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Showing 11 results for Azami
Firooz Amani , Saeid Sadeghieh , Ahad Azami , Habib Ojaghi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)
Background & Objective: In order to avoid amblyopia, the welfare organization of Iran performs a special program every year. Since there was no research regarding the mistake rates made by the educators, this study was conducted to determine the probable differences between educators and optometrists in terms of their mistakes in examining amblyopia. The study aimed also at decreasing the amount of this difference and programming for the better performance of amblyopia examination in the future.
Methods: This study was performed on 260 children in 22 nursery schools of Ardabil using systematic sampling method. These children were first examined by the educators and after some time they were examined for a second time by optometrists using retinoscopy and the fingertip. The data was collected using a questionnaire filled out by both the educators and the optometrists. This data was then analyzed by X2 tests and ANOVA using SPSS program.
Results: 51.2% of the subjects were male and the rest of them (48.8%) were female. 63.5% of the nursery schools (day- care centers) were private and the others were run by the ministry of education. 13.8% of the subjects used eye glasses and 8.1% were under the control of a physician. 36.4% of the centers did not observe the standard interval. 18.8% of the educators were not skillful enough. 17.7% of the children suffered from astigmatism and 5.3% of them had a weak eyesight. Because of these factors, there was a 17.7% difference between the examination of educators and that of the optometrists.
Conclusions: It seems necessary for the authorities to have better and more careful programs in the future for examining amblyopia.
Ahad Azami , Saeid Sadeghieh, Habib Ojaghi , Firooz Amani , Manoochehr Barak ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)
Background & Objective: The nationwide amblyopia prevention program is performed by prevention deputy of welfare organization every year. In this analytic report practical results of screening program in 1998-2001 were presented and compared with similar findings in other countries. The results were also compared with the findings of previous similar researches in Iran.
Methods : The amblyopia screening program was performed on all 3-65 year-old children in day-care centers as well as those referring to the visual acuity measuring centers. The first examination was accomplished by trainers. In the second step doubtful cases were referred to optometrist by trainers and amblyopia was diagnosed by an optometrist and confirmed by an eye specialist after excluding organic causes.
Results: 608 out of 8427(7.21%) children examined by trainers in 2001 were referred to an optometrist because of suspected visual disorders. The prevalence of amblyopia in different cities of Ardabil province was 2%-15%. The figures in 2000-2001 were 10% (Rangs=1%-13%), respectively. In 1998 it was 11% (Range =5%-13%). In the second phase of amblyopia plan the prevalence of visual problems was estimated about 21%, 45%, 47%, and 74% in 1998-2001, respectively. In the third phase of the plan the amblyopia prevalence for children examined by eye-specialist in 1999-2001 were 1.6%, 1.41% and 1.25% respectively.
Conclusions: In this research the prevalence of amblyopia was found to be 1.42% which has a conformity with the findings of other countries. Moreover, the higher variation in the estimation of the prevalence of visual disorders in this province requires further comparative researches.
Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Ahad Azami , Manoocher Barak, Firooz Amani , Seddigh ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)
Background and objectives: Establishing centers to stop addiction in our country is one of the measures taken to confront this problem. Unfortunately, it has been shown that about 80% of the addicted people who refer to these centers relapse. The present study set out to investigate the possible causes of this problem.
Methods: This is a case control study in which a questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The subjects were all addicted people who referred to Shahid Mellat Doust and Shahid Family treatment centers in 2000. The criterions for entering the study in case group were the last record of the addicted person ’ s abandonment in Tehran ’ s welfare center ( based on the patients ’ records) and using narcotics at the present time. The control group subjects, on the other hand, had abandoned using narcotics at least four months before and had never used any substance so far.
