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Showing 17 results for Dehghan

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Ezzat Noorizadeh, Majid Latifi Navid,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (Summer 2002)

  Background & objectives : Helicobacter pylori is considered as an important factor in chronic gastritis , peptic and duodenal ulcer, also probably in adenocarcinoma of distal stomach. H. Pylori infection can be led to chronic ulcers and ultimately to atrophy and stomach metaplasia. H. pylori shows an increasing resistance to the current antibiotics. For this reason the present research in which the anti bacterial effects of four food additive plants against ten strains of H. Pylori were investigated.

  Methods : The plants turmeric, ginger, clove and cardamom were selected to act against ten strains of H. Pylori. The effect of ether, ethanol and water extracts on H. Pylori specimens isolated from the patients was studied, using the agar diffusion method .

 Results: Considered water extracts for their antibacterial effects, turmeric had the most anti H. Pylori efficacy (mean of inhibitory growth zone diameter 21.5 mm). Ginger, clove and cardamom were respectively placed thereafter. Among ethanol extracts, ginger with diameter mean of 19.7 mm showed the most efficient effect as compare with turmeric and clove. Ether extracts of the mentioned plants had anti H. Pylori effects (Mean of inhibitory growth zone diameter were 19, 13, 11.1 and 10.5 mm respectively

 Conclusions: Water, ethanol and ether extracts of turmeric had higher anti H. Pylori activity. Recognition of the effective fraction 0f this plant as an efficient anti H. Pylori is further step to be investigated.

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Ali Nemati , Mohsen Sagha , Hojatollah Nouzad Charvadeh, Mohammadhosein Dehghan ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)

  Background & Objective : Nutritionists have traditionally recognized breakfast as the most important meal of the day. The importance of eating breakfast is for growing and nutritional well being of children. While health habits such as eating breakfast, maintaining weight, and sleeping regularly are related to the longevity of adults, very little is known about the health habits of disadvantaged school-age children. This study set out to evaluate eating breakfast among adolescent girls and its relationship with body mass index, weight and nutrient intake.

  Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on 611 adolescent primary and secondary school girls (10-14 years old) in Ardabil. Anthropometric studies (height, weight, and MAC) and nutritional status (24 hour recall and food frequency) were done, and the students were asked about eating breakfast and other snacks. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 9 and Food Processor.

  Results : About 16.85% of girls had come to school without eating breakfast. BMI and body weight of these students were significantly more than those of girls who ate breakfast (P<0.05). On the other hand snack intake among the girls who did not use to eat breakfast was more than that among breakfast eaters (P<0.05). The amount of calorie, protein, thiamin, niacin, calcium and iron intake in breakfast-eating girls was more than those among non-eaters (P<0.05). The amount of folacin, riboflavin, calcium and zinc intake in non-eaters was less than recommended dietary allowance of WHO. The result of food frequency showed that the consumption of food such as protein different types of bread, potato, and legume among breakfast eaters was more than their consumption among non-eaters.

  Conclusions : This study indicated that eating breakfast can provide adequate calorie and nutrients but its omission can not only lead to lower calorie and nutrients intake but also have an unfavorable effect on food habit and weight of the students.

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Bahareh Rajaee Far , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (Autumn 2004)

  Background & Objectives: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active researches over the past many years, the etiology of this disorder in human pregnancy is an enigma. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C can scavenge free radicals inducing cellular damage. The present study was designed to investigate the plasma levels of vitamin C in patients with preeclampsia (case) and normotensive pregnant women (control).

  Methods: In this case-control study vitamin C as an antioxidant was estimated and compared spectrophotometrically in 40 preeclamptic and 80 normotensive pregnant women referring to Alavi Hospital of Ardabil province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The plasma levels of vitamin C were significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia (0.147 ± 0.030 mg/dl) compared to controls who were normotensive pregnants (0.347 ± 0.119 mg/dl).

