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Showing 18 results for Hashemi

Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani, Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is more common in men than in women, however more than half total stroke death occur in women. Several conditions and lifestyle factors have been well established as risk factors for stroke. The purpose of this study was to asses the magnitude of classic stroke risk factors and its pattern in women.

 Methods: A total of 62 patients with first-onset ischemic stroke were accrued from neurology unit of Alavi hospital during 2002 and compared with their age-matched controls from other units of same hospital. Information concerning potential risk factor exposure status was collected by structured questionnaire at interviews. Stroke risks were estimated by calculating the odds ratios.

 Results: Significantly increased risk of stroke was found among women with hypertension (OR=8.4 CI=3.7-1.8), current smoking (OR=4.2 CI=1.1-16), diabetes (OR=3.7 CI=1.4-9.7) and heart disease (OR=3.2 CI=1.2-8.4). Association of other factors (passive smoking, Hypercholestrolemia) with stroke was not significant.

 Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes, current smoking and heart disease are major risk factors for stroke in women. Given that the majority of these factors are either correctable or modifiable, prevention strategies should be planned in accordance with this point in order to reduce the occurrence of stroke in women.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (Summer 2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : Despite the ever increasing use of oral contraceptives there is uncertainty about the stroke risk associated with their use. Some cases of pulmonary Emboli and stroke have been reported among women taking these pills. The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between taking contraceptive pills and the risk of ischemic stroke.

  Methods : In a case-control study, women with definite ischemic stroke were selected from Alavi Hospital in Ardabil who had no prior stroke. The control group was age-matched ( ± 3years) to cases and were selected from other wards of the same hospital. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information about prior exposure to various risk factors, including the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver. 12) and statistical methods such as chi-square, multivariate regression and ANOVA. The risk factor were estimated by odds ratio.

 Results: OCP consumption was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR=5.4 95% CI=1.1-5.3), and after adjustment for other risk factors of stroke it was OR=2.7 (95% CI=0. 95-7.2) with p=0.05.

 Conclusions: According to this study there was weak evidence for an association between ischemic stroke and OCP consumption. Extended studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk of stroke and the present/ past use of OCP.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Maziyar Hashemilar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (Autumn 2003)
Abstract

  Temporal arthritis (TA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis with unknown etiology, which involves large and medium sized arteries. A wide spectrum of systemic, neurological and ophthalmological complications appears in the course of the disease the most serious of which is visual impairment leading to permanent blindness in 60% of the cases.

  TA is diagnosed through an elevated ESR (>60 mm/Hg) and pathological findings of arterial biopsy. It is considered as one of the urgent neurological cases in which the patient should be treated with corticostroid immediately after diagnosis. The subject of this research was a 62-year-old male who had had headache associated with fatigue, night sweats and low mood for four month. The diagnosis of TA was made considering an elevated ESR and temporal artery biopsy findings. Treatment with prednisolone was initiated and continued for 19 months resulting in complete recovery.


Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Nayereh Aminisani , Maziyar Hashemilar,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)
Abstract

  Background & Objective : The role of circulating lipids in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains unclear despite 3 decades of research. Since ischemic stroke is one of the important causes of death or disability in the world. Finding its risk factors can play a crucial role in health interferences.This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between blood lipids and ischemic stroke.

  Methods : This wasa case-control study conducted in 2002. The case group were patients who were definitely diagnosed to have ischemic stroke for the first time. An equal number of control subjects (with the same age and sex) were selected from other hospital wards. These two groups were compared in terms of the blood lipids. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software (release 12) and statistical methods such as ANOVA and multivariate regression.

  Results : In this research 132 cases were compared with equal number of control subjects. The subjects in both groups were 64.1 years old on average. The mean level of total cholesterol was significantly higher in case group (p=0.001). The mean level of Triglycerides had no significant difference in two groups.

  Conclusions: Regarding the findings of the present research, offering strategies to lower the chlestrol level through primary prevention as well as drug interferences especially in the groups with other risk factors of stroke, seems to have a significant role in the prevention of ischemic stroke.


