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Showing 2 results for Kalantar
Seyedeh Hooriyeh Fallah, Narges Kalantar, Seyedmahmood Mahdinia, Neda Taheri, Nooshin Babaei,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (Spring 2008)
Background & Objective: Iodine deficiency is one of the most important life-threatening factors from the beginning and encounter irreversible damage to human. This study aimed to investigate stability of Iodine in iodized salt in different situations such as light and humidity and comparing it with standard amounts.
Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, 12 samples of iodized salts which have been distributed in Damghan, were accidentally selected. Samples were examined in the chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Health (Damghan University of Medical Sciences) using titration method recommended by British pharmacopeh. 10 mg of each iodized salts were kept at presence of light, darkness, humidity, and non- humidity situation and then titration method was performed. The samples were kept for two weeks and examined weekly. Data were analyzed with T paired and ANOVA tests using SPSS software.
Results: Findings of this study showed that reduction of Iodine was seen for all samples. The amount of reduction were 2.2, 1.5, 4.1 and 2.1 mg/l for purified salts at light, darkness, humidity, and non- humidity situation, respectively. The amount of reduction were 3.4, 2.1, 5.35 and 2.6 mg/l for non-purified salts at light, darkness, humidity, and non- humidity situation, respectively. In spite of reduction in Iodine, concentration of it was at standard amount (30-50 PPM).
Conclusion: Results showed that stability of iodine was more when salt was exposed to darkness in comparison with light situation (p< 0.09). Meanwhile, the stability of purified salts was more than the non- purified salts (p< 0.28). Also, stability of iodine was less at humidity in comparison with non- humid situation (p< 0.006). The purified salts which was exposed to humidity was much stable compared to the non- purified salts (p< 0.28). It also, demonstrated that the amount of iodine stability was more for salts which was exposed to light in comparison with humidity (p< 0.05).
Shadiyeh Abdollahi , Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Zahra Delami Khiabani, Enayatollah Kalantar, Shahoo Menbari,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (spring 2013)
Background & Objectives: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. They prevent the microbial protein synthesis system through binding to 23 S rRNA. The aim of this study was to apply molecular methods to detect inducible clindamycin resistance genes among staphylococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens.
Methods : Two hundred staphylococcus strains were isolated from nose and throat swabs of patients in Toohid and Besat hospitals in Sanandaj . Antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates were determined using disc diffusion method, agar screen test and D-Test. A multiplex PCR was performed using primers specific for erm (A, B, C, TR) genes.
Results: Out of 200 isolates, 18.5 % were MRSA and 32% were MRCNS (methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci). Of 80 erythromycin resistant isolates, 48 were coagulase negative and 32 were S. aureus. Among the 48 coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) isolates, 11.63% expressed the MLSB-inducible phenotypes. Using PCR, the frequency of different genes in the collection of isolates were as follows: ermA 5.41 % , erm B 5.41 % , and erm C 3.13%. The ermTR gene was negative in all isolates. Among the 32 S. aureus isolates, 9.38% expressed the MLSB-nducible phenotype. Using PCR, these isolates harbored erm A (2.22%), ermB (2.22%), ermC (2.22%) and ermTR (2.22%) .
Conclusion: This is the first study to show the rate of inducible clindamycin clinical isolates of staphylococci harboring erm genes in Sananadaj. It also demonstrated the frequency of erm genes was higher among CONS isolates than S. aureus. This data suggested the transfer of resistance gene from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains is likely to happen. Therefore, screening and control of these resistance genes is recommended at clinical laboratories.