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Showing 15 results for Karim

Mohammadreza Karimazar , Hooshang Khazan , Eznollah Azar Gashb,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (Autumn 2004)

  Background & Objectives : More than one hundred countries face the problem of malaria disease. Studies have indicated that thalassemic individuals are relatively more resistant to malaria. The present research set out to investigate this hypothesis in Iraushahr where these is a high prevalence of moralia. The goal of this study is to compare the prevalence of malaria in thalassemic individuals with non- thalassemic ones in Iranshahr.

  Methods: In this case-control study 100 thalassemic individuals (case) and 100 non-thalassemic case (control) were selected. In addition to serum specimen, their blood sample from their fingertips were also taken to prepare peripheral blood smear. The tests were performed on 200 random samples in July (the peak time of malaria transmission). In this study, both indirect immuno flurecance Assay (IFA) and direct amear technique were used. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics including T- test, chi-square and ANOVA.

  Results: In IFA 20 subjects had positive titer while 80 ones had negative titer. Direct microscopic examination indicated that these, 20 cases had malaria parasite, 10 of whom were affected by p. vivax and 10 whit p. falciparum. In the non-thalassemic people (control group), 75 subjects had positive titers and 25 had negative titer. With respect to the direct smear anamination in non-thalassemic subjects, 18 had malaria parasite, of whom 7 had p.falsiparium and 11 had vivax. The results of malaria antibody titer indicated that the history of being affected by malaria the thalassemic subjects was 92% less than the non-thalassemic ones and this difference was statistically, significant (p<0.05) however, no significant relationship was found in terms of the results of direct microscopic examination and Ginsastaining.

  Conclusion : Since thalassemic people are more resistant againt malaria futhure researches are required to investigated the resistance to malaria in other blood disorders.

Hamid Mirzaei , Soltanali Mahboob , Karim Kazeman Alanag , Gity Karim ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (Winter 2006)

  Background & Objectives: Salmonella is amongst the most important food-borne pathogens and s .typhimurium is the most common species causing food infection. L. casei, B. bifidum and B. angulatum are among probiotics with siginificant benefical effects in consumers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of the mentioned probiotics with s .typhimurium in vitro and growth in synthetic peptone water medium to evaluate the provisional effects of probiotic consumption in prevention and treatment of s .typhimurium food infection in humans.

  Methods: In order to activate the lyophilized bacteria, they were inoculated in erlene meyer containing peptone water and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. The activated probiotics and s .typhimurium were then incubated separately and together in peptone water medium for 24 hours at 37 ° c. Then, the number of their probiotic bacteria and S.typhimurium were counted in MRS and BGA media using surface plate method. This procedure was repeated 10 times for each experiment and a mean number of s .typhimurium in each ml of erlene meyer containing s .typhimurium alone and with probiotics and also the mean number of probiotic bacteria in each ml of erlene meyer containing probiotic alone and with salmonella were compared using independent t-test.

  Results: Co-cultural growth of L.casei and B.angulatum significantly inhibits s .typhimurium growth (P<0.05) but the inhibitory effect of B.bifidum was not meaningful and the co-culture of S.typhimurium had no meaningful effect on the growth of the above bacteria.

  Conclusions: Consumption of products containing L.casei and B.angulatum could have benefical effects in prevention and treatment of S.typhimurium infection although more in vivo researches should be carried out in this regard.

Davar Amani , Mohammadhasan Zahir , Mojtaba Karimzadeh, Sadegh Feizollah Zadeh, Mohammadhosein Dehghan ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (Winter 2007)

 Background & Objective: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) develop as recognition and defense against malignant cells by the host immune system. T cells are the most tumor infiltrating immune cells. There are controversial data about intratumor T cells and many have proposed diverse mechanisms for dysfunction of TILs. The aim of this study is analyzing Tumor Infiltrating T lymphocytes in patients with breast cancer by immunophenotyping.

