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Showing 17 results for Mahdavi

Behrooz Dadkhah , Mohammadali Mohammadi , Naser Mozafari , Abdollah Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)
Abstract

Background &  Objective: Burning is a problem that occurs quite frequently every day, and brings about a lot of psychophysical problems for both the burnt individual and his  family. Hospital infection,burn infection and lack of the precsie care on the part of nursing staff is one of the hospital insufficiencies.This increases the duration of hospitalization and leads to the wastage of costs and as a result is very life threatening. This study was conducted to determine the quality of burn wound dressing in burn ward of Fatemi hospital.

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, 100 cases of burn wounds were selected using simple sampling method, and were studied in terms of dressing quality.The data were collected using questionnaire and observation cards. The questionnaire included 9 questions regarding demographic specification and the observation card had 14 questions about the patient, 20 questions for attentive persons and 16 questions regarding equipment and solutions and 16 questions about the environment.This collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential test.

Results: The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound regarding the patients was weak (73%),average (27%) and good (0%). The equipment and solutions used were weak (52%), average (35%) and good (13%). In relation to environment weak (92%) average (8%), good (0%) and regarding attentive person weak(73%), average (27%), good (0%). There was a signnificant correlation among working experience, marital status and age of attentive personnel, and quality of burn wound caring.

Conclusions:The findings indicated that the dressing quality of burn wound caring was weak. It is also recommended that more attention should be given to caring burn wounds by nursing staff.
Akbar Pirzadeh , Abdollah Mahdavi , Jelveh Charkhtab,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Swallowing foreign bodies and their impaction in esophagus is common among children and proper diagnosis and treatment of this problem will decrease its complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate esophageal foreign bodies.

  Methods : 62 patients with complaining about foreign body ingestion were studied and factors such as age, sex, the kind of foreign body, the treatment done, its complications and the length of hospitalization were considered.

  Results : Of sixty- two patients, 30 were male and 32 were female. Coin was the most common foreign body in children (24 cases) while in adults bone (chicken or fish) was more common (19 cases). In the patients most of the foreign bodies were impacted in the upper esophagus at the cricopharengeal junction. In all patients except one case (in which endoscopic forceps was used to remove the foreign body) esophagoscopy was performed under general anesthesia to remove the impacted foreign bodies. Complication was seen in one case as bleeding.

 Conclusions: Since the esophageal foreign body is prevalent among children it is necessary to prevent it through offering adequate to parents.


Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.


Mohammadbagher Saberi Zafarghandi , Raheb Ghorbani , Hamidreza Hafezi , Mehran Mahdavi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Self Confidence, is a continuous evaluation of an individual on himself. Hence it is important regarding the mental health and the personality balance. Due to the problems that low self-confidence brings about especially during the youth age and regarding the prevalence of this problem among adolescents, the present research was conducted in order to investigate the level of self-confidence among students.

 Methods: Self-confidence of 500 students was determined using Eysenck test. Multistage sampling was employed to select 7 out of 15 boys high schools randomly In each grade of study the required numbers were chosen randomly proportionate to the number of students in that grade. Scores more than 21 showed high self-confidence, 14-21 average and less than 14 indicated low confidence. To analyze the data, Chi- square and Mantel- Hanzel tests were used, with 95% significance.

 Results: 29.6% of students have had high self-confidence, 57.8% of them had average self-confidence while 12.6% of them had lower level of self-confidence. No significant relationship was seem among the rank of birth and the literacy of parents with the level of self-confidence. However there was a significant relationship between the number of siblings (P=0.0135) and study grade (P=0.0018) with the level of self-confidence. As a result, 11.5% of the students in the first grade, 6.6% in the second grade and 20.5% in the third grade had low self-confidence.

 Conclusion: The prevalence oflow self-confidence among third grade high school students, warns that they should be paid much attention by their parents and their school officials.


Ali Tarighat , Reza Mahdavi , Jamal Ghaemmaghami , Abdolrasool Saafaian ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (Autumn 2003)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: In young females, especially among university students because of the physiological needs, the intake of energy and essential nutrients is very important. Some changes happen in the life style of these students, which can affect their nutritional status. In this study the nutritional status, energy and nutrients intake of young female students living on and off campus were investigated.   

Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study nutritional status of 82 on-campus female students and 74 off-campus ones (Age range=18-24) were assessed and compared using anthropometrics measurements and three-day dietary records method including one day off. Nutritional values were analyzed  using FP2 computer program and statistical analyses were carried out by EPI6.

