04±14.66 and after intervention it was 25.96±5.38 and 27.61±14.29 respectively. Before follow up program was implemented, 39.13% of the cases and 35.87% of the controls had regular drug use history. After follow-up this rose to 44.6% and 42.4% respectively. After follow-up program 22.83% of the cases and 17.39% of the controls had referred to emergency ward or a physician once in 3 months. After intervention program, mean systolic blood pressure in cases and controls were 133 and 153 mmHg respectively and this difference was statistically meaningful (P<0.001). After follow-up, systolic blood pressure control in case and control groups was 59.8% and 35.9% respectively and this difference was meaningful (P<0.001).

  Conclusion: Results showed that after training program and home follow-up, blood pressure and weight control were more in case group, than control group, Therefore, we suggest that patient training programs and follow up and home follow-up be used as an effective way in hypertensive patients' health care and their treatment.


Behnam Mohammadi Ghalehbin, Esmaeil Falah , Mohammad Asghar Zadeg, Abdol Hasan Kazemi, Ahmad Daryani, Firooz Amani, Saeide Amani, Mina Agazade, Rasool Abdollahi, Rouhollah Arab,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: Cryptosporidium is an intracellular – extracytoplasmic parasite that has taken much attention in last 20 years as a clinically important human pathogen. Cryptosporidial infection can be transmitted from fecally contaminated food or water and from animal-human or human-human contact. In immunocompromised persons, the illness is much more severe such as debilitation, fatigue, cholera-like diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, low-grade fever, severe weight loss and Anorexia. Because there was no regional study about cryptosporidiosis in Ardabil, we carried out this survey to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among the children hospitalized in Ardabil.

 Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was carried out on 371 patients in Sabalab and Aliasghar hospitals of Ardabil between 2004 and 2005. A questionnaire was filled for each patient. Stool samples were examined by concentrated formal - ether method and stained with modified Ziehl-Neelson method. The data were analyzed with SPSS (ver 11) using Chi-square test.

  Results: We analyzed 371 stool samples from children with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected microscopically in 15 samples. Its prevalence was 4.04% in infected patients. 66.7% of the infected ones were at the age of 6 to 24 months, 20% 25-48 months, and 13.3% 49-72 months.

 Condusion: Because cryptosporidiosis was more prevalent at the age of 6-24 months, health education is more necessary for their mothers.


Mohammadhosein AliMohammadian, Seyedhojjat Khalilollahi , Ali Khamesipour, Yahia Dowlati ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (Autumn 2006)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: Leishmanin skin test (Montenegro test) is a best indicator for evaluation of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and cell-mediated immunity in leishmaniasis. A standard antigen is needed for this test. In this research, several batches of leishmanin antigen were produced under standard conditions, and their immunogenicity, specificity, sensitivity and potency were evaluated.

  Methods: In order to produce leishmanin, standard strain of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) was cultured in equal volume ofliquid medium of D-MEM and Tc Medium 199 in large scale. Parasites from stationary phase of growth were harvested and washed under strict standard conditions and used for preparation of leishmanin. Immunogenicity of prepared antigen was tested by skin testing in pre-immunized guinea pigs. Specificity of the reagent and abnormal sensitization were evaluated by skin testing in healthy individuals in non-endemic areas of Tehran and Tabriz. Sensitivity and potency of leishmanin reagent were evaluated by skin testing in recovered individuals from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in endemic areas of rural and urban areas.

  Results: The findings indicated the productions of leishmanin are sterile and safe with high immunogenicity. Specificity of the products was shown to be higher than 99% with no abnormal sensitization to reagent. Sensitivity and potency of preparations were determined > 96% with mean induration between 15-18 mm in endemic areas of rural CL, and > 93% with mean reactivity of 12-14 mm in endemic areas of urban CL.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated that this product is safe and sterile with high immunogenicity, specificity, sensitivity and potency and has no abnormal sensitization. These products which are easily available inside the country could be used easily for skin testing and detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity response in leishmaniasis.



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