 Methods: Sixteen women suffering from breast cancer were examined thirteen of them were confirmed histologically to be invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue samples from patients and matched control group were processed for analysis by flow cytometry.

 Results: Results indicated that human breast cancer contain variable numbers of TILs. No significant changes in the percent of intratumor CD45+, CD3+ and CD3+/CD45+ cells were observed between studied group. Also there were no significant differences between cancer patients (group 1 and 2) and control group in the case of infiltration and activation status of T cells subpopulations. CD4+ cells in IDC patients and CD8+ cells in patients with other tumors (ILC+AMC) were the most infiltrated TILs. Intratumor TCD8+ cells expressed HLA-DR markers significantly more than CD25 as activation marker. In this investigation we could not find any correlation between TIL and both size and clinical stages of tumor.

 Conclusion: An immune infiltrate is an invariable finding in breast cancers, with considering the activation marker expression, TIL may be activated, albeit partially. Understanding the insensitive and/or suppressive nature of cancer cells to the immune system may provide important insights into tumor escape mechanisms as well as the development of anti-cancer strategies.

Mohammadali Karimi Aghdam , Mahmood Samadi, Shamsi Ghaffari , Fariba Mahmoodpoor,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

  Background & Objectives: There are several methods for PDA closure. This study compared results, complications and cost effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical PDA closure with coil.

  Methods: Patients who admitted in Shahid Madani Hospital in 2005 surgical and nonsurgical closure of PDA were included in this study. Data were obtained from patients units. All cases followed up for six months. Data were analyzed thorough SPSS.

  Results: From 21 patients of nonsurgical method in two cases (9.5%), coil embolizations were occurred to pulmonary artery, that they were removed in cath lab and then refered to a surgery unit. One case (4.5%) has residual shunt at PDA, that who was waiting for second coil. In six month follow-up, PDA completely was closed in 18 (86%) patients and no complications were seen.

  In surgical method there were 42 patients. In six month follow-up, there were residual shunt in 2 (4.7%) cases and chylothorax in 1 (2.3%) patient, transient left diaphragmatic paresis in 2 (4.7%) and transient vocal cord paresis in 2 (4.7%) cases were seen.

  Mean at hospitalization and ICU, laboratory tests and radiographic examinations in nonsurgical method were significantly less than surgical method (P<0.0005). There was no significant difference in drug cost between two methods (P= 0.793). Mean cost of instruments and total hospital cost of the patients in nonsurgical method were significantly more than surgical method for high cost of coil (P<0.0005), but men payment of patients to the hospital in two groups did not have any significant difference (P= 0.056).

  Conclusion: In general, PDA closure through nonsurgical method had better and effective results and complications. However, it is more expensive.

Mojtaba Nikbakht , Siyamak Hassan Nagad , Babak Rezazade, Abbas Nagizadeh Baghi , Faiiaz Gorbani , Fatemeh Faraji, Nasim Karimvand ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (spring 2009)

  Background and Objective: Staphylococcus aureus is known as an important pathogen causing a variety of bacterial infections. Treatment of this bacterium with antibiotics has led to antibiotic-resistancey, especially against methicillin (MRSA) and more recently rare resistance against vancomycin. The aims of this study were to determine nasal carriage rates of S. aureus in Meshgin Shahar Valiasr hospital’s personnel and to determine antibiotic-resistance patterns in the mentioned isolates.

  Methods: Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from the nose of 200 hospital personnel in Meshgin Shahar Valiasr hospital in a 2 month period in 2006. Antibiotic sensitivity of the collected strains were tested against antibiotics used in routine treatment of S. aureus infections. Oxacillin agar was also used to screen for MRSA according to NCCLS recommendation.