  Conclusion: Attempts at prevent preeclamsia are justified but since no reliable screening test has been offered as yet for women at risk, assessment of plasma level of vitamin C in patients prone to preeclampsia is strongly suggested.

Mohammad Hosein Dehghan, Ali Majidpour,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of hyperlipidemia in the world especially in Iran, finding suitable and effective treatment seems justified. Metronidazole is the only drug that is used as an antiparasital and antiprotozoal agent. Researchers have found that oral dose of 750 mg/day has a suitable absorption, is widely distributed in the tissues and reaches to a blood level of 4-6 mg/ml. Despite its suitable efficiency, a few clinical trial have been conducted in this regard. This study was designed as such to examine the effect of metronidazole on lowering blood lipids.

  Methods: The present research was performed as a clinical trial without control, on 50 patients. All the patients filled out a special form (to show their satisfaction) as well as a questionnaire. Metronidazole was given with a daily dose of 750 mg for a week. 20 patients with no complaint continued their drug consumption for another seven days. Lipid parameters such as plasma total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured in both groups. The data were collected and analyzed with SPSS software using t-test.

  Results: Measuring the serum level of lipids indicated that the mean total plasma lipid and total cholesterol decreased significantly compared to their level before taking the drug (p<0.01). The findings also showed a similar decrease in plasma TG level (p<0.001). In the patients who continued the drug consumption in the second week, the serum level of lipids under study showed more decrease compared to their levels in the first week which was statistically significant (p<0.01). Liver tests indicated that the functioning of liver has not changed during drug consumption.

  Conclusion: Using 750 mg of metronidazole per day exerts a significant decrease in lipids fractions in a short time. Most cases of hyperlipidemia require a long-term treatment, hence metronidazole can be effectively used in the treatment of short-term hyperlipidemia.

Firooz Amani , Manoogehr Barak , Naiere Aminisani, Mohammad Hosein Dehghan ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Providing, maintainance and promotion of neonatal health as a special high-risk group has a special role in heath services. According to statistics, 4 million out of 130 million neonates, born every year, die in the first week of their life. 99% of this mortality takes place in developing countries. 38% of the deaths below the age of 5 belongs to neonatal deaths. To decrease this mortality, some factors such as mother condition (including health care both before and after pregnancy), perinatal factors and life-threatening factors in the first 28 days after birth. This study was performed in hospitals under Ardabil University of Medical Sciences to determine the related factors of neonatal mortality.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 160 neonatals (80 cases of neonatal deaths and 80 live births as controls). The demographic data of two groups were separately analyzed to obtain descriptive results. Also the most common causes of neonatal mortality were obtained through studying cases. Moreover, the parents of live neonates were asked questions to evaluate the effect of social factors. Finally all of these related factors were compared.

  Results: From 160 neonates under study, 71 (44.4%) were female and others were male. Neonatal mortality in males was 1.3 times as much as that in females. 16(12.1%) mothers had history of still birth. 18(11.3%) mothers were illiterate and 27 (16.9%) had college education. 31(19.4%) neonates were under 1500gr, 42 (26.3%) 1500- 2500gr and others above 2500 gr. 37 (46.3%) mothers in case group and 24(30%) in control had no access to transportation facilities. The most common causes for neonatal mortality were prematurity with 44 (55.1%) cases and aspiration, septicemia, asphyxia each one with 4 (2.5%) cases. There were statistically significant relationship between neonatal mortality rate on the one hand and birth weight, access to transportation facilities and mothers, living place (rural or urban) (p=0.023).

  Conclusion: According to the results, factors such as birth weight, access to transportation facilities as well as the mothers’ living location (rural or urban) were determining factors in the neonatal mortality. Some measures seem necessary to by taken in order to decrease the effect of thses factors.

Davar Amani , Mohammadhasan Zahir , Mojtaba Karimzadeh, Sadegh Feizollah Zadeh, Mohammadhosein Dehghan ,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (Winter 2007)

 Background & Objective: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) develop as recognition and defense against malignant cells by the host immune system. T cells are the most tumor infiltrating immune cells. There are controversial data about intratumor T cells and many have proposed diverse mechanisms for dysfunction of TILs. The aim of this study is analyzing Tumor Infiltrating T lymphocytes in patients with breast cancer by immunophenotyping.

