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Manoochehr Barak, Nayereh Aminisani , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)
Background & Objective: Hepatitis C Virus is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C in multiply transfused patients.
Methods: 45 patients with B- thalassemia major, 4 patients with hemophilia and 1 patient with aplastic anemia were studied prospectively during 2000. An initial questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding age, sex, duration and interval of at blood translation family history and the type of blood product received and the date of first infusion and then a blood sample was taken for detection of antibody against HCV.
Results: 62% of the subjects were male and 38% of them were female with the age range of 6 months- 29 years old. 92% of the patients used packed red blood cells. 27 patients had a positive family history of thalassemia and two seropositive patients (4%) had thalassemia. Duration and mean amount of blood transfused were significantly higher in patients with HCV infection. Data analysis showed now significant relationship among variables of the study and hepatitis C cases.
Conclusions: It is concluded that multiply transfused thalassemic patients are at high risk for HCV infection. Thus, routine screening of blood and anti- HCV test in these patients is necessary.
Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Esmaeil Valizadeh- Haghi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)
Background & Objective : The fast population growth is one of the basic problems in Iran and using family planning devices has a remarkable role in decreasing it. The findings of researches carried out nationwide indicate the effectiveness of instruction in the application of family planning methods and devices. The objective of this study is determining the level of knowledge of 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment center services.
Methods : 138 qualified mothers were chosen randomly from among 15-49 year-old women under Ardabil health and treatment centers services. These subjects were selected from among 14 centers (10 mother from each center) and had secondary school level of education. This descriptive cross-sectional and prospective research was conducted by filling out the pre-planned questionnaire and preparing educational booklets and giving them to the mothers under the study as pretest and post-test procedures during the time span of December 2000 to May 2001.
Results : No meaningful relationship was found between employment and utilizing family-planning devices. The results of Mc-Nemar test and t-test showed that statistically the instruction given with regard to the method of beginning to take anti-gestation pills, method of the intervals of taking the anti-gestation pills, taking measures at the time of forgetting to take anti-gestation pills, the preference of vasectomy to tobectomy, the interval between the injection of anti-gestation ampoules and the duration of IUD effectiveness before and after studying the manuals demonstrated a significant difference.
Conclusions : Education plays an important role in increasing the knowledge level of the population under study and hence it improves their performance about family planning. So this instruction is recommended to be followed seriously.
Ahad Azami , Saeid Sadeghieh, Habib Ojaghi , Firooz Amani , Manoochehr Barak ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)
Background & Objective: The nationwide amblyopia prevention program is performed by prevention deputy of welfare organization every year. In this analytic report practical results of screening program in 1998-2001 were presented and compared with similar findings in other countries. The results were also compared with the findings of previous similar researches in Iran.
Methods : The amblyopia screening program was performed on all 3-65 year-old children in day-care centers as well as those referring to the visual acuity measuring centers. The first examination was accomplished by trainers. In the second step doubtful cases were referred to optometrist by trainers and amblyopia was diagnosed by an optometrist and confirmed by an eye specialist after excluding organic causes.
Results: 608 out of 8427(7.21%) children examined by trainers in 2001 were referred to an optometrist because of suspected visual disorders. The prevalence of amblyopia in different cities of Ardabil province was 2%-15%. The figures in 2000-2001 were 10% (Rangs=1%-13%), respectively. In 1998 it was 11% (Range =5%-13%). In the second phase of amblyopia plan the prevalence of visual problems was estimated about 21%, 45%, 47%, and 74% in 1998-2001, respectively. In the third phase of the plan the amblyopia prevalence for children examined by eye-specialist in 1999-2001 were 1.6%, 1.41% and 1.25% respectively.
Conclusions: In this research the prevalence of amblyopia was found to be 1.42% which has a conformity with the findings of other countries. Moreover, the higher variation in the estimation of the prevalence of visual disorders in this province requires further comparative researches.
Manoochehr Barak , Leila Azari-Namin , Ali Nemati , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Anooshirvan Sedigh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)
Background & Objective : Failure To Thrive (FTT) refers to the insufficient physical growth or inability in keeping the desired growth rate in a period to time.
