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Showing 21 results for Ebrahim

Ebrahim Rahbani Nobar , Mohammad Rahbani Nobar ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (Autumn 2004)

  Background & Objectives: Lipoprotein [LP(a)] is formed by assembly of LDL particles and carbohydrate rich protein, apolipoprotein(a). LP(a) is elevated in patients with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, but it is still controversial whether this is due to hypoalbuminemia or proteinuria.

  Methods: We studied a group of 71 children suffering from nephrotic syndrome in the absence of renal failure. The levels of serum albumin, LP (a), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ,high density, lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL- C), APOAI and APOB were measured by standard methods. The results were compared with those obtained from 75 age and sex matched normal children as control group. The concentrations of creatinin and protein in random urine samples obtained from children and the protein/creatinin ratio were calculated. The Relationship between measured parameters and/or serum albumin and proteinuria was evaluated.

  Results: Compared to the control group the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, LP (a), APOB and APOAI increated (p<0.05 in all cases), but no marked differences were observed in levels of HDL-C in case group. The levels of serum albumin in patient group were significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins including APOAI and APOB were more correlated with plasma albumin level than with protein/creatinin ratio in the patient group.

  Conclusion: The results indicated that in children nephrotic syndrome with on renal failure, the increase of serum levels of LP (a) is mainly related to hypoalbuminemia that stimulates liver synthesis of APOB and is not related to the degree of proteinuria. It was concluded that determination of APOB is the best marker of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome and normal serum albumin levels seem to be a factor that may determine the of treatment efficacy of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome.

Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi , Ebrahim Fataei , Seyedjamal Hashemi , Mohsen Geramishoare ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)

  Background & Objectives: Pools and Saunas are one of the most public areas that may cause superficial and cutaneous mycoses in humans. So investigating the fungal flora in the mineral swimming pools like Sarein area can remove or reduce the contamination or prevent the probablity of fungal infection.

  Methods: A total of 284 samples from 11 mineral swimming pools were taken of which 214 were from pools, sauna Jacuzzis, tubs and showers which were covered by sterile moquette and 70 were from water in saunas, jacuzzis, tubs and showers which were collected in sterile test tubes. All of the samples were cultured in standard method on sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), sabouraud dextrose agar+oleic acid (S+O) and sabouraud dextrose agar+ chloramphenichol+cyclohexamide (SCC) medias, then identified macroscopically (colony morphology )and microscopically.

  Results: From 284 samples, 193 were contaminated with fungi. The most frequently isolated species in 11 pools were Aspergillus fumigatus (22/79%), Aspergillus flavus (15/54%), Aspergillus niger (15/54%) and Penicillium (14/5%) respectively. On the other hand, Ulocladium, Sepedonium, Acremonium, Pscilomyces, Stemphylium and Streptomyces with 0.51 % were the least frequently isolated species. In this study, no dermatophytes or other true dimorphic pathogenic fungi were isolated from samples.

  Conclusion: So it can be concluded that routine hygiene inspections such as disinfection of pools, personnel training and following hygienic rules were much effective in lowering the comtamination. Also mineral waters of these pools can be growth inhibitors of pathogenic and dermatophytic fungi.

Fariba Kahnamouei, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Farideh Mostafazadeh, Afshar Ebrahimi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)

  Backgrond & Objectives: Oligohydramnios is a disorder which is followed by unpleasant outcomes for fetus that can lead to termination of pregnancy before term and preterm delivery. For these patients' increase in gestational period and prevention of preterm delivery is the most important act. In this study the effect of intravenous and oral hydration therapy in increasing duration of gestation in patient with oligohydramnios was evaluated.

  Methods: In this study, the population was devided into two case and control groups with 30 female individual who were found to have oligohydramnios in course of hospital admission according to on sonographic results. Patients were randomly put in case or control groups. Case group were given 3-4 liter normal salin for 1 week and then were given oral hydration solution until the end of pregnancy, In each group whenever it was found that pregnancy was not possible the pregnancy continuance was stopped. Data collection was through history, physical examination completing relevant questionnaire and findings of sonography and in order to see the relationship among finding s, kitest and t-test from SPSS software were used.

  Results: The age means of case and control groups were 25 and 24 respectively. The mean of pregnancy duration from the diagnosis time in case group was 30.2 weeks and in control group 31.8 weeks. The mean of pregnancy terminatior in case group was 34.6 weeks and in control group 34.2. In increasing duration of pregnancy in case and control group. It was concluded that intravenous and oral Hydration therapy cause incerease in duration of pregnancy in patients suffering from oligo Hydraminos. According to the results of this study and significance of the difference.