 Methods: Sixteen women suffering from breast cancer were examined thirteen of them were confirmed histologically to be invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue samples from patients and matched control group were processed for analysis by flow cytometry.

 Results: Results indicated that human breast cancer contain variable numbers of TILs. No significant changes in the percent of intratumor CD45+, CD3+ and CD3+/CD45+ cells were observed between studied group. Also there were no significant differences between cancer patients (group 1 and 2) and control group in the case of infiltration and activation status of T cells subpopulations. CD4+ cells in IDC patients and CD8+ cells in patients with other tumors (ILC+AMC) were the most infiltrated TILs. Intratumor TCD8+ cells expressed HLA-DR markers significantly more than CD25 as activation marker. In this investigation we could not find any correlation between TIL and both size and clinical stages of tumor.

 Conclusion: An immune infiltrate is an invariable finding in breast cancers, with considering the activation marker expression, TIL may be activated, albeit partially. Understanding the insensitive and/or suppressive nature of cancer cells to the immune system may provide important insights into tumor escape mechanisms as well as the development of anti-cancer strategies.

Hadi Peeridoghaheh, Marziyeh Aligholi, Mohammadhosein Dehghan, Parviz Maleknejad,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (Spring 2008)

Background & Objective: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and is endemic in all parts of the country. Patients recorded in 1988 were 71,051(132. 4 per 100,000). Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria, and therefore a limited number of antibiotics are effective against these organisms. The aim of this study was the
evaluation of in vitro sensitivity of various antimicrobial agents against 47 brucella melitensis strains isolated from blood culture.
Methods: The susceptibility of 47 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples were tested in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the tested antimicrobials were measured by the agar dilution method.MIC90 and MIC50 values were defined as the lowest concentration of the antibiotic at which 90 and 50 percent of the isolates
were inhibited, respectively. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results.
Results: Tetracycline (MIC50: 0.13μg/ml, MIC90: 0.25 μg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC50:0.003 μg/ml, MIC90:0.25 μg/ml) had the lowest MICs in vitro against the B. melitensis strains. Norfloxacin had the highest (8 μg/ml) MIC90 value. More than half
isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampin (MIC value: 2μg/ml).
Conclusion: Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. There is no significantly important resistance problem for antibiotics targeted against Brucella species in Iran. However, since rifampin is commonly used for prevalent diseases such as tuberculosis, the regional susceptibility pattern of rifampin should be assessed periodically.
Mohammadyousef Alikhani , Mohammad Mahdi Aslani , Hadi Peeri Dogaheh , Mohammadhosein Dehghan ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

  Background & Objective: Tuberculosis is more prevalent in developing countries and death from tuberculosis meningitis is strongly associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been incorporated as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The rapid results and greater sensitivity compared to traditional microbiological methods makes PCR a suitable technique in tuberculosis, especially in tuberculosis meningitis, when diagnosis is difficult or when rapid diagnosis is needed. However, the possibility of false positive and false negative results must be considered. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional bacteriology (culture Ziehl- Neelsen staining) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis.

 Methods: This study included 25 clinically diagnosed patients that were suspected to have tuberculosis meningitis and 10 other bacterial or viral meningitis patients were investigated. DNA was extracted from CSF and the NESTED PCR using specific primers were done.

 Results: In 25 samples, Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA was detected in 9 (36%) by PCR, 2(8%) and 1(4%) with culture and direct smear was obtained, respectively. whereas no DNA bands were detected in patient with the other 10 meningitis. The entire procedure was repeated and the same result was obtained.

 Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that PCR is a powerful method for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis. In a way that it decreases obtaining the results from several weeks in bacteriological methods to one to two days, especially in smear negative patients. This is very important in tuberculosis meningitis because it is a medical urgency and needs rapid diagnosis and early treatment.