It is a problem in Iran as far as hygienic nutrition is concerned. FTT is a multifactor problem which is caused by various organic and nonorganic agents. This study was conducted to pinpoint the major risk factors involved in the growth of children under 2 years of age who are the most vulnerable age-group in terms of growth disorders.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2002-2003 on 120 infants (60 cases with FTT and 60 controls) in Namin health centers. The case group was under the third percentage of their growth chart or they had -2SD in growth chart at least in three months. The control group was composed of infants with normal growth chart.
The demographic characteristics of parents, and the nutritional and antropometric (height/weight, head circumference) characteristics of the subjects were measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square and ANOVA.
Results: The findings indicated higher frequency of respiratory infections, diarrhea and vomiting in case group (p<0.05). The control group, on the other hand, outnumbered the case group in terms of the number of infants under 6 months who were exclusively breast-fed (p<0.05). Most of the infants with FTT had a lower birth weight than control group (p<0.05). The number of mothers with lower level of education and those who were housewives and also the number of family members were significantly higher in case group than control group (p< 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of frequency of breast feeding and birth rank.
Conclusions : The results indicated that some risk factors such as respiratory infections, birth weight, education, mother ُ s knowledge, exclusive breast feeding and the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting have far more important role in growth disturbances in children compared to factors such as frequency of breasr feeding and birth rank.
Manoochehr Barak , Nayereh Aminisani , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)
Background & Objective: Each year thousands of children under five years old die due to acute respiratory infection and diarrheal diseases. A huge number of infants and children are hospitalized and visited by the physicians whereas most of these diseases can be prevented with timely treatment. Child health maintenance and improvement is one of the most important considerations in each society. Moreover, identifying child morbidity patterns should be a matter of concern in order to improve the health services. This study provides an overview of the leading causes of hospitalization among children with the aim of determining the most important causes of hospitalization and offering appropriate strategies to decrease them.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2001 in Ardabil Ali-Asghar hospital. The subjects were randomly selected from the admission list on a daily basis. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics such as age, sex, time of admission and primary diagnosis was completed for each subject. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.
Results: A total of 1945 patients were admitted almost half of which were studied. Febrile convulsion was found to be the most common cause of hospitalization (26%) while gastroenteritis (22.1%) and pneumonia (20%) were in the second and third order. Other causes included epilepsy, drug poisoning, meningitis, mumps, drug encephalitis, asthma, etc.
Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, standard case management is necessary especially about febrile convulsion which is the most common cause of hospitalization. Since the present pattern is different from similar studies, further investigations are required to identify its causes.
Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Ahad Azami , Manoocher Barak, Firooz Amani , Seddigh ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)
Background and objectives: Establishing centers to stop addiction in our country is one of the measures taken to confront this problem. Unfortunately, it has been shown that about 80% of the addicted people who refer to these centers relapse. The present study set out to investigate the possible causes of this problem.
Methods: This is a case control study in which a questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The subjects were all addicted people who referred to Shahid Mellat Doust and Shahid Family treatment centers in 2000. The criterions for entering the study in case group were the last record of the addicted person ’ s abandonment in Tehran ’ s welfare center ( based on the patients ’ records) and using narcotics at the present time. The control group subjects, on the other hand, had abandoned using narcotics at least four months before and had never used any substance so far.
Results: The mean age for case group was 35.99 and that of the control group was 35.09. Regarding the age distribution 98.59% of the case group and 100% of the control group were men. 88.7% of the case group and 97.2% of the control group were urban residents. Considering the job, 40.8% of the case group and 19.4% of the control group were unemployed. 52.1% of the case group and 61.6% of control group were living with their spouses. Opium was the most commoly used narcotics in both groups. In studying the relationship between the variables under study through logistic regression the job was not a main factor in the relapse. The duration of time being away from addiction had a deductive effect on the relapse, and this effect was statistically meaningful (p=0.001). Adding one month ’ s time to the period of being clear (not using the narcotics) caused 98% deduction in returning to narcotics.
Conclusion: Because 80% of the patients who referred to the related centers began using narcotics again during the first 6 months after abandoning, it is necessary to improve the preventive measures to help the patients pass this critical period.