Mitra Barati , Samileh Noor Bakhsh, Azardokht Tabatabee , Farideh Ebrahimi Taj , Mahshid Talebi Taher ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

  Background & Objective: Respiratory tract infections causes 4.5 million children death in the world annually that occur mostly in developing countries like Iran. Bacterial and viral pathogens are responsible for this event and Adenovirus is one of the major responsible agents. According to multiple survey, incidence of viral pathogens in different world region is different so local survey is needed to describe regional incidence of different viral pathogens. Rapid test for detection of respiratory pathogens help us to select appropriate treatment and avoidence of antibiotic overusage. So abuse the aim of this study was to evaluate incidence and clinical presentation of Adenovirus infection in children in Tehran with rapid test.

 Methods:This study is a descriptive-cross sectional analysis. All 3 month to 15 year old children with upper respiratory tract infection that come to OPD of Rasol-e-Acram Hospital in one year(1385) are included.

  Direct smear of patient’s throat was evaluated by rapid chromatography test for adenovirus infection. SPSS software was used to analyse the data.

  Results: 160 children with upper respiratory tract infection with a mean age of 61.5 months were evaluated. 57.5% were boys and 42.5% were girls. 77.4% had fever, 66% had sore throat, 37.4% had cough, 27% pharyngeal exudate, 16.4% had abdominal pain, 15.7% had vomiting, 13.8% had cervical lymphadenopathy, 10% had diarrhea, 5.7% had petechea in palate and 1.9% had conjectivitis. They admitted 24% in spring, 14.1% in summer, 23.1% in fall and 38.5% in winter.

  Adenovirus infection was detected in 10(6.3%) cases, 4(40%) boys and 6(60%) girls with mean age of 83.7(SD=58.5). they were detcted 20% in spring, 30% in summer, 30% in fall and 20% in winter.

  Conclusion: Adenoviruses are responsible in 6.3% of upper respiratory infections in children. They become less prevalent with increasing age. Its prevalence did not obey seasonal pattern. Fever and sore throat are most common clinical signs and cervical lymphadenopathy is more prevalent in adenovirus infection than others.

Mohammadghasem Golmohammadi , Hasan Azari , Mohammad Mardani , Ebrahim Esfandiari , Radnili Rietze ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

  Background & Objective: It is now clear that the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) contains a population of neural stem cells (NSCs) that give rise to neurons and glia. Owing to their rarity, and a paucity of NSC-specific markers, the neurospher assay (NSA) is a common and selective method for isolating and understanding the biology of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. There are different methods for neurosphere growing from different regions of the CNS including Lateral ventricles. The objective of this study is introducing a new and effective strategy for more neurosphere firming from the SVZ of the adult mouse brain lateral ventricle using NSA.

 Methods: Two different methods were used in order to isolate and culture the SVZ of the lateral ventricles using NSA. In the first method (Ritze and Reynolds method) the rostral part of the SVZ of the lateral ventricles was dissected into single cell suspension and cultured using NSA. In the second method (vibratome resecting of the brain) after cutting the brain into 400 µm serial sections using a vibratom, the SVZ was microdissected from all sections of rostral part of lateral ventricle and cultured separately, using NSA. Primary neurospheres were counted seven days after plating. Then the mean numbers of neurospheres generated in two different methods were compared.

 Results: The mean number of neurospheres generated by sectioning method was much higher than the one generated using first method (P<0.0001). The distribution and frequency of neurosphere forming cells (or NSCs) is not the same along the antero-posterior axis of the rostral part of the lateral ventricle. The greatest frequency of neurosphere forming cells was detected in 0.74mm rostral to the bregma.

 Conclusion: Second section method, due to more neurosphere generation, in comparison with the first method is more appropriate and efficient for neurosphere forming from the SVZ of the lateral ventricle.

Adalat Hosseinian , Firouz Amani , Ebrahim Hajizadeh , Shahram Habibzadeh ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (Winter 2008)

 Background & Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in the world. Statistics shows that mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease in Iran is going up, so quality of management and treatment of these patients need to be better. For these reasons, determination of survival rates and factors affecting it is important and is also the aim of this study.

  Methods: This is a survival analytic prospective study, done on 800 patients, admitted in Ardabil Bouali Hospital CCU. All of the patients were followed up one year and a questionnaire about them was obtained. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. For survival analysis Kaplan Maier, life table, logReng test and Cox regressions model were used.