  Results: Our results showed there were 45% and 16% nasal carrier rate for S. aureus and MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) strains, respectively in hospital personnel. Thirty two isolates were able to grow in oxacillin agar media, indicating 35% MRSA strains. Antibiotic resistant pattern of strains in disks method were recorded as follows: 35% to oxacillin, 97.8% to penicillin, 34% to erythromycin, 2.1% to chloramphenicol, 39.36% to tetracycline, 11.7% to gentamicin, 30.85% to trimetohoprim sulfamethoxazol and 19% to clindamycin. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin.

Conclusion: In this study, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital Personnel was more than community expected rate (%40) and lower than hospital expeeted rate (%50-80). All of the test strains were sensitive to Vancomycin.
Sousan Salimipormehr , Noorosadat Kariman, Zohreh Sheykhan, Hamid Alavimajd,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (winter 2010)

  Background & Objectives: Breast cancer is one third of all kinds of cancers and the second reason of death in women. Prevention and screening can decrease affection and death rate. The aim of this study was to determine the breast cancer screening tests performance and affecting factors in women referred to Ardabil’s Health and Medical Centers in 2009 .

  Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 300 women referring to Ardabil’s Health and Medical Centers were chosen by multistage sampling. The information was collected through the researcher-made questionnaire including two parts: Knowledge and Attitude questions and a form about demographical characteristics, family, social and economic factors, risk and women-midwifery factors. For analyzing the data, SPSS software version 16, and descriptive and deductive statistic tests were used .

  Results: The percentage of screening tests including self-examination, clinical examination and mammography consequently were 4%, 4.7% and 3.7%. There was significant relationship between breast self-examination and education (p =0.003), knowledge (p =0/002) and attitude (p=0.004). No significant difference was observed between insurance status and history of hormone therapy and breast cancer screening tests.

  Conclusion: In regard to the low rate of breast cancer screening conducted and determining the affecting factors, the appropriate educational programs and interventional research are emphasized .

Nasrin Fouladi , Hosein Alimohammadi Asl, Firouz Amani, Farhad Pourfarzi, Nasrin Homayunfar , Mansoureh Karimollahi , Hojjatollah Safir, Adalat Hoseinian ,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (spring 2012)

  Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.

  Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI) and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.

  Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3%) in control group and 122 patients (40.6%) in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.

  Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Amir Ziaee , Sima Hashemipoor, Taktom Karimzadeh, Azadeh Jalalpoor, Amir Javadi ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (summer 2012)

  Background & objectives: There are growing evidences about relationship between vitamin D metabolism and occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has a role in secretion and possibly the action of insulin and modulates lipolysis and might therefore contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether serum vitamin D3 level in patients with diabetes is lower than that in non-diabetics and if its level has any relation to indices of metabolic syndrome.

 Methods: Sixty nine subjects were enrolled in this case-control study (23 diabetic patients with good control of blood sugar, 23 poor control diabetic patients and 23 healthy subjects as control group). Serum 25(OH) D3, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), (2 hour postprandial blood sugar) BS 2hpp, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and HbA1C were measured. We also measured blood pressure, body weight, height and abdomen circumference for individuals. The data were analyzed by Anova, Chi-square and Pearson correlation.

 Results: Serum levels of Vitamin D3 were significantly lower in diabetics compared to non diabetics. (36/5±16/6 v.s. 56/6±19/1 nmol/lit, p<0/001). There was no statistical difference between the group with good control diabetes and poor control diabetes. There was no significant correlation between low serum vitamin D and metabolic syndrome parameters. These findings suggest the need for ongoing evaluation of possible protective role of vitamin D3 supplement in the development of diabetes.

 Conclusions: Based on our results vitamin D deficiency is prominent in patients with diabetes. It appears the vitamin D level should be monitored in diabetic patients.