Results: The findings indicated no significant difference between the daily average energy intake of on-campus and off-campus students (2247±24) and (2192±21 kcal respectively).    Energy intake of on-campus students from carbohydrates was significantly higher than that of off-campus students, whilst energy intake from protein and fat was significantly lower (p<0.001). 34.2% of on-campus students and 58.1% of off-campus ones received more than 30% of their energy from fat. Besides, 85.4% of on-campus students and 44.6% of off-campus ones received less than 15gr of fiber every day. Results also indicated that mean intake of, calcium, magnesium, vitamins A, C and folacin for on-campus students was significantly lower than off-campus students (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The findings indicated that in both groups the intake of some essential micronutrients was lower than recommended levels. However, in general the nutritional status of off-campus students was better than on-campus ones. On the basis of these results the improvement of university food service programs would be beneficial.           


Naser Mozaffari, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Behrouz Dadkhah , Abdollah Mahdavi ,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (Winter 2004)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Haemodialysis has been used as a replacement therapy in patients with end- stage renal failure for several decades. But it is not clear yet how much haemodialysis a uremic patient needs? ‏ There are different methods for the assessment of needs and adequacy of dialysis. One of these methods was measurement of KT/V of haemodiolytic patients. The aim of this study was to determine dialysis adequacy of haemodialytic patients in Ardabil dialysis center .

  Methods: In this descriptive study, all of the hemodialytic patients (70 cases) in 2002 were studied. Urea and blood cells were determined in the patients' blood samples both before and after dialysis. KT/V methods were used to determine the adequacy of dialysis. The data were collected and analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive (mean,standard deviation) and analytical (X2) statistics.

  Results: The findings showed that KT/V was smaller than 1.2 in 90% of cases. 54.3% of patients were dialysed three times a week mean of dialysis duration was 2.4 ± 1.63 years. Mean of hemoglobin was 8.27 ± 1.69 gr/dl. There was no significant relationship between dialysis adeqnacy and instrument type.

  Conclusion: 90% of haemodialytic patients in this center did not have adaquate dialysis in terms of KT/V criteria. As a result it seems necessery to pay more attention in order to improve the present condition.


Akbar Pirzadeh, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammad Ali Mohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: The hearing organ has a special role in establishing communication among people and their education. Hearing loss causes disorders in communication between human and environment. In growing ages, hearing loss may lead to general educational failure . T his study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between hearing loss and educational failurs.

  Methods: In this case control study 110 failed students in 5th grade elementary school (case) and 110 other ones (control) were selected by systematic random sampling. Both groups underwent the audiometric tests. The Data were analyzed by EPI 2000 software.

  Results: The results of this study showed that 9.1% of cases and 0.9% of controls needed sonic energy more than 30db in left ear to hear. The difference was significant (P<0.05) whereas there was no significant relationship between hearing loss and educational failure in rigth and left ear in both groups when the sonic energy used is more than 20db.

  Conclusion: The failed students are strongly recommended to be annually examined and evaluted by a specialist and if necessary be treated.


Mohammad Mazani , Hasan Argani , Nadereh Rashtchizadeh , Mohammad Rohbaninoubar , Amir Ghorbanihagjo , Reza Mahdavi , Reza Razzaghi , Babak Rahimi Ardabily , Seyedjamal Ghaemmaghami ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (Autumn 2006)
Abstract

  Background and Objectives: A great amount of evidence shows that Oxidative stress is high among hemodialysis patients. The purpose of present investigation is examination of the effect of zinc supplementation on improvement of oxidative stress in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 65 chronic hemodialysis patients were studied in two groups Group one (35 patients) received placebo and group two (30 patients) received 100 mg elemental zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily for 2 months. The placebo and supplement discontinued in next 2 months. Then, the study continued for two other months in the cross-over from. The levels of serum zinc, total glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), total serum antioxidant capacity and the activity of whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined on 0th, 60th,120th,180th days, in fasting, predialysis samples. Food record was recorded for one day prior to dialysis in above-mentioned days and their dietary zinc was assessed.