Ali Nemati , Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi, Mohammad Hosein Dehghan ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

 Background & Objectives: Measurement of body Weight and height and determining of body mass index (BMI) according to age is one of the most important international indicators for evaluation of growth and physical health. The present study aimed to evaluate growth indices for schoolgirls 7-19 years of age living in Ardabil to compare with standard reference values and similar studies in Iran .

 Methods: To assess the status of growth pattern of 7-19 year girls in Ardebil during 2005, with a descriptive cross-sectional study, 3996 healthy girls were selected by the multi stage sampling method and their age, body weight, height and body mass index were recorded, then 5,10,25,50,75,90,95 percentile, mean and standard deviation in different age were analyzed and compared with NCHS and selected regions of Iran

 Results: The mean of Height and weight in urban girls is higher than their peers in rural regions. Height growth was more during the ages of 9-12 with its peakin 9 years olds with 6 cm annually. The highest increase in weight was at age13 which was estimated 5.5 kg annually. Mean of height and weight in girls of Ardabil is less than their peers in Tehran, Kerman, Esfahan but more than their peers in Zahedan. Of the height, weight and body mass index percentiles in girls of Ardabil aged 7-19 years were less than their American peers according to National Center for Health Statistics data.

 Conclusion: All of percentiles anthropometric factors in girls Ardabil aged 7-19 years were less than NCHS standard.

Hamdollah Panahpour , Gholamabbas Dehghan ,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2011)

 Background & objectives: Ischemic brain edema is one of the most important complications of cerebral infarction. Edema aggravates the primary ischemic injury to the brain. It was demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its active peptide angiotensin II involved in ischemic brain injury. But role of RAS in the formation of ischemic edema is not clear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the RAS inhibition by enalapril on edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption.

 Methods: In this research frothy Sprague Dawley male rat in six groups were studied. Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400mg/kg, IP). Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of right middle cerebral artery using intraluminal filament method. Three groups of animals as sham, ischemic and enalapril receiving (0.03mg/kg) groups were studied for assessment of neurological outcome and brain edema formation. 24 hours following ischemia (60minutes), animals were assessed for neurological deficits. Ischemic brain edema was investigated by brain water content detection. Another three groups of animals at the same conditions were studied to evaluate the possible disruption of BBB by Evans blue extravasation technique.

 Results: When sham operated rats had no motor deficit, induction of ischemia in ischemic group, seriously caused impairment of motor functions and neurological deficit score(NDS) of ischemic group was 2.67±0.42. Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) significantly reduced NDS and improved motor dysfunctions (1.5±0.34, P<0.05). Induction of ischemia seriously caused edema formation in right (ischemic) hemisphere of the brain in ischemic group (4.1±0.4 percent). Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) significantly decreased edema compared to ischemic group (1.89±0.23 percent). Extravasation of Evans blue in right side of the brain in ischemic group (12.48±1.94 μg/g) was significantly more than sham group. Pretreatment with enalapril (0.03mg/kg) had protective effects on BBB function and decreased Evans blue extravasation by 44.5 percent (6.92±1.46 μg/g).

 Conclusion: RASinhibition by enalapril reduces ischemic brain edema formation by protecting the integrity of BBB and reducing its permeability following focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Pre-ischemic inhibition of RAS activity may reduce ischemic brain injury by ameliorating edema formation.

Najmaddin Saki, Akbar Dorgalaleh , Zahra Kashani Khatib, Shaban Alizadeh , Fakher Rahim, Hamid Galehdari, Bijan Kaikhaei, Mohammad Pedram , Ali Dehghani Fard ,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (autumn 2013)

  Background: Co-inheritance of hemoglobin gene defects is a rare important status that can lead to double heterozygote or homozygote with significant clinical manifestations. Such conditions can be observed in co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia or hemoglobinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alpha-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy co-inheritance in a considerable number of Iranian.