 Results: Mean age of patients was 60.6±12.4 years. Total number of mortality in one year was 84 persons (10.5%). 582 patients were men and 218 were women. 47.4% were smokers, 33.4% had hypertension, 18.1% had diabetes mellitus, 15.3% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had arrhythmia. Survival rate in the first 10 days, 28 days and one year were 94%, 93% and 90% respectively.

 Conclusion: Factors that affected survival in Cox regress ional model were: diabetes mellitus, age, use of streptokinase, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate and heart block. Knowledge from survival rates and relative risks can help health managers in better health service preparation.

Reihaneh Ivanbaga , Leila Norousi Panahi , Morteza Ghojazadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksaraee, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi Mamagani ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (spring 2009)

  Background & Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of the most important problems during post partum. Several new medications have been introduced for treatment, but considering their side effects and also breast feeding women's desire for dietary complements rather than chemical drugs, this research was done to determine comparison of effectiveness of Omega-3 fatty acids with placebo in treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression.

  Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial study was done on 120 women with postpartum depression, who had the required criteria. First by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in women who gave birth 2 weeks to 3 months before, postpartum depression approved for determining the severity of depression, Beck Depression Inventory scale (BDI) was used. Women with mild to moderate depression who had a score 46 on the (BDI) and did not have any tendency to use anti-depressant drugs under the supervision of the psychiatrist, enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive either 1gr of Omega-3 capsules or placebo for 8 weeks. Severity of depression was measured before treatment and weekly during treatment in both groups. The data analyzed through T-Test, repeated measurements of one way ANOVA and chi square test in SPSS 14/Win.

  Results: There were no significant differences between two groups with respect to demographic characteristics. Results show that Mean Depression Scores before treatment in Omega-3 group (35.4 ± 9.2) decreased after treatment (17.7 ± 7.0), which was significant (p<0.0005). Mean Depression Scores before treatment in placebo group (34.2 ± 3.4) decreased after treatment (33.6 ± 9.3) which wasn't significant (p=0.57). There was a significant difference between reductions of Depression Scores in two groups(P<0.001).

  Conclusion: According to research results, use of Omega-3 1gr/day for 8 weeks improves postpartum depression.

Omeleila Rabiee, Ebrahim Alijanpor , Yousef Mortazavi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (spring 2009)

  Backgroud & Objective : Inducing of safe airway and rapid , is very important in the anesthesia of emergency patients and it reduces many complications because of delay in the endotrachal intubation .In this group of patients, administration of succinylcholin is a choice. But, this drug has serious complication, that is sudden increase of serum potassium level , and could cause cardiac arrest .So ,it is suggested, use of non blocker dose of non depolarizant neuromuscular blocker (defasciculation), for reducing this response . So , the aim of this study , was to determine the effect of pretreatment atracurium on serum potassium level associated with administration of succinylcholine .

  Methods: This study was performed clinical trial on 82 elective patients aged between 15 -70 years whit ASAI-II (American society of anesthesiology of physical status class)who where scheduled undergo operate general surgery. Premedication drugs are used to all patients , according to weight. and first blood sample was taken, considered as control group. then pretreatment atracurium injection (50mcg/kg) and after three minutes, was performed induction with thiopental sodium (5mg/kg) and succinylcholine (1.5 mg/kg ), and after 5 minutes , second blood sample was taken, test group . blood samples, were poured in the espicial tube of serum potassium and immediately , serums were separated . Then , potasiom level of serums were measured with micro light . The datas analyzed with statistical program ( spss) and then , were compared .

  Results: According to the obtained results , the mean of serum potassium level after administration of succinylcholine associated with defasciculation atracurium and before the administration of pretreatment atracurium (base level) was not different . It was not seen , a statistically significant difference between two groups, with attention to paired- t-test(p=0.936) and wilcoxon signed ranks test (p=0.594).

  Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study , administration of pretreatment atracurium is not effective in prevention of hyperkalemia induced by succinylcholin with attention base level.

Farideh Ebrahimi Taj, Abdolhasan Mohammadi Khangah, Mojdeh Ramezani, Khatereh Anbari,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (autumn 2009)

  Background and Objective: Intradermal Purified Protein Derivative PPD test is a reliable test assessment of primary mycobacterial infection. In this test the specific antigen is Purified Protein Derivative (PPD). The reaction were assessed by touching, the induration's diameter after 48 &48hours. We compared the induration's size 48 and 72 hour in this study.