Maziyar Hashemilar , Nayereh Aminisani , Darioush Savadi Oskoui , Mahzad Yosefian ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Studying the epidemiology and impact of headache can help improve patient care, estimation of burden of disease and classification systems. Migraine is common worldwide and has a geographically variable prevalence in the world. Moreover, its peak of incidence is the age of 20-30. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of migraine among the medical students in order to plan for future health interferences.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study 631 students filled out a questionnaire designed according to the criteria of the international headache society. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release 12) and descriptive statistics.

 Results: 76.6% of the subjects were female and 23.4% of them were male. The females were 20.6 and males were 21.4 years old on average. The total prevalence of migraine was 7.3% (1.6% with aura, 5.4% without aura and 0.3% with both of them). Moreover, females, single subjects and students of medicine, except the migraine with aura that was more prevalent among students of associate degrees. A positive family history of headache was found in 45.6% of the students. 65.2% of those suffering from migraine had not referred to a physician and were unaware of their headache.

 Conclusions: Compared to similar researches there is a low prevalence of migraine among the students but most of the students do not take measures to cape with and treat them in the proper manner. This requires necessary health interferences.


Seiad Jamal Hashemi, Mahdi Moheb Ali , Zabihollah Zarehee,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Tina capitis is among the most prevalent human infections induced by dermatophytes. Some dermatphytic factors are globally widespread while some others are geographically determined. A number of similar researches have been conducted in Iran however, due to the geographically diverse etiology of the disease and lack of similar research in Meshkin Shahr, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis in primary schools of this city.

  Methods: In order to determine the frequency of the tinea capitis in the students of primary school in Meshkin Shahr, children in 13 schools including 2470 boys and 3012 girls were studied. For this purpose first of all the children’s scalps were observed clinically and the specimens such as hair and scale were taken from 228 pupils. The specimens were examined by direct and culture methods.

  Results: Of all the subjects, 38 students (0.7%) had tinea capitis. The prevalence rate was 0.8% and 0.6% among boys and girls respectively, which was statistically significant. The high degree of disease was seen in 11 year old students (39.5%) and the main source of infection was Trichophyton violaceum.

  Conclusion: Desptie a decrease in tinea capitis among children especially in primary school pupils nationwide, there is still a considerable (0.7%) rate of prevalence in Meshkin Shahr which demands attention.


Maziar Hashemilar, Daruoosh Savadi Oskoui , Mariam Jafaryani , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: The ischemic stroke is defined as cerebral dysfunction due to brain infarct which is induced by vascular obstruction. The related risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardioembolism and hyperlipidemia are investigated in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of cerebral infarction in young adults ( - year-olds).

 Methods: All the patients in the age rang of - admitted to the neurology ward of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between 2004 and 2005 with a diagnosis of cerebral infarction were included in this study. A questionnaire including demographic data, personal and family history of stroke and cardiac infarct, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and hyperlipidemia was filled out for all patients. Blood sugar, cholesterol, anticardiolipin antibody and beta- glycoprotein were examined. The patients underwent echocardiography. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release ).

 Results: The total number of the patients was , including females (71.1%) and males (28.9%). The mean age was (SD= ). The etiologic factors based on their frequency were: cardioembolism ( ), positive antiphospholipid antibodies (35.5%), hyperlipidemla ( ), smoking ( ), hypertension ( ), oral contraceptive use ( ) and diabetes mellitus (13.7%).

 Conclusion: The most frequent etiologies of the cerebral infarcts in the young adults in this study were cardiogenic embolism and positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Other background factors were hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, oral contraceptive use and diabetes mellitus respectively. Most of these etiologies can be intervened and prevented. The identification of these factors before occurrence of cerebral infarction can prevent this debilitating event.


Gholam Hosein Ettehad , Ali Hosseinkhani , Elias Hashemi ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. One of the most frequent form of UTI is asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in female students of Babol Islamic Azad University.

  Methods: This research was carried out on 207 female students from Babol Islamic Azad University in 2002. The age ranges of the students were between 18-29 years. Mid-stream urine (MSU) was collected from students. Urinalysis and bacteriological identification culture of MSU were done twice on all specimens. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was determined by dividing the total number of observed bacteriuria by the total number of samples.