Abbas Karimi , Morteza Jabbarpour Bonyadi, Mohsen Esmaeili, Saeid Dastgiri ,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (autumn 2012)

  Background and Objectives : Familial Mediterranean Fever, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common and well known periodical fevers syndrome. Disease is mainly prevalent among non-Ashkenazi Jews, Arabs, Turks and Armenia. According to the geographical location of North-West of Iran, neighboring with two high risk FMF population (Turkey and Armenia), the prevalence of FMF in this region of Iran is not unlikely. The aim of this study was to estimate the carriers rate of FMF common mutations in healthy control people. Results can be potentially useful to estimate prevalence of disease.

  Methods : Randomly 200 samples from healthy people [non-FMF] from North-West of Iran selected. After taking consent, DNA was extracted from blood samples of these groups. Then mutations were evaluated using ARMS-PCR and RFLP-PCR techniques.

  Results : from 400 studied alleles, 44 and 7 mutant alleles were found for E148Q and V726A respectively. For 2 other mutations, no mutant alleles were found. The total allelic frequency for these four common mutations was 0.132. The carriers rate was 23.4%.

  Conclusion : This study showed that E148Q has high mutation frequency relative to other mutations in North-West of Iran.

Narghes Roozafzay, Leila Kokabee, Syrous Zeinali, Morteza Karimipoor,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (spring 2013)

  Background & Objectives: Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder , which is caused by several different abnormalities in Factor 8 gene . Intron 22 inversion is the main causative mutation in 45-50% of severe hemophilia A patients. Moreover intron 1 inversion is responsible for >5% of severe hemophilia A cases . The goal of this study was to precisely analyse intron 1 inversion of Factor 8 gene in severe Hemophilia A patients who were negative for intron 22 inversion by Inverse Shifting-PCR (IS-PCR) method.

  Methods: In this experimental study, severe hemophilia A patients with less than 1% of normal FVIII activity level referred from Isfahan Seyedolshohada hospital were analyzed. After obtaining the consent from patients, genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was extracted. Then, Inverse-Shifting PCR method was exploited for detection of inversion of intron 1 of Factor 8 gene in patients who were negative for inversion intron 22 .

  Results : In 18 out of 32 patients who were negative for inversion intron 22, 2 (6.2%) had intron 1 inversion .

  Conclusion : The allele frequency of inversion of intron 1 at Factor 8 gene is in agreement with related studies. IS-PCR is a rapid, robust and cost effective method that can improve the molecular detection of inversion and is useful for analysis of hemophilia A patients, carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis.

Zahra Karimian, Zohreh Sadat, Masoumeh Abedzadeh, Nahid Sarafraz, Mahboobeh Kafaei Atrian, Nosrat Bahrami,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2013)

  Background & Objectives: Regarding to high incidence of dysmenorrhea and influence on daily activities and fewer side effects of herbal medicines than chemical drugs, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and matricaria chamomilla (MC) on primary dysmenorrhea.

  Methods: This triple-blind randomized clinical trial study was done on 90 female students residents in dormitories of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The subjects were categorized into two groups randomly. Mefenamic acid capsules (250 mg, every 8 hours) were given to the first group from 48 hours before menstruation until 24 hours after it. The second group received MC capsules made in Barij Essence Factory of Kashan (250 mg, every 8 hours). Severity of dysmenorrhea was measured by McGill ruler. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS. The chi-squire, fisher and paired t-test were used. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant difference.

  Results: The result of this study indicated that both chamomilla and mefenamic acid can reduce the severity of pain and hemorrhage (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference between two groups (p>0.05).

  Conclusion: This study showed that matricaria chamomilla is effective in decreasing the severity of primary dysmenorrhea and reducing hemorrhage as well as mefenamic acid.