Manoogehr Barak , Firooz Amani, Mehrdad Mirza Rahimi , Nateg Abbasgholizadeh, Ali Reza Hamid Kholgh ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)
Background & Objectives: Neglecting children can have irremediable and harmful effects on them concerning their growth, evolution, acquisition, and health both at present and in the future. Since lack of nutrition knowledge and failing to observe the principles of infant nutrition is one of the important causes of malnutrition and its unpleasant consequences, we decided to carry out an assessment concerning mothers’ level of awareness about infant nutrition and the factors affecting this knowledge, as well as the effect of this knowledge on growth and development of children.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted to evaluate mothers’ knowledge of infant and neonatal nutrition and its effect on infant growth in Hir health center. The data were collected using a questionnaire, including 20 questions, which was filled out in the health center. Moreover weight, height and head circumference of 100 infants were measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: All mothers’ age ranged between15-36 and were housewives.15% were unlettered, 18% had high school education and others primary or secondary school education. 55% of children were female and 45% male. 67% of mothers had knowledge about proper neonatal and infant nutrition. 97% of them had little knowledge about when to start introducing different nutrients for infants, 3% had moderate knowledge in this regard.
Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study and the lower knowledge level of mothers about when to start giving different food to infants as well as the importance of proper nutrition in their growth, it is necessary to improve mothers’ knowledge and promote children’s health.
Firooz Amani , Manoogehr Barak , Naiere Aminisani, Mohammad Hosein Dehghan ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)
Background & Objectives: Providing, maintainance and promotion of neonatal health as a special high-risk group has a special role in heath services. According to statistics, 4 million out of 130 million neonates, born every year, die in the first week of their life. 99% of this mortality takes place in developing countries. 38% of the deaths below the age of 5 belongs to neonatal deaths. To decrease this mortality, some factors such as mother condition (including health care both before and after pregnancy), perinatal factors and life-threatening factors in the first 28 days after birth. This study was performed in hospitals under Ardabil University of Medical Sciences to determine the related factors of neonatal mortality.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 160 neonatals (80 cases of neonatal deaths and 80 live births as controls). The demographic data of two groups were separately analyzed to obtain descriptive results. Also the most common causes of neonatal mortality were obtained through studying cases. Moreover, the parents of live neonates were asked questions to evaluate the effect of social factors. Finally all of these related factors were compared.
Results: From 160 neonates under study, 71 (44.4%) were female and others were male. Neonatal mortality in males was 1.3 times as much as that in females. 16(12.1%) mothers had history of still birth. 18(11.3%) mothers were illiterate and 27 (16.9%) had college education. 31(19.4%) neonates were under 1500gr, 42 (26.3%) 1500- 2500gr and others above 2500 gr. 37 (46.3%) mothers in case group and 24(30%) in control had no access to transportation facilities. The most common causes for neonatal mortality were prematurity with 44 (55.1%) cases and aspiration, septicemia, asphyxia each one with 4 (2.5%) cases. There were statistically significant relationship between neonatal mortality rate on the one hand and birth weight, access to transportation facilities and mothers, living place (rural or urban) (p=0.023).
Conclusion: According to the results, factors such as birth weight, access to transportation facilities as well as the mothers’ living location (rural or urban) were determining factors in the neonatal mortality. Some measures seem necessary to by taken in order to decrease the effect of thses factors.
Farhad Salehzadeh , Dina Emami , Aliasghar Zolfeghari , Abbas Yazdanbod , Shahram Habibzadeh , Bahman Bashardoost , Manoochehr Barak , Eiraj Feizy , Hormoz Azimi , Marina Jastan , Jafar Khalafi ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (Autumn 2006)
Background and Objectives: Familial Mediterranean fever which is the prototype of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes is common in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. Regarding the geographical position of the northwest of Iran, having Turkish originality and its vicinity to the Mediterranean Sea , the incidence of this disease is significant in Ardabil. The goal of this study was to introduce Familial Mediterranean Fever as a disease with significant outbreak in this area.
Methods: This research is a descriptive study which has been done during one year from October 2004 to October 2005. According to the Tel-Hashomer criteria, the patients suffering from Familial Mediterranean Fever were collected from private clinics and pediatric rheumatology clinics records. Then from 112 patients only 74 ones were studied. All of the patients were interviewed and filled out a questionnaire.