  Results: Bacteriological tests of MSU revealed that 19 (9.2%) cases were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The microbe most frequently causing asymptomatic bacteriuria was staphylococcus saprophyticus in 7 (36.8%) cases Escherichia coli in 6 (31.6%) cases and Klebsiella in 3 (15.8%) cases.

  Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria was highly prevalent in our study. Therefore, young women must consider general health rules about genitourinary system to avoid asymptomatic bacteriuria.


Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi , Ebrahim Fataei , Seyedjamal Hashemi , Mohsen Geramishoare ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Pools and Saunas are one of the most public areas that may cause superficial and cutaneous mycoses in humans. So investigating the fungal flora in the mineral swimming pools like Sarein area can remove or reduce the contamination or prevent the probablity of fungal infection.

  Methods: A total of 284 samples from 11 mineral swimming pools were taken of which 214 were from pools, sauna Jacuzzis, tubs and showers which were covered by sterile moquette and 70 were from water in saunas, jacuzzis, tubs and showers which were collected in sterile test tubes. All of the samples were cultured in standard method on sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), sabouraud dextrose agar+oleic acid (S+O) and sabouraud dextrose agar+ chloramphenichol+cyclohexamide (SCC) medias, then identified macroscopically (colony morphology )and microscopically.

  Results: From 284 samples, 193 were contaminated with fungi. The most frequently isolated species in 11 pools were Aspergillus fumigatus (22/79%), Aspergillus flavus (15/54%), Aspergillus niger (15/54%) and Penicillium (14/5%) respectively. On the other hand, Ulocladium, Sepedonium, Acremonium, Pscilomyces, Stemphylium and Streptomyces with 0.51 % were the least frequently isolated species. In this study, no dermatophytes or other true dimorphic pathogenic fungi were isolated from samples.

  Conclusion: So it can be concluded that routine hygiene inspections such as disinfection of pools, personnel training and following hygienic rules were much effective in lowering the comtamination. Also mineral waters of these pools can be growth inhibitors of pathogenic and dermatophytic fungi.


Nayereh Amini Sani , Darioush Savadi Oskoui, Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran, Saeid Dastgiri , Mazyar Hashemilar, Maryam Jafariani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (Winter 2007)
Abstract

  Background & Objective: Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates have declined in some countries during recent decades. Changes in mortality rates over time could be attributed to changes in disease incidence or case fatality rate. Very few studies have provided information regarding survival after stroke. We aimed to determine the case-fatality rate (28 days) among patients with first-ever stroke from a population-based study in Ardabil province, Northwest of Iran.

  Methods: This study was conducted between May 2005 and February 2006, all individuals with an acute stroke who were residents in Ardabil province and hospitalized at Alavi Hospital, were registered prospectively and assessed according to standardized diagnostic criteria. The data were analyzed through SPSS, Chi square and variance analysis.

  Results: A total of 352 patients with first-ever stroke were registered, and 346 (96%) were followed up. 288 (81.8%) ischemic stroke, 16.2% (57) ICH and 2% SAH. By 28 days, 70 patients (20.3%) had died. Hypertension, diabetes and cardiac disease history were reported in 61.6%, 16.8% and 26.1% respectively and 19.8% of patients were smokers. Mean age of survivors was different from patients who died at 28 days after index event (64.2±12.9 VS 69.1±10.9, p=0.03). The proportion surviving 28 days varied from 16.2% among patients with ischemic stroke to 43% among ICH and SAH. For ischemic stroke, Survival rates were similar for men and women, whereas men with ICH had lower survival than women.

  Conclusion: Case fatality rate after first-ever stroke is substantial. Rates of mortality differ according to patients diagnosis, age, sex, and heart disease. These data highlight the importance of long-term secondary prevention.