Results: The mean age for case group was 35.99 and that of the control group was 35.09. Regarding the age distribution 98.59% of the case group and 100% of the control group were men. 88.7% of the case group and 97.2% of the control group were urban residents. Considering the job, 40.8% of the case group and 19.4% of the control group were unemployed. 52.1% of the case group and 61.6% of control group were living with their spouses. Opium was the most commoly used narcotics in both groups. In studying the relationship between the variables under study through logistic regression the job was not a main factor in the relapse. The duration of time being away from addiction had a deductive effect on the relapse, and this effect was statistically meaningful (p=0.001). Adding one month ’ s time to the period of being clear (not using the narcotics) caused 98% deduction in returning to narcotics.
Conclusion: Because 80% of the patients who referred to the related centers began using narcotics again during the first 6 months after abandoning, it is necessary to improve the preventive measures to help the patients pass this critical period.
Ahad Azami, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi , Rahim Masoomi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)
Background & Objectives: Narcotic abuse is one of the main problems in the world today, and individuals ’ view towards it is important for managers and social problem analysts.Regarding the threats and harms of the prevalence of narcotics in society, this research was done to determine the rate of tendency to narcotics among people over ten years old in Ardabil province.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional research. A two-section questionnaire was used to collect the data. 600 men and women over ten years of age were chosen through systematic cluster sampling and the required information was gathered by referring to their houses and interviewing them. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics.
Results: 3.5% of the samples had positive family history of using narcotics. 18% were smokers. 84.7% believed that one can use narcotics everywhere. 30% claimed that using narcotics reduces one ’ s physical discomfort, and 30.2% expressed that one can give up the narcotics whenever necessary. On the whole the tendency towards addiction among the subjects was 53.57%. This tendency was higher in rural areas compared to the cities (56.72% versus 49.81%). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Illiterate people had the most tendency rate towards addiction (55.61%). There was a statistically significant relationship between tendency towards addiction and positive family history (p< 0.05). The highest tendency rate (54.33%) was seen in 11- 20 age group.
Conclusion: the results showed that the consequent dangers of addiction are not known for people and that the great tendency for narcotics shows the need to inform the society in order to prevent the addiction.
Eabbas Yazdanbod, Fateme Samadi, Reza Malekzade, Masuood Babaie , Manoogehr Iranparvar , Ahmad Azami ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Summer 2005)
Background & Objectives: Recent studies in Ardabil province indicated that upper GI cancer is the most common kind of cancer in this province. Due to the lack of any study concerning the survival rate of the patients in this province, the present research set out to evaluate the effect of demographic features of GI cancers, risk factors, histopathology type, the site of tumor and treatment on the survival rate of these patients.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical and prospective study, we followed up 420 upper GI cancer cases (141 esophagus cancers and 279 stomach cancers) who were initially diagnosed in the only subspeciality GI clinic of Ardabil province during four years from 2000 to 2003.
Results: The information related to 299 patients was recorded. The dates of death of 55 cases were found referring to the provincial death registration program while the addreses of 67 cases were not found. The 1-4-year survival rates in the patients with upper GI cancer in Ardabil province were 25.9%, 11.1%, 4.5% and 1.8% respectively. In this study men had a lower survival rate than women and patients with esophagus cancer had a longer survival rate. In the patients with stomach cancer "Signet ring cell type" histopathology had the lowest survival rate. The patients who had undergone surgery survived longer than other patients with no resectional surgery treatment. Histopathology grading, age at first diagnosis, positive familial history of GI cancer, as well as cigarette, alcohol and opium consumption had no effect on survival rate of these patients.
Conclusion: Overall survival rate of our patients is very low this condition might be related to late diagnosis and less treatment facilities in Ardabil province.
Firooz Amani, Saeid Sadegie Ahari , Saedollah Mohammadi, Ahad Azami,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)
Background & Objectives: Opium addiction is a major social, psychological and health problem in the world. In past decades addiction to legal and illegal drugs has been widespread and over 1000 kinds of narcotics have been recognized, which are used in different ways including eating, smoking, injection and inhaling. Statistics published by international organizations such as UNDCP