  Methods: This descriptive study was performed on patients with abnormal hematological findings in favor of alpha-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia or beta-hemoglobinopathies. Patients with low MCV and MCH levels and high HbA2 (>3.5) and those with low MCV and MCH and normal or low HbA2 were candidate for molecular analysis for beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Abnormal Hb electrophoresis was diagnostic criteria for molecular analysis of beta-hemoglobinopathies.

  Results: Study revealed that more than half of the patients with alpha-thalassemia affected simultaneously by beta-thalassemia and about thirty percent inherited beta-hemoglobinopathies. Among patients with beta-thalassemia, HbSCd6 (A-T) was the most common mutation and in alpha-thalassemic patients α 3.7 was the commonest mutation.

  Conclusion: Relatively high prevalence of co-inheritance of alfa-thalassemia with beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies reflect the necessity of genetic consulting and molecular analysis in diagnosis of such conditions.

Bahram Pourghassem Gargari , Parvin Dehghan, Elham Mirtaheri, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2013)

  Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia together with biochemical alterations of lipid profile, insulin resistance and inflammation . Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inulin on lipid profile, inflammation and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.

  Methods: In this controlled, randomized clinical trial, 49 women with type 2 diabetes (fiber intake<30 g/d, BMI=25-35 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups. Experimental group (n=24) received 10 g/d inulin and control group (n=25) received 10 g/d maltodextrin for 8 weeks. Dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, serum lipids and hs-CRP concentrations were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (verision11.5). Paired, independent t-tests and ANCOVA were used to compare quantitative variables.

  Results: At the end of study, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (from 135.7 ± 16.2 to 125.9 ± 7.9 mmHg), total cholesterol ( from 192.5 ± 42.8 to 171.0 ± 39.7 mg/dl), triglyceride ( from 223.3 ± 84.2 to 169.9 ± 65.6 mg/dl) and hs-CRP ( from 7.9 ± 3.0 to 5.3 ± 3.0 mg/l) in inulin group compared with the maltodextrin group (p > 0.04 ). Changes in diastolic blood pressures, LDL-c and HDL-c were not significant in inulin group compared with the maltodextrin group. A significant decrease in systolic, diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c, hs-CRP and significant increase in HDL-c were observed in inulin group compared to baseline.

  Conclusions: Inulin supplementation may improve lipid profile, hs-CRP and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.

Hamdollah Panahpour, Ali Akbar Nekooeian , Ghilamabbas Dehghani ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (summer 2014)

  Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke remains the third leading cause of invalidism and death in industrialized countries. It is suggested that renin–angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute in stroke related pathogenic mechanisms and involve in the ischemic brain damage. This study designed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in conjunction with AT1 receptors in treatment of the brain injuries following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

  Methods: Forty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in four groups. Sham group, ischemic control group and two ischemic groups that received candesartan (0.1mg/kg, or 0.5mg/kg) at the beginning of reperfusion period. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60 minutes occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 24 hours reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, neurological deficit score (NDS) was performed. Total cortical and striatal infarct volumes were determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique.

  Results: Animals in sham operated group had normal motor function and no ischemic lesions were observed in cortical or striatal regions. Occurring ischemia in ischemic control group that received vehicle produced considerable infarction in cortex (253±15mm3) and striatum (92±7mm3), as well as these animals had sever impaired motor dysfunctions. Blocking of AT1 receptors with candesartan (0.1mg/kg or 0.5mg/kg) improved neurological outcome and significantly lowered cortical and striatal infarct volumes relative to ischemic control group.

  Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that stimulation of AT1 receptors by Ang II involved in ischemia/reperfusion injuries and blocking of AT1 receptors can decrease ischemic brain injury and improve neurological outcome.

Hamidreza Rahimi , Mohsen Dehghani , Pirasteh Norouzi, Mojghan Fazli ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (spring 2015)

  Background & objectives: Intestinal parasitic infections are the most health threatening agents around the world, developing countries in particular. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Enterobiusvermicularis among the children of kindergartens in Shahroud, Iran.

  Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study from 811 children of 15 kindergartens fecal samples were collected by way of census in 2013. Thisworkwas conductedwith education of parentsandtheirfull consent . All samples were examined at Central Laboratory of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences based on formalin ethyl acetate method. In addition direct smear was also applied for the watery and loose samples. Finally, collected scotch tape samples were examined microscopically. Descriptive statistics indices including means , standard deviations, and frequencieswere used for reporting the results .

  Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the children of Shahroud's kindergartens was 22.2%. Also, the prevalence of the infections among males and females were 24.1% and 20.4%, respectively. The highest prevalence of infections were belongs to Giardia lamblia and Endolimax nana (7.4 and 4.8%), respectively. Also, Trichomonashominis had the lowest prevalence (0.5%). Prevalence of infection caused by Enterobiusvermicularis was (2.1%), the average agesof children infected by Enterobiusvermicularis and Giardia were 5.1 and 4.7, respectively. There was no difference in order of parasites infection on the basis of gender.

  Conclusion: The prevalence of infection caused by Enterobiusvermicularis among the children was considerably low. Also, the prevalence of Giardia lamblia was lower than the average of its prevalence in countrywide scale. Although the health services have been effectively enhanced, the prevalence of intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia in particular, is still problematic.

Hamidreza Dehghan , Masoud Mirzaei , Ebrahim Mirzaei , Eslam Moradei Asl , Amin Ataiy , Mahbobeh Mirzaei ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (spring 2018)

Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that is common throughout the world. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique in which the results of two or more independent studies, with similar objectives, are mathematically combined in order to improve the reliability of the results. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metformin and linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: To identify relevant studies, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochran library, Scopus and Ovid databases were searched from January 2000 to August 2016. Mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for efficacy were calculated and pooled analysis was performed using Stata V.12 and RevMan V.5.3 software.
Results: Four studies recruiting1260 patients with DM (682 patients in group linagliptin and 578 patients in metformin group) were included in this study. The MD of HbA1C outcome of 0.5 mg linagliptin was effective (0. 7295, % CI = 0. 69 - 0. 75). The MD of fasting blood sugar (FBS) test revealed that linagliptin was effective at 0.5mg (MD = 36.79, 95% CI = 35.20 - 38.38) and 5 mg (MD = 12.65, 95% CI = 2.68 to 22.63) doses.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that some doses of linagliptin versus metformin may be an effective treatment for DM2. However, the number of studies was limited, and further research is needed.
Alireza Lashay, Navid Masoumi, Mahdi Dehghani, Mobin Nakhaie,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (summer 2018)

Background & objectives: In recent years، Computed Tomography (CT scan) has become the Gold Standard for detecting urinary stones. This study was conducted to predict the size of possible passage of ureteral stones based on clinical signs, lab data (e.g. Ultrasounds) in patients with small passable stones and to prevent CT scan, which requires high costs and x-ray exposure.
Methods: In this cross- sectional study, fifty consecutive patients from emergency room who had clinical symptoms of renal colic and urinary tract stones were recruited by simple non-random sampling. After obtaining the primary data, all of them underwent sonography (US), and in those without sings of stone in US، CT scan was performed. Based on the CT scan, the patients were divided into two main groups: 1) patients who had no ureteral stones or had ureteral stones <5mm, and 2) patient who had ureteral stones 5mm. All gathered data were analyzed by t-test and chi-square test.
Results: Among our proposed variables, previous history of urinary stone (p=0.05), irritative urinary symptoms (e.g. dysuria, frequency and urgency) (p=0.001), gross hematuria (p=0.049) and degree of hydronephrosis (p=0.029) had statistically significant relationship with the presence, size and spontaneous expulsive potential of ureteral stones.
Conclusion: Based on our results, negative history of urinary stones, absence of irritative urinary symptoms and gross hematuria and absence or mild degree of hydronephrosis in sonography were in favor of small (<5mm) or passable ureteral stones for which CT scan can be omitted.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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