  Results: Basal serum zinc levels in both groups were below 80 μ g/dl. The zinc upplementation led to significant increase in the levels of serum zinc in both groups .The levels of serum total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione and activity of whole blood SOD increased significantly during zinc supplementation period. The concentrations of serum MDA decreased significantly in zinc supplementation period in both groups. During the placebo period the levels of MDA in first group increased significantly, whereas the concentration of glutathione in second group decreased significantly. The body mass index (BMI) values did not change significantly during the study.

  Conclusion: It can be concluded that in patients undergoing hemodialysis the oxidative stress enhanced during nonsupplementation period (zinc sulfate). Low serum zinc levels are improved by zinc administration and zinc supplementation improves oxidative stress.


Akbar Pirzadeh , Masoud Entezari , Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadali Mohammadi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (Winter 2008)
Abstract

  Background and objectives : Voice problem is the most common problem in singers and the prevention of this problem and clearance of voice is the cause of voice quality improvement in these people. So this study was carried out to" determine the traditional methods for prevention of voice problem in religions singers at Ardabil city".

  Methods: This survey was a descriptive (cross-sectional) study. In this study 43 religious signers were selected. Then singers completed a questionnaire that consisted of data about age, sex, duration of singing, history of Voice problem and the prevention methods that they used. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and descriptive statistics.

  Results: The findings showed all of samples were male. Most of them were 24-44 years old. All of them used their voice in Moharram and 15 persons (34.4%) in Ramadan and 8 cases (18.6%) sang in other months. Clearance of voice was often seen in summer (79%) and Voice problem often was seen in winter (67.4%). 36 singers (83.7%) experienced Voice problem that in most of them (32.6%) its duration is 2 days. Resting and well nutrition were the common methods for prevention of voice problem. Most of singers used corticosteroids and changed singing method to a treble voice.

  Conclusions: The rate of voice problem in religious singers was higher than that of the general population, and it was often seen in special months. Duration of voice problem was low in most of them. Change of singing method and corticosteroid therapy was the common way of its treatment.


Reza Mahdavi , Ali Nemati , Eiraj Feizi, Mojtaba Amani , Hosein Alimohammadi Asl, Mohammad Mazani M, Phd4; Nagizadeh Bagi , Abbas , Ali Shadman , Reza Alipanah Mogadam, Asghar Pirzadeh, Mousa Ghayour Nahand,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (summer 2011)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Consumption of ω3 fatty acids supplementation inhibits oxidative stress injury, increases activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreases lipid peroxidation in gastric cancer patients. In this study, we examined effects of ω-3 fatty acid intakes on oxidative stress in gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  Methods: This double blind clinical trial study was conducted on 30 adult patients (15 cases and 15 controls) with gastric cancer during chemotherapy in Ardabil city in 2010. Case and control groups were selected by randomized allocation. Three grams ω -3 fatty acid supplementation (1.8 g EPA & 1.2 g DHA in 10 g fish oil) and placebo were given case and control groups for 45 days, respectively. Anthropometric indices (weight, height & BMI) were measured. Blood samples were taken and then biochemical factors including triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, MDA, and total antioxidants were evaluated at the beginning, middle and end of the study . The data were analyzed by using Paired sample t-test, Independent sample t-test and repeated measures test.

  Results: MDA, Weight and BMI of omega group after intervention were significantly more than control group at the end of the study (p<0.05). Weight and BMI were decreased but serum MDA was significantly increased in control group during the study (p<0.05). Weight, BMI , and total antioxidants were significantly increased in omega group during day 30-45, (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in other biochemical factors at the end of study.

  Conclusion: The present investigation shows administration of ω3 fatty acid supplements to gastric cancer patients during chemotherapy increases the total antioxidants capacity and prevents the enhancement of oxidative stress.


Ali Nemati, Reza Mahdavi , Eiraj Faizi, Abbas Nagizadeh Baghi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (autumn 2012)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Chemotherapeutics induce side effects in patients with cancer . In animal models the intake of ω3 fatty acids during chemotherapy can increase the impact of chemotherapy drugs and reduce their side effects . This study was aimed to determine the fish oilintake on side effects of chemotherapy drugs in patients with gastric cancer.

  Methods: A double blind clinical trial study on 30 adult volunteer patients (15 experiments and 15 controls) with gastric cancer was conducted during chemotherapy in Ardabil, Iran, during 2010-2011 . Experimental and control groups were selected by randomized allocation. About 3 grams ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (1.8 g Eicosapentaenoic acid & 1.2 g Docosapentaenoic acid ) and placebo were given to experimental and control groups for 6 weeks, respectively . Then, the results of data were collected at the beginning, 4 and 6 weeks after intervention of ω3/placebo in both groups and analyzed by using descriptive statistics , Chi -Square , Independent sample t-test and Cochran,s Q test.