Samira Shahbazzadegan , Kazem Hashemimajd, Behzad Shahbazi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (spring 2010)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : Excessive amounts of nitrate and nitrite in food causes to increasing the risk of gut and intestinal cancer in adults and met-hemoglobinemia disease in infants. Human body intake about 80% of nitrate from fruits and vegetables. This research carried out with the aim of determining the nitrate concentration of fruits and vegetables consumed by Ardabil citizens and to compare with acceptable levels.

  Methods : Samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from 10 markets around Ardabil city in September and October of 2009. The samples were washed two times with tap and distilled water, dried at 55 ºC and their moisture content were measured. Samples were ground with regular and ball mills and 0.025 molar aluminum sulfate solution was used to extraction. Nitrate concentration of extracts was measured with anion selective apparatus with nitrate electrode. To investigate the possibility of nitrate intake reduction by peeling, the skin and meat of some fruits and vegetables samples were measured, separately. SPSS software was used for determining of mean and standard deviation of sample's nitrate concentration. Duncan multiple range test was used for grouping of fruits and vegetables in the respect of their nitrate concentration.

  Results : The concentration of nitrate in leafy vegetables was higher than those of root and glandy vegetables. Fruits had lower nitrate concentration than vegetables. The highest nitrate concentrations were observed in spring onion, purple headed cabbage, and spinach with the amounts of 1555.8, 1394.8, and 1021 mg/kg of wet weight and lowest belonged to red and golden apples with the amounts of 29.7 and 29.9 mg/kg, respectively. Most of fruits and vegetables samples had lower nitrate than acceptable levels.

  Conclusion: With regards to high consumption rate of some fruits and vegetables and great variation of nitrate concentration, additional investigation and permanent control of their nitrate concentration is necessary.


Neda Kiani Mavi , Marefat Siahkuhian, Kazem Hashemi Majd,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (spring 2010)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives :Heart rate deflection point (HRDP) plays an important role in predicting anaerobic threshold and monitoring athletes training schedule. Despite some research, the physiological mechanisms involved in occurrence of the HRDP remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to survey of the agreement between Heart Rate Deflection Point (HRDP) and the Potassium Turn Point (KTP) in young athlete men.

  Methods :Thirty young men athlete volunteer (Mean ± SD age= 20 ± 1.21 years height = 176 ± 7.34 Cm and weight = 6.58 ± 5.66 Kg) were selected as subjects. Hofmann protocol was used to cause the HRDP. One week later and after determining the HRDP by using the S.Dmax method, subjects performed Hofmann protocol again and blood samples were taken from left forearm vein in five phases, simultaneously. The amount of potassium was measured directly by the Flamephotometer.

  Results :According to the results of study, the HRDP and KTP were occurred in average in 78% HRmax and 79% HRmax, in all of the subjects, also there was a highly agreement between HRDP and KTP (158 3.84 vs. 159 3.88 b/min). HRDP & KTP were occurred in third phase, simultaneously.

  Conclusion: Based on these results, exercise induced increase in serum potassium during Hofmann incremental cycle ergo-meter testing protocol can be one of the mechanisms of the occurrence of HRDP.


Mohsen Mardani Kivi , Kamran Asadi , Keyvan Hashemi Motlagh,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (winter 2011)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Anatomical reconstruction of articular surface and restoration of walking ability without pain are the main goals of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture management, but treatment results are not always satisfied. This paper focused on comparison between open reduction and internal fixation using: A) auto graft B) bone cement, in patients with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture.

  Methods : This prospective comparative study of 44 patients with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Patients had been divided into 2 groups and then, they were operated by the standard protocol, including lateral approach, open reduction and internal fixation with reconstruction plate. Posterior facet was supported by autogenous bone graft in the first group (BG) and it was strengthened by bone cement in the second group (BC). Patients were followed up from the point of view of following surgical complications: 1- superficial infection, 2- wound dehiscence, 3- incisional site skin necrosis, 4- Sural nerve paresthesia, 5- osteomyelitis. Functional outcome were evaluated using calcaneal fracture scoring system and ankle-hind foot scaling system of AOFAS. The gathered data was analyzed in SPSS 16 software.