  Methods: At this semi experimental study a 5 unit PPD was administered to 120 healthy medical students.

  Results: The measurements made at 72 h were significantly (4.22 mm) (p<0.001) higher than those made at 48h (2.79 mm). The reading taken at 72 h were 1.47mm larger than at 48 h recovery. There were significant differences between induration size of 48 and 72h between male and female.

  Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, in adults, the size of the 5 U Monteux reaction is significantly larger at 72h compared to the reaction at 48h. We suggest to read PPD after 72 hours if the PPD is negative after 48 hours.

Parviz Mohajeri , Babak Izadi , Mansour Rezai , Badie Falahi , Hosna Khademi , Roya Ebrahimi ,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2011)

  Background & Objectives: Nowadays, appearance of ESBL producing bacteria is medical problem in the treatment of infections. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli like many other bacteria can produce these types of enzymes. T he assessment of the ESBL production by clinical isolates is not done routinely in laboratories. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E.coli and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Kermanshah.

  Methods: This cross - sectional study was done on 200 Uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from people in Kermanshah. Sensitivity of isolates to different antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion test and ESBL production was assessed by DDST method.

  Results: The E. coli strains showed high susceptibility to imipenem (100%), amikacin (97%), nitrofurantoin (95.5%), gentamicin (85%), cefepime (75%), ceftazidime (74%), ofloxacin (73.5%), ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and aztreonam (71%) and cefotaxime (70%) respectively. The highest resistance was seen to ampicillin (77%), carbenicillin (76%), pipracillin (74%) and SXT (62.5% ). Resistance rate to third generation cephalosporins was 63-75%. Fifty seven isolates (27%) were ESBL producers and 47 isolates (87%) produced all four types of ESBL enzymes.

  Conclusion: There are some similarities and differences in the antibiotic resistance pattern and ESBL production among the isolates in different areas of Iran and other countries. Identification of ESBL producing bacteria and determining its antimicrobial resistance pattern are recommended to effective treatment of infections.

Motahhar Heidari-Beni , Masoud Haji Maghsood, Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mohammad Kazem Tarzamni , Javad Mohtadinia ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (summer 2012)

  Background & Objectives: Excess body fat percentage is one of the risk factors in the progression of chronic diseases. Anthropometric indices of obesity are screening tools to determine subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and the early stage of atherosclerosis by Carotid Intima- Media Thickness (CIMT) on women .

  Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 100 healthy women aged 18–50 year. Anthropometric indices were measured and calculated according to standard protocol. Cut off points for waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were 88 cm, 0.8 and 0.5 respectively Carotid Intima- Media Thickness was determined by using non-invasive ultrasound as an indicator of early stage of atherosclerosis. Subjects with mean CIMT≤0.8 mm and CIMT>0.8 mm were considered as "normal subjects" and "subjects at risk", respectively.

  Results: Average age of subjects was 30.96±8.1 and the mean of WC, WHR, WHtR and CIMT were 95±0.17, 0.87±0.08, 0.61±0.11 and 0.63±0.15, respectively. All abdominal anthropometric indices significantly associated with mean CIMT. Waist circumference with cut off point of 88 Cm had sum of sensitivity and specificity higher than WHR and WHtR.

  Conclusion: Waist circumference index with cut off point of 88 cm is better than WHR and WHtR to identify subjects at high risk of atherosclerosis.

Mohammad Mosaferi-Ziaaedini, Khosro Ebrahim, Davar Amani, Zahra Arabnarmi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (autumn 2012)

  Background & Objectives : Intense training increases the production of free radicals and causes inflammatory response in athletes. Strengthen and improving athlete’s immune system may reduce the harmful effects of intense physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate supplementary consumption of coenzyme Q10 on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) during the maximal activity.

  Methods : Twelve healthy active males (age 21.75 ± 0.64 yr, BMI 23.7±0.94 kg/m2) performed 30-min exercise at 80% to 85% HRmax. Subjects 120 minutes pre-exercise received either of the following regimens: Coenzyme Q10 (2 mg per kg body weight) or placebo (food color). Blood samples were obtained prior to supplement consumption and immediately after exercise, then groups were reversed after 4 days. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

  Results: TNF-α serum level increased in both supplementation and placebo group (4.2% and 5.12% respectively) and the difference between two groups was insignificant.

