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Showing 7 results for Ettehad

Akbar Pirzadeh, Gholamhosein Ettehad ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (Autumn 2002)

 Background & Objective: Chronic otitis media infection exists among 1.5-2 percent of people and its purulent discharges can create some difficulties for the patients. Chronic otitis media is mainly due to pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous. Severe and irreversible damages should be expected unless follow up treatments are exactly performed in such patients. This study was conducted to determine the most prevalent microorganisms involved in otitis infection and their sensitivity to antibiotics.

 Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 60 patients who referred to nose and throat clinics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences (2000-2001) were selected. Using applicator, some samples were taken from suppurative discharges of middle ear. These samples were then cultured in lactose broth and Nutrient broth. In order to isolate pathogenic microorganism, samples were also cultured in blood agar. Sensitivity of isolated pathogenic microorganism was determined against some antibiotics. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: 56 out of 60 patients were culture positive. Microorganisms isolated from suppurative otitis media were Staphylococcus areus (31.6%), pseudomonas aeuroginosa (26.6%), proteus (20%), candida albicans (6.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.6%), aeuromonas (1.6%) and others (6.4%) respectively. Sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was found to be Ciprofloxacin (94.6%), Co-trimoxazole (66.3%), Cloxacilin (64.3%), Chloramphenicol (64.3%),Cephalexin (64.3%), Erythromycin (60.7%), Amikacin (44.6%), Streptomycin (39.3%), Penicillin (5.4%) respectively.

 Conclusions: Since staphylococcus areus wasthe most prevalent micro-organism in otitis media infection, and isolated microorganisms were more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, antibiogram test is necessary prior to the treatment of otitis media.

Ahmad Daryani , Behzad Abyar , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)

  Backgrand & Objective: Enterobius vermicularis is a common helminthic infection and its prevalence in Iran is 25 to 92 percent.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among children going to daycare centers in Ardabil.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2003 on 400 children who were selected from 10 daycare centers using Graham's scotch adhesive tape technique. A questionnaire was filled for every subject and the results were analyzed by Chi-square test.

  Results : The prevalence of enterobiosis in the children under study was 18.3%. The highest rate (21.62%) was observed among 3-4 year-old children and the lowest rate (16.19%) was seen among 5-6 year-old ones. The infection rate of males and females were 16.4% and 21.2%, respectively. Prevalence of enterobiosis in children of illiterate mothers (54.5%) was higher compared to literate mothers (12.4%) (p< 0.05).

  Conclusions : In order to prevent this infection, health education especially for illiterate parents or those who have lower level of education is necessary.

Ahmad Daryani, Golam Hosein Ettehad,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Intestinal infestation is among the most common infections in the world, being responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal infestation and related risk factors among students of primary schools in Ardabil.

  Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 24 primary schools of Ardabil in 2003. A total of 1070 school children between 7-13 years of age (527(49.3%) boys and 543(50.7%) girls) took part in this study. Fecal specimens were collected by random sampling and were examined for ova, larva and cysts of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration methods.

  Results: A total of 1 0 species were identified, Giardia lamblia (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (10.2%) and Entamoeba coli (4.1%) were the most common parasites, respectively, the over all prevalence rate for at least one parasite was 27.7%. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of parasites by sex, age, class grade and rate of infection (p>0.06).

Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a high rate of intestinal infestation rate among primary school students. So health education about personal hygiene is necessary for the students and their parents, especially mothers.
Gholam Hosein Ettehad , Ali Hosseinkhani , Elias Hashemi ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)

  Background & Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. One of the most frequent form of UTI is asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in female students of Babol Islamic Azad University.

  Methods: This research was carried out on 207 female students from Babol Islamic Azad University in 2002. The age ranges of the students were between 18-29 years. Mid-stream urine (MSU) was collected from students. Urinalysis and bacteriological identification culture of MSU were done twice on all specimens. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was determined by dividing the total number of observed bacteriuria by the total number of samples.

  Results: Bacteriological tests of MSU revealed that 19 (9.2%) cases were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The microbe most frequently causing asymptomatic bacteriuria was staphylococcus saprophyticus in 7 (36.8%) cases Escherichia coli in 6 (31.6%) cases and Klebsiella in 3 (15.8%) cases.

  Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria was highly prevalent in our study. Therefore, young women must consider general health rules about genitourinary system to avoid asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Ali Nemmati , Soheila Refahi, Manoochehr Barak , Manije Jafari , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

 Background & Objectives: 11% of all newborns in the developing countries suffer from low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight has an important role in individual health, family and society. Lower and higher birth weight from standard rate lead to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between some of maternal anthropometric measurements such as BMI, pre-gravida weight, height, age with birth weight.

 Methods: This is an analytical-descriptive study, in which there were 300 pregnant women who hard referred to Alavi Hospital, Ardebil for delivery. Maternal pre-gravida height, weight and birth weight were collected from their units. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the maternal pre-gravida weight in kg by height in m squared (kg/m2). The relationship between maternal anthropometric measurements and birth weight was analyzed by t-test.

 Results: Our study showed that 32 (10.7%) women had BMI<19.8, 185 (61.7%) BMI=19.8-26 and 83 (27.7%) BMI>26. 36.3% of women were under 55 kg, 48.3% between 55 to 70 kg and 15.3% over 70 kg. The relationship between maternal pre-gravida BMI, weight and birth weight was statistically significant (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between maternal age and neonatal birth weight.

 Conclusion: Pre-gravida body mass index (BMI) and weight could be two important anthropometric measurements associated with birth weight. Thus, it is recommended that women give adequate preconceptional and prenatal care to decrease the amount of LBW and HBW in population.

Golamhosein Ettehad, Neda Parastar, Yasamin Pahlavan, Mojtaba Amani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (autumn 2012)

 Background & Objectives: Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs), a member of photolytic enzyme family, degrade the extra cellular matrix. MMPs have very important roles in physiological and pathological processes. It has been reported that MMPs concentration increase in malignancies such as stomach, breast, colon, lung, head and neck cancers . Infectionwith Helicobacter pylori is risk factor for gastric cancer and may increase the serum level of MMP-9. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of MMP-9 in sera of patients infected with H. pylori.

 Methods: In a descriptive-experimental study, apparent healthy individuals who were refereed for stool and blood tests were randomly selected and their stools and sera samples were collected. A questionnaire containing age, sex, smoking and special diseases in family and type of their diseases was filled for every volunteer. The sera collected immediately after blood sampling and stored in -70oC until used. The concentration of MMP-9 was assessed using ELISA. Stool samples were used for detection of H. pylori antigen.

 Results: H. pylori positive, negative and equivocal volunteers were 52.38%, 29.76% and 17.85%, respectively. Differences between MMP-9 concentration and H. pylori negative and positive groups were not significant (p=0.25). A significant increase in MMP-9 concentration was found in sera from drivers in compare with housewives.

 Conclusion: Although there was an increase in serum concentration of MMP-9 in H. pylori infected person, differences between H. pylori negative and positive groups were not significant. The raised concentration of MMP-9 in drivers may arise from difference in their health condition in compare with the housewives. This study suggests that MMP-9 level in serum may increase before initiation of gastric cancer in H. pylori infected individuals.

Gholhmhosein Ettehad, Firouzeh Afshar-Ghahramani, Yasamin Pahlavan, Mojtaba Amani ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (suppl 2012)

  Background & Objectives: Endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a type of enzyme which produces an endogenous factor called nitric oxide (NO). NO plays important role in progress of euplastic diseases. In chronic gastritis, the increased level of NO causes damages to DNA. The aim of present study is to evaluate eNOS concentration in sera of healthy people and those infected by Helicobacter pylori .

  Methods: The sera and stool specimens from 84 voluntaries (Female: 58.3%, Males 41.6%) were collected. Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stool specimens and eNOS levels in sera were determined using ELISA . Obtained data were analyzed using Excell software.

  Results : The age range was from 1 to 78 years old (Mean: 30 years old). In terms of special diseases, 70.2% did not have any special diseases, but 29.76% showed at least one special disease, mainly thyroid disease and hypertension. The results for H. pylori stool antigen detection showed that 16.6%, 29.76% and 53.57% of collected specimens were equivocal, Helicobacter pylori negative and positive respectively. Comparison of sera concentrations of eNOS showed that there is no significant change among these three groups.

  Conclusion : As mentioned in results, the eNOS sera concentrations showed no significant change in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative groups. Albeit the other studies showed the significant increase in serum concentration of Helicobacter pylori positive patient, this controversy may arise from race and variations in Helicobacter pylori pathogenic islands such as those containing VacA and CagA. We propose to conduct a similar study in Ardabil to focus on the pathogenic islands of H. pylori strains in this province.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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