  Results: The results of this study showed that there were significant differences of nausea in both group of patients at the end of 6 weeks (p<0.05). A bdominal cramp and nausea significant ly decreased in experimental group during the study (p<0.05). Hair loss , vomiting and diarrhea were reduced in experimental group during the study, but these differences were not statistically significant . There were no significant differences in vomiting , diarrhea and hair loss between two groups at the end of intervention.

  Conclusion: The present study showed that the intakes of fish oil strongly reduce side effects of chemotherapy drugs such as nausea and abdominal cramp. So, this oil supplementation appears to be harmless and useful in patients with gastric cancer during chemotherapy .


Hasan Taghipour, Parviz Nowrouz, Saeid Dastgiri Mehri , Yousef Bafandeh, Reza Mahdavi, Kazem Hashemimajd,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (Autumn 2014)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Nitrate is one of the major contaminants in food and water. Excess intake of this substance can increase the risk of stomach cancer and also cause other health problems. The objectives of this study were estimation of dietary nitrate consumption in the Varzaghan with high and Parsabad with low stomach cancer incidence in country, and also the comparison dietary nitrate consumption with World Health Organization standards.

  Methods: In this comparative study performed during autumn and spring of 2011 about 216 food samples (including all food groups) and drinking water collected and their nitrate concentration was determined by colorimetric method. Then daily dietary consumption of nitrate calculated based on daily diet of each person (according to national study on food consumption pattern in Iran) and nitrate concentration in each group of food and drinking water.

  Results: Daily consumption of nitrate in Varzaghan and Parsabad was 8.53 ± 0.35 and 8.17 ± 0.54 mg per kg of body weight (of adults), respectively, which is much greater than the amount recommended by FAO/WHO (0-3.7 mg per kg of body weight). Significant difference was not observed in the dietary consumption of nitrate in two cities at studied period (P> 0.05).

  Conclusion: Despite of no significant difference in dietary consumption of nitrate in two cities, the daily consumption of nitrate in both of studied cities was significantly greater than the recommended level. Therefore monitoring sources of contamination and reduction of environmental pollution for decreasing food nitrate concentration are recommended.


Saadat Jalili , Mousa Aghaei, Akraossadat Saeid Mahdavi ,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (winter 2014)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: At the present time, health care services have been increasingly transformed to a competitive issue and many factors influence usage of hospital services and selection of a hospital by the patients. This study has been performed for surveying effective factors on selecting a public or private hospital among non-emergent patients of Ardabil hospitals in 2012.

  Method: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study and the statistical population was non emergent patients of four public and two private hospitals of Ardabil in 2012. The samples (598 patients) were collected by stratified random sampling method. Data-gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, frequency [distribution] tables, and logistic regression analysis.

  Results: The results depicted a direct interdependence between selecting a hospital (public or private) and the three factors of social elements, hospital services, and hospital facilities with a confidence coefficient of 92%. Based on logistic regression analysis and Exp(B) coefficient, the patients’ priorities for hospital choosing were hospital services, social elements, and hospital facilities with Exp(B) of 1.932, 1.332, and 0.338, respectively.

  Conclusion: The most important factor for choosing public hospitals was lower cost of services and for private hospitals was physician’s recommendation. The strong effects of these two factors have overshadowed other variables.


Sh Heydari Tajaddod, N Najafzadeh, M Mahdavi Rad, H Sheikhkanloui Milan, H Kalarestaghi, V Nejati,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (summer 2015)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are multipotent and various types of HFSCs were introduced. HFSCs separation using cell surface markers is one of the interesting strategies in the replacement of old methods. In this study, we used magnetic activating cell sorting (MACS) to separate HFSCs.

  Methods: In this study, HFSCs were isolated from Balb/c mice and dissected under an invert microscopy, and bulge area isolated and the bulge cells cultivated about 14 days. The CD34 positive cells isolated using CD34 monoclonal antibody and magnetic activated cell sorting system (MACS), then the cells incubated in DMEM/F12 and 10% FBS. The CD34 positive cells counted using a neubauer slide and evaluated under a fluorescent microscopy.