  Conclusion : The results of this study indicated that after maximal activity increasing of TNF-α serum level was slower in the supplement group in comparison with placebo group but Q10 consumption did not caused a significant difference between two group (p=0.8).

Samira Babaeian , Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mitra Niafar , Sarvin Sanaii,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (spring 2013)

  Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is one of the prevalent metabolic disorders in the world and mostly it is related to Obesity. Central obesity results in higher risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemia is the main reason of central obesity disorders. Studies have been shown that the fruits, vegetables and drinks are rich in phenolic and antioxidants components may alleviate diabetes diseases. One of these fruits is pomegranate that is rich in flavonoids. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effect of unsweetened pomegranate juice consumption on insulin resistance, inflammatory factor and anthropometric measures in diabetic patients.

  Methods : In this clinical trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30-50 years were recruited into the study and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) intervention group (n=25) who drank 240 ml unsweetened pomegranate juice daily and (2) control group (n=25) who drank 240 ml water daily for two months. Fasting blood glucose, inflammatory factors including hs-CRP, anthropometric measures including weight, height, waist and hip circumference, BMI were determined at the baseline and after 8 weeks. Nutritionist IV program, Independent sample t-test, Paired sample t-test were used for data analyses.

  Results : Comparison of fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, body mass index, hs-CRP between the two groups before intervention did not reveal a significant difference. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in insulin resistance, body weight, hip circumstance, waist circumstance in intervention group ( p <0.05 ، p <0.01 ، p <0.05 ، p <0.05 respectively) w hereas no significant changes were found for serum glucose, HbA1C, hs-CRP in this group .

  Conclusion : These findings indicate the beneficial effect of the daily consumption of unsweetened pomegranate juice on insulin resistance, body weight, waist and hip circumstances.

Homayoun Ebrahimian, Seyied Mohammad Firoozabadi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Mehri Kaviani Moghadam,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (summer 2013)

  Background & Objectives: The development of technology has naturally given rise to an increase in environmental low-frequency electromagnetic fields and consequently has attracted scholars' attention. Most of the studies have focused on transmission lines and power system distribution with 50 Hz. This research is an attempt to show the effect of 50 Hz magnetic fields on bioelectric parameters and indicates the possible influence of this change in F1 cells of Helix aspersa .

  Methods: The present research used Helix aspersa neuron F1 to identify the location of magnetic fields as well as the rate of effects of environmental magnetic fields on nervous system. Control group was used to study the effect of elapsed time, electrode entering and the cell membrane rupture. Intuition group and environmental group were considered in order to study the potential impact of interfering environmental factors and identify the effectiveness rate of magnetic fields, respectively. For the purpose of producing uniform magnetic field Helmholtz coil was used. Electrophysiological recording was realized under the requirements of current clamp. And, in order to show the impacts from magnetic fields on ion channels Hodgkin-Huxley cell model was applied. All data were analyzed taking the advantage of SPSS 16 software and two-way ANOVA statistical test. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. And MATLAB software environment and PSO were used in order for applying the algorithm and estimating the parameters.

  Result: No statistically significant difference was found between control and sham groups in different time intervals. Once the 45.87 microtesla was applied significant differences were observed 12 minutes after the application. The highest amount of change happened 14 minutes after the application of more fields. With the application of the field, the amplitude of the sodium action potential shows decreasing trend . No significant changes were observed in different time intervals, whereas significant differences were seen in frequency of action potential during different time intervals. The amplitude of AHP shows no significant changes .

  Conclusion: The results indicated that low-frequency magnetic fields with 50 Hz frequency will directly lead to change in bioelectric activities of neurons through a change in amount and rate of opening and closing of ionic channels and the conductivity of sodium and potassium channels reduces together with increase in conductance of potassium dependent calcium channel (AHP).

Ebrahim Hosseini, Zahra Zia,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (spring 2016)

Background & objectives: The teratogenic effects of electromagnetic radiation on different processes of growth caused many concerns related to the harmful effects of cell-phone radiation on human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cell-phone radiation on estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones together with dynastic sexual cells of adult female offspring of pregnant rats affected by these radiations.

Methods: In this experimental study, 24 pregnant female rats divided into 3 groups including the control, sham and experimental groups were used. The control group received no radiation and the experimental group was exposed to cell-phone radiation at the beginning of pregnancy (4 hours daily for 14 days). The control group was exposed around turning-on cell-phone without conversation over the same period. After giving birth and after maturity, 10 female offsprings of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, sexual hormones levels was measured and by separating the ovaries, ovarian follicles species were counted. The results analyzed using ANOVA and T tests. Differences in statistical analysis of data were considered significant at p<0.05.