Results: Familial Mediterranean fever is common among children under 18 (76%) and more common in male than female. Abdominal pain has been the most common complaint (74%) and abdominal pain and fever (95% and 84% respectively) were the main clinical symptoms. The most common period of pain was 12-72 hours and the common recovery (attack free) period was from 1 week to 1 month (63/5%). Majority of the patients had hospital admission for diagnostic work up (85%) and some of them (32%) had been under surgical operation mistakenly. On the whole 92% of the patients had taken medications as a result of wrong diagnosis and 20% had positive familial history. 50% of the patients' parents were first degree relatives and in 59.5% delay in diagnosis was more than 3 years.
Conclusion: Results of this study and introduction of this group of patients in a one-year research indicate that: Familial Mediterranean Fever is more common in the Northwest of Iran although physicians are not familiar with that. The common age for manifestation of this disease is under 18 and its presentation after the age of 40 is very rare.
Ali Nemmati , Soheila Refahi, Manoochehr Barak , Manije Jafari , Gholamhosein Ettehad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2007)
Background & Objectives: 11% of all newborns in the developing countries suffer from low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight has an important role in individual health, family and society. Lower and higher birth weight from standard rate lead to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between some of maternal anthropometric measurements such as BMI, pre-gravida weight, height, age with birth weight.
Methods: This is an analytical-descriptive study, in which there were 300 pregnant women who hard referred to Alavi Hospital, Ardebil for delivery. Maternal pre-gravida height, weight and birth weight were collected from their units. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing the maternal pre-gravida weight in kg by height in m squared (kg/m2). The relationship between maternal anthropometric measurements and birth weight was analyzed by t-test.
Results: Our study showed that 32 (10.7%) women had BMI<19.8, 185 (61.7%) BMI=19.8-26 and 83 (27.7%) BMI>26. 36.3% of women were under 55 kg, 48.3% between 55 to 70 kg and 15.3% over 70 kg. The relationship between maternal pre-gravida BMI, weight and birth weight was statistically significant (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between maternal age and neonatal birth weight.
Conclusion: Pre-gravida body mass index (BMI) and weight could be two important anthropometric measurements associated with birth weight. Thus, it is recommended that women give adequate preconceptional and prenatal care to decrease the amount of LBW and HBW in population.
Nayereh Amini Sani , Manoochehr Barak , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Firooz Amani , Saadollah Mohammadi , Benyamin Fazli ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)
Background & Objectives: The high incidence of low birth weight (LBW) occurs in developing countries, and diarrhea and respiratory infections are the main causes of infant mortality and morbidity. This study was done to find out whether there was a growth or morbidity response to zinc supplememttion, among LBW infants during the first 6 mo of life.
Methods: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial study. LBW infants were given daily for 6mo 5mg zn, or a placebo. Questionnairs were filled out during the study by a pediatrician and a GP. Anthropometric measurements were made at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 wk via home visits by trained interviewers.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in zinc and placebo groups. Weight gain in zinc group was significantly higher that of placebo group between 1 to 6 months (p=0.036). Length and head circumference gain were also greater in zinc group than in placebo groups, (p=0.04, p<0.001). The episodes of upper respiratory infections was greater in placebo group than zinc group (mean Episodes in zinc groups= 1.7 and in placebo group was 3) and there was significant difference between two groups (p=0.005). 8 Cases of lower respiratory infections in placebo group and 5 cases in zinc group were observed, but it was not significan diarrheal episods were observed only in placebo groups.
Conclusion: It was found that low birth weight infants had better growth and lower morbidity during the first 6 months of life by receiving zinc supplementation.
Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Hakimeh Saadati, Manoochehr Barak , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Ahad Azami, Afsaneh Enteshari ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (spring 2009)
Background & Objectives: Birth weight less than 2500gr (as result of preterm delivery and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)) is a major cause of both neonatal health. Predominate cause of LBW in developed countries is premature birth, whereas in developing countries is more often IUGR. Different risk factors, including demographic and behavioral during and before pregnancy are effective in LBW incidences which can reduce LBW and neonatal mortality rate by identification and control of these risk factors. The present study has been carried out with purpose of identification and decreasing the LBW rate in Ardabil.