  Results: Here, we isolated CD34 positive cells using MACS and 12±1. 04% of HFSCs were CD34 positive and we found that, CD34 positive cells survived during 7 days cell culture in vitro.

  Conclusion: The results show that MACS is useful to increasing density gradient of cells in vitro.


Fatemeh Ghannadiasl , Reza Mahdavi,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (summer 2016)
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. Weight loss is always recommended for meaningful reduction in these abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the effects of balanced low calorie diet on weight loss, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in obese women attending the nutrition clinic.

Methods: In this clinical trial, forty five volunteer apparently healthy obese women (body mass index: 33.28 ± 2.90 kg/m2 and age: 28.40 ± 7.98 years) were recruited from the nutrition clinic in their first visit. The participants were received a balanced low calorie diet over 6 months after anthropometry measurement and blood sampling for determination of fasting insulin and insulin resistance level. Balanced low calorie diet was an individualized diet with an energy deficit of 500 calories of daily energy intake that was calculated from 3-day food records for every person. At 6 months after intervention, continuous and dichotomous variables were assessed using paired t-test and McNemar test, respectively.

Results: The mean recommended energy intake was 2241.78 ± 219.02(kcal). After 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (p=0.003), body mass index (p=0.005), waist and hip circumferences (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). There was also significant improvement in fasting insulin level (13.47 ± 6.55 vs. 11.95 ± 4.17 µU/ml, p=0.01). Whereas, insulin resistance had not significant reduction (p=0.1).

Conclusion: In obese women attending the nutrition clinic, the balanced low calorie diet resulted in weight loss and improvement in fasting insulin. These positive changes can help to decrease the risk factor profile in obese individuals.


Mitra Rabiei, Gholamreza Zarrini, Majid Mahdavi,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (summer 2018)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Much attention has been given to nutritional supplements that can alter intestinal flora as factors preventing colon cancer. Research has shown that lactic acid bacteria in foods are potentially capable of inducing apoptosis. In this regard, the most focus has been on Lactobacillus genus. This study, investigated the cytotoxic effect of metabolites of isolated strain from Azerbaijan traditional cheeses on HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, after collecting samples of traditional "Lighvan" and "jug" cheeses in the region of Azerbaijan, MRS medium was used for isolation of lactobacilli. The isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular approaches after primary confirmation. The metabolites were produced in MRS broth, and their supernatants were separated. The inhibitory effect of the supernatants of the isolates on HCT116 cancer cells was studied and their effects were evaluated by microscopy and MTT assay.
Results: In this study, three isolates of "Lighvan" and sixteen isolates of "jug" cheeses were obtained. The results of anticancer activity showed that the supernatants of the isolates CT2 and JT1 had a significant anticancer effect on HCT116 cancer cells (p˂0.05). Identification of the isolates CT2 and JT1 showed 99% and 96% similarity with Lactobacillus brevis, respectively.
Conclusion: Lactobacilli in Azerbaijan traditional dairy products have a significant value in terms of anticancer properties.
 
Hossein Raghfar , Nasrin Sargazi , Satar Mehraban , Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi , Zahra Vahdati Manesh ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (autumn 2018)
Abstract

Background & objectives: cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality around the whole world. However, there is limited information on its economic costs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic costs of coronary heart disease in Iran in 2014.
Methods: The diseases costs were calculated based on the incidence approach using a bottom-up method and a community-oriented perspective.   The drug cost information was obtained from angiographed patients (607 cases) in Shahid Modarres Hospital using simple random sampling method. Other information like disease incidence, distribution of patients, treatment patterns, length of stay and mortality rate was gathered from the literature, interview with patients, consultation with specialists, questionnaire, ministry of health and statistical center of Iran.
Results: Coronary heart diseases impose a significant economic burden in the range of 4,715 and 4,908 billion dollars (210,037,860,000,000-201,778,425,000,000 rials) upon Iran economic system. The medical costs and the costs of lost productivity due to premature death were calculated at USD 3.572 billion (152,863,740,000,000 rials) and USD 933 million (39,927,735,000,000 rials) respectively. The major part of medical costs was related to angioplasty costs (47%) and the minor part was related to drug costs (1.15%).
Conclusion: Coronary heart diseases impose a lot of financial costs to Iran healthcare system which cover more than 16% of whole healthcare financial costs. It is possible to streamline all consequential costs due to coronary heart disease by means of economic and effective use of resources and widespread self-care plan.
 

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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