Results: The results showed that the pregnant female exposure to cell-phone radiation caused significant increase in the size and weight of the ovaries and atresic follicles (p<0.05) without significant effect on the number of primary and secondary follicles, antral, graph, primordial, corpus luteum and sexual hormones.

Conclusion: Exposure to cell-phone radiations caused increase in the size, weight and atresic follicles of offspring’s ovaries in pregnant females

Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh, Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (autumn 2016)

Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant.

Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning.

Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

Zahra Mirzakhani, Sayed Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (spring 2017)

Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18) using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05.

Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea.

Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.

Nooshin Yazdani , Seyeh Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (autumn 2017)

Background & objective: Aloe-vera is an herb   that has long been used in traditional medicine. Using high-fat diet and fatty liver disorder cause obesity and hyperlipidemia. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Aloe - vera gel extract on the body weight and lipid profile in adult male rats treated with high-fat diet.
Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male rats were included in the control group (no treatment), sham group (treated with high-fat diet 10 ml/kg) and three experimental groups receiving high-fat diet (10ml/kg) along with 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg Aloe- vera gel extracts. Prescriptions were conducted by gavage, for 60 days. At the end, after anesthetizing the rats and phlebotomizing their heart, the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL were measured.   The obtained results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests.
Results: The results showed that high-fat diet significantly increased the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (p<0.001) and weight gain (p<0.01) but had no significant effect on the serum level of HDL. However, in the groups receiving Aloe -vera gel and   high-fat diet, there was a significant decrease in the weight and serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (p<0.05) and LDL (p<0.01).
Conclusion: High-fat diets increase the weight and serums levels of triglycerides, LDL and cholesterol.  Also, the Aloe- vera gel extract causes weight loss and improves lipid profiles in the rats treated with Aloe -vera gel extract.
Hamidreza Dehghan , Masoud Mirzaei , Ebrahim Mirzaei , Eslam Moradei Asl , Amin Ataiy , Mahbobeh Mirzaei ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (spring 2018)

Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that is common throughout the world. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique in which the results of two or more independent studies, with similar objectives, are mathematically combined in order to improve the reliability of the results. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metformin and linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: To identify relevant studies, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochran library, Scopus and Ovid databases were searched from January 2000 to August 2016. Mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for efficacy were calculated and pooled analysis was performed using Stata V.12 and RevMan V.5.3 software.
Results: Four studies recruiting1260 patients with DM (682 patients in group linagliptin and 578 patients in metformin group) were included in this study. The MD of HbA1C outcome of 0.5 mg linagliptin was effective (0. 7295, % CI = 0. 69 - 0. 75). The MD of fasting blood sugar (FBS) test revealed that linagliptin was effective at 0.5mg (MD = 36.79, 95% CI = 35.20 - 38.38) and 5 mg (MD = 12.65, 95% CI = 2.68 to 22.63) doses.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that some doses of linagliptin versus metformin may be an effective treatment for DM2. However, the number of studies was limited, and further research is needed.
Zahra Godarzian, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (summer 2018)

Background & objectives: Azathioprine is widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It has negative effects on the function of kidney. Therefore, considering the protective effects of ginger on nephrotoxins, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger on renal changes induced by azathioprine in rats.
Methods: In this experimental study, 56 female rats were divided into 7 groups including control, sham and 5 experimental groups receiving azathioprine (50mg/kg), ginger (200mg/kg), azathioprine plus ginger (200,100 and 50 mg/kg). In this study, ginger was administered by gavage and azathioprine intraperitoneally in 21 consecutive days. At the end, serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were measured and the histological structure of the kidneys was examined. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests at significance level of p≤0.05.
Results: The results showed that azathioprine caused the destruction of structure along with cell necrosis, tubular degeneration, glomerular atrophy, urinary space enlargement, hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal tissue, as well as an increase in the serum level of urea, uric acid and creatinine at p≤0.05. However, simultaneous use of ginger and azathioprine reduced the serum levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and improved the kidney structure compared to the azathioprine group.
Conclusion: The results showed that ginger had a protective effect on kidney tissue, due to its antioxidant properties, by inhibiting free radicals produced by azathioprine and decreasing the severity degradation effects of azathioprine on kidney tissue and function.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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