Methods: In this case – control study all infants delivered in 2006 in hospitals in Ardabil were investigated. Every neonate whose weight was less than 2500gr was taken as a case (n=470) and 482 neonates whose weight was more than 2500gr was taken as a control. Data gathering was done through questionnaires, interviewing the mothers and physical examination. The data were analyzed statistically through SPSS.
Results: In the present study, the presence of LBW amount is %6.4 in Ardabil hospitals. The results of our study showed that a significant relationship existed between prematurely and gestational age<37wk, mother’s age, mother’s job and maternal weight, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), maternal diseases, multiple births, bleeding during pregnancy, interval between pregnancies less than <2 years, prior history of low birth weight, use of drugs by mother in pregnancy, congenital malformation with LBW. In this study relation between parity, the use of Folic Acid, Fe, cigarette smoking and addiction of mother, living area (village or city), family marriage, health care and mother’s education were not significant with LBW.
Conclusion: The LBW important risk factors in Ardabil hospitals were prematurity or gestational age <37wk, multiple pregnancies, PROM, mother’s age over 35 years, and mother weight <50kg, maternal diseases.
Manoochehr Barak , Setareh Mamishi , Seiyed Ahmad Siadati , Peyman Salamati , Ghamartaj Khotaii, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi ,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (summer 2011)
Background & objectives: Nosocomial infections increase patient’s mortality and are considered as a health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolated bacteria in NICU and PICU, in Bahrami and Children’s Medical Center hospitals, Tehran .
Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study from October 2008 to September 2009, risk factors and etiology of nosocomial infections were evaluated in all patients who showed infectious signs upon 48h admission. Infectious agents were diagnosed by the standard microbiological tests and antibiotic sensitivity of isolates was determined using dick diffusion method. The data for location of the hospital, admission history, presence of immunodeficiency, fever and using venous and urine catheters, suction, venous injection as well as cerebral shunt and surgery have been collected by a questionnaire and analyzed, statistically .
Results: About 9.3% (70 individuals) of cases encountered with nosocomial infections. From whom, 24.3% were infected by Pseudomonas aeroginosa and 18.6% and 3.14% by Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter spp, respectively. The location of the hospital, using of suction and surgery were the most common risk factors related to nosocomial infections (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings showed that the hospital location, suction and surgery were the most common risk factors and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter spp were the common infectious threats. So, we need to design the special program to improve nosocomial infection control in hospitals .
Mehrdad Mirzarahimi, Adel Ahadi , Afsaneh Enteshari Mogaddam, Manoochehr Barak,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (autumn 2011)
Protein C is a vitamin K dependent glycoprotein. Protein C deficiency is a rare genetic disorder and its major sites of involvement are skin, eyes, lungs, central nervous system, and kidneys. This article presents a case of neonatal protein C deficiency with severe purpura fulminans and bilateral cataracts. He was initially treated with fresh-frozen plasma and then followed by warfarin. All necrotic skin lesions improved with treatment. He was the first child of his parents who were asymptomatic for protein C deficiency. We also reviewed literatures about coexistence of cataracts and protein C deficiency.
Afrouz Mardi, Mahnaz Azari , Manoochehr Barak , Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Parvaneh Naftchi , Nasrin Foladi ,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (winter 2011)
Background & Objectives: Diarrhea is one the important causes of mortality among children in developing countries. The effect of zinc supplementation in reduction the rate of diarrhea is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the severity and duration of diarrhea in children less than 5 years old hospitalized in Ali-Asghar hospital in Ardabil, 2005.
Methods: This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including 228 children with acute diarrhea. The subjects randomly assigned into two placebo and experimental groups (114 patients in each group). The placebo group received glucose (5%), while the experimental group received 20 mg/day Zn sulfate. The severity and duration of diarrhea were assessed during the study. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient tests and Students t-test by SPSS software.