  Results : Of 44 included patients, 36 were male (81.8%) and eight were female (18.2%). The mean of age was 44.25± 11.34 (range: 16-69 yrs), and the mean of follow-up duration was 13.27±2.71 months (range: 9-18 months). The mean of operation time in second group (BC) (41.82min) was significantly lower than first group (BG), (p<0.001). Five patients (23%) from first group (BG) and only one patient (5%) from the second group (BC) showed surgical complications (p=0.079). There was no significant difference between the average score evaluated by calcaneal fracture scoring system and the average scale indicated by ankle-hind foot scaling system.

  Conclusion : Instead of autogenous bone graft, the use of bone cement decreases the duration of operation time and it seems to lead in less complications.


Amir Ziaee , Sima Hashemipoor, Taktom Karimzadeh, Azadeh Jalalpoor, Amir Javadi ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (summer 2012)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: There are growing evidences about relationship between vitamin D metabolism and occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D has a role in secretion and possibly the action of insulin and modulates lipolysis and might therefore contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether serum vitamin D3 level in patients with diabetes is lower than that in non-diabetics and if its level has any relation to indices of metabolic syndrome.

 Methods: Sixty nine subjects were enrolled in this case-control study (23 diabetic patients with good control of blood sugar, 23 poor control diabetic patients and 23 healthy subjects as control group). Serum 25(OH) D3, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), (2 hour postprandial blood sugar) BS 2hpp, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and HbA1C were measured. We also measured blood pressure, body weight, height and abdomen circumference for individuals. The data were analyzed by Anova, Chi-square and Pearson correlation.

 Results: Serum levels of Vitamin D3 were significantly lower in diabetics compared to non diabetics. (36/5±16/6 v.s. 56/6±19/1 nmol/lit, p<0/001). There was no statistical difference between the group with good control diabetes and poor control diabetes. There was no significant correlation between low serum vitamin D and metabolic syndrome parameters. These findings suggest the need for ongoing evaluation of possible protective role of vitamin D3 supplement in the development of diabetes.

 Conclusions: Based on our results vitamin D deficiency is prominent in patients with diabetes. It appears the vitamin D level should be monitored in diabetic patients.


Mohsen Mardani-Kivi, Ali Narvani, Morteza Nakhaei-Amroodi, Keyvan Hashemi-Motlagh, Khashayar Saheb-Ekhteiari,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (winter 2012)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Over 150 different surgical techniques for treatment of anterior shoulder instability has been suggested that there is no consensus in the orthopedics. This study seeks to compare treatment outcomes of arthroscopic Bankart lesion repair methods with Bristow - Latarjet open surgical technique in patients with anterior shoulder instability.

  Methods: In this cross-sectional study all patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation from 2009-2011 was divided into two groups, arthroscopic Bankart treatment (28 cases) and open Bristow - Latarjet (26 cases) that all were treated by one orthopedic surgeon. Patients were visited in 2,4,6,8 weeks also in the third and sixth month post-op .The visual analog scale (VAS) for patient satisfaction and Walsch-duplay and Rowe score for functional outcomes of treatment were used in six months follow up. These three criteria were analyzed again after recalling the patients.

  Results: Mean age of 54 patients was 29.46±9.16 years and mean follow-up duration was 23.28 ± 6.2 months. Scores of patients in both groups were not statistically different after analyzing the functional outcomes of treatment by Walsch-duplay and Rowe score after six months and final follow-up. Scores of patients by Walsch-duplay measurement in arthroscopic Bankart and Bristow-Latarjet groups were 98.03±4.37 and 97.88±4.51 respectively and by Rowe index were 97.32±5.52 vs. 97.88±4.51at final follow-up. No recurrence was observed in both groups in final follow up. Patient satisfaction in Bankart and operation groups were 9.4 ±0.68 and 9.47±0.58 (p= 0.69).

  Conclusion: In anterior shoulder instability, minimally invasive Arthroscopic Bankart procedures almost equal to open Bristow-Latarjet method with regards to shoulder stability, recurrence rate, and range of motion.