Mehdi Faramoushi, Ramin Amir Sasan , Sari Sarraf Vahid, Pouran Karimi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (spring 2016)

Background & objectives: Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder accompanied with insulin resistance of the whole body cells and is considered be the fifth cause of death in the world. Adaptation to altitude can lead to tolerance to many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of simulated intermittent altitude on the metabolic and hematologic parameters and liver function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Methods: In the current experimental study, twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 220±20 gr were randomly divided into three groups; normal control group (NC, n=8), diabetic control group (D, n=8) received fat diet for 2 weeks then were injected with streptozotocin (37 mg/kg) and diabetic+hypoxia group (D+H, n=8) including diabetic rat exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (PiO2≈106 mm Hg, simulated altitude≈3400 m, 14% oxygen for 8 weeks). Diabetic, hematologic and lipid parameters as well as ALT and AST activities were measured in peripheral blood.

Results: Our findings showed that intermittent hypoxia significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL ,VLDL and triglyceride in D+H group compared to D group (p<0.05). Serum levels of fasting blood glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance )HOMA-IR( index and ALT were decreased in D+H group vs. D group )p<0.05). Also, hemoglubin and hematocrite level increased in D+H group in comparison to D group )p<0.05). No significant difference was detected in red blood cell count in D+H vs. D group.

Conclusion: Based on resultant data, it seems that intermittent exposure to hypoxia (simulated to chronic and intermittent lodgement in altitude) can be used to control of type 2 diabetes by increasing hemoglobin, decreasing insulin resistance and improving liver function as well as lipid parameters.

Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh, Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (autumn 2016)

Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant.

Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning.

Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

Bahador Karimi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (winter 2017)

Background & objectives: Zinc as one of the most important trace elements is needed for proper functioning of the nervous system and homeostasis. Many studies show that stress causes memory impairment through various mechanisms, including oxidative stress induction and some mechanisms which are directly effecting brain function. So, in this work we assessed the effect of zinc chloride on passive avoidance memory and oxidative stress following acute stress in male rats.

Methods: In this study, 50 male Wistar rats were used in five groups: control, sham, stress, zinc chloride treatment and zinc chloride treatment before stress induction. For stress induction, rats were restrained (not immobilized) for 6 h/day, 7 days in a Plexiglas restrainer, and treated rats received an oral dose of zinc chloride 32 mg/kg/day by gavage for 6 days. At the end of the experiment, passive avoidance memory was avaluated by shuttle box and some oxidative damage markers were determined in all groups.

Results: Results of this study showed that animals which were exposed to stress showed a significant decrease in passive avoidance memory compared to control group (p<0.01) and the oxidative stress parameters in this group showed significant changes compared to the control group (p<0.05). While passive avoidance memory and oxidative stress parameters in group treated with zinc chloride were nearly closed to control group.

Conclusion: According to our results, zinc chloride with antioxidant properties can have a protective effect on memory impairment and oxidative stress induced by stress.

Nasim Karimi, Sara Ramazanjamaat, Nafiseh Saeidzadeh, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Parisa Parsa ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (winter 2017)

Background & objectives: In many medical studies, the response variable is measured repeatedly over time to evaluate the treatment effect that is known as longitudinal study. The analysis method for this type of data is repeated measures ANOVA that uses only one correlation structure and the results are not valid with inappropriate correlation structure. To avoid this problem, a convenient alternative is mixed models. So, the aim of this study was to compare of mixed and repeated measurement models for examination of the Entonox effect on the labor pain.

Methods: This experimental study was designed to compare the effect of Entonox and oxygen inhalation on pain relief between two groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement and mixed models with different correlation structures. Selection and comparison of proper correlation structures performed using Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and restricted log-likelihood. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22.

Results: Results of our study showed that all variables containing analgesia methods, labor duration of the first and second stages, and time were significant in these tests. In mixed model, heterogeneous first-order autoregressive, first-order autoregressive, heterogeneous Toeplitz and unstructured correlation structures were recognized as the best structures. Also, all variables were significant in these structures. Unstructured variance covariance matrix was recognized as the worst structure and labor duration of the first and second stages was not significant in this structure.

Conclusions: This study showed that the Entonox inhalation has a significant effect on pain relief in primiparous and it is confirmed by all of the models.

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