Results: Our findings showed that most of the patients in both groups were male (age range 1-12 months, weight range 3-11 kg, weight percentile 3-50). These children had breast feeding and complete vaccination. They were the first baby in their family and the majority of them were from urban area (Ardabil city). The severity of diarrhea in zinc supplemented children (74.6%) was less than placebo group (89.5 % ) (p=0.037). There was no significant difference between two groups in the duration of diarrhea (p=0.737). There also was no relationship between the severity of diarrhea and weight percentile (p= 0.085).
Conclusion: Our data indicate that zinc supplementation reduces the severity of acute diarrhea and could be advised in children with acute diarrhea.
Manoochehr Barak , Farhad Pourfarzi , Shima Jirodi , Gity Rahimi , Yasamin Pahlavan ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (suppl 2012)
Background & Objectives: Nosocomial infections occur following admission of patients in the hospitals and usually are accompanied by significant mortalities. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of nosocomial infections and the causatives in Ardabil Bu Ali hospital during 2010.
Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which has been done on collection of information through practical examinations, laboratory tests and files of nosocomillay infected patients in Ardabil Bu Ali hospital during 2010. Data were analyzed by SPSS.
Results: From a total of 3254 patients, 42 (1.3%) had got nosocomial infections. Of these infected patients 47.6% was males and 52.4% was females. Infection was more frequent in patients with ages between 1 month to1 year old (45.2%). Sepsis (33.3%), pneumonia and blood stream infections (23.8%) and urinary tract infection (19%) were the most frequent infections. The mean length of hospital stay was 26.86 days. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common pathogen reported (23.8%). Infection was more common in NICU (38.1%).
Conclusion: In this study, the frequency of nosocomial infection was lower than other studies. Distribution of infection differed with age, ward and length of stay in the hospital.
Manoochehr Barak , Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Firouz Amani , Gholamreza Asadi, Gity Rahimi , Elham Khadem,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (suppl 2012)
Background & Objective: Currently, migration of rural population to cities and developing slums around them are main problems in population settlement that lead to imbalance in health standards such as difference in age groups death. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with infant mortality in slums of the Ardabil city.
Methods: This was a case- control study. All infants’ deaths from 2008 to 2010, which occurred in slums as a case, were included. For each case, tow controls, were chosen. Controls the ones who survived and were living in non marginalized area and years of birth and sex were matched in two groups. Information collected from health centers through questionnaires, interviews with parents and child death files.
Results: The majority of mortalities (74.6%) were in neonatal period and 25.4% was in post- neonatal period. The most important causes of deaths in neonatal were prematurity (57%), and in post neonatal period were congenital abnormality (35.4%). Analysis of effective factors showed that birth weight, parents age and education, family income and occupation and smoking of father were highly associated with mortalities.
Conclusion: Infant mortality of the family that their father is a smoker and they have low income, and low parental education level is significantly higher and should be taken into serious consideration to reduce the mortality.
Ali Hossain Khani , Ali Nemati, Mitra Naser Saead , Shahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Manoochehr Barak ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (suppl 2012)
Background & Objectives : Urolithiasis is the third common urinary disease. While, relationship between the urinary stones and diet is known to some extent, but there are controversies about it. The aim of this study was to determine the association between food habit, nutrients intake and kinds of urinary stone disease.
Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study was performed on 150 patients (91 male and 59 females) with urinary stone disease in Ardabil during 2008-2009. Data of urinary stones analysis, type of stone in the graph, type of stone, preventive emprise and type of drinking water were recorded. Food data were recorded using 24-hour dietary recalls three days in week and food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Food Processor III software, and ANOVA Statistical program .
Results: Findings showed that the most common and lowest form of urinary stone disease in men and women were calcium oxalate and ammonium phosphate, respectively. There was significant inverse association between beta-carotene intake and the percentage of uric acid stone disease (p<0.05). We observed significant relationship between vitamin A and folacin intake with percentage of uric acid stone disease (p<0.05). There was significant relationship between consumption of cheese and pickles with calcium phosphate stone disease (p<0.05). There was no significant association between other foods and nutrients intake with types of urinary stone disease .
Conclusion: This study showed the consumption of some nutrients including folacin, vitamin A and some foods such as cheese was associated with the incidence of urinary stone disease. Therefore, taking accurate diet could possibly prevent the incidence of urinary stone diseases.