Hasan Taghipour, Parviz Nowrouz, Saeid Dastgiri Mehri , Yousef Bafandeh, Reza Mahdavi, Kazem Hashemimajd,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (Autumn 2014)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Nitrate is one of the major contaminants in food and water. Excess intake of this substance can increase the risk of stomach cancer and also cause other health problems. The objectives of this study were estimation of dietary nitrate consumption in the Varzaghan with high and Parsabad with low stomach cancer incidence in country, and also the comparison dietary nitrate consumption with World Health Organization standards.

  Methods: In this comparative study performed during autumn and spring of 2011 about 216 food samples (including all food groups) and drinking water collected and their nitrate concentration was determined by colorimetric method. Then daily dietary consumption of nitrate calculated based on daily diet of each person (according to national study on food consumption pattern in Iran) and nitrate concentration in each group of food and drinking water.

  Results: Daily consumption of nitrate in Varzaghan and Parsabad was 8.53 ± 0.35 and 8.17 ± 0.54 mg per kg of body weight (of adults), respectively, which is much greater than the amount recommended by FAO/WHO (0-3.7 mg per kg of body weight). Significant difference was not observed in the dietary consumption of nitrate in two cities at studied period (P> 0.05).

  Conclusion: Despite of no significant difference in dietary consumption of nitrate in two cities, the daily consumption of nitrate in both of studied cities was significantly greater than the recommended level. Therefore monitoring sources of contamination and reduction of environmental pollution for decreasing food nitrate concentration are recommended.


M Parsian, K Hashemian, Kh Abolmaali, M MirHashemi ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (summer 2015)
Abstract

  Background & objectives: Substance abuse is one of the worst humanitarian issues in recent years which undermines the base and foundations of human society. Its prevention requires the application of multiple theories in various disciplines together with diverse methods and techniques. Several studies have been emphasized on the role of personal and familial variables as risk factors for substance use . However, this study was done in order to predict drug addiction attitude in adolescents according to the family training risk factors to prevent substance abuse and to design a model for the prevention of addiction .

  Methods: This study is a descriptive and survey research performed on a sample of 373 male and female students selected randomly among the five high school students in Ghaemshahr city. Then a questionnaire including parenting styles, attitude to addiction and social problem solving skill as well as a socioeconomic questionnaire distributed among the students. For data analysis, the statistical method of descriptive statistics and path analysis has been used.

  Results: Results of this study have shown that the component of parenting styles has a direct and positive impact on attitudes to drug addiction. In addition, there was a direct and positive non-significant relationship between the adaptive social problem solving skills and attitude to drug addiction and also direct and negative significant relationship between the non-adaptive social problem solving skills on this attitudes. A direct and negative significant relationship was also seen between parenting styles and attitude to drug addiction.

  Conclusions: Based on the results of present study, the components of parenting styles have a direct and negative impact on attitudes to drug addiction. Also there is a direct and significant relationship between the components of non-adaptive social problem solving skills and the variable of social attitude in adolescents . But the component of adaptive social problem solving skill has a direct and non-significant impact.


Zahra Heidari, Roghaye SeyedHashemi, Behnam Mohammadi Ghalebin,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (winter 2019)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Parasitic diseases are one of the health problems of all societies and are considered as barriers to progress socioeconomic development, especially in most developing countries. This study evaluated the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients referred to hospitals affiliated with Ardabil University of Medical Sciences in 2018.
Methods: a total of 409 stool samples were collected from laboratories of Imam Khomeini and Bouali hospitals and then transferred to the parasitology lab in the medical and paramedical school. Samples were evaluated using direct, concentration and culture methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21.
Results: Out of 409 samples, 22 cases (4.5%) were infected with intestinal parasites. Among them, 5.3% and 5.4% of infected cases were men and women respectively. Also, the rate of infection to the protozoans and helminths was 3.7% and 1.7% respectively. Among the positive cases, the highest percentage of infection was related to Giardia and Blastocystis.
The infection rate of each parasite among all patients and positive cases was 1.2% and 22.7% respectively.
Conclusion: The present study showed that intestinal protozoan infection, especially Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis are high in Ardabil city, and therefore special infection control measures are urgently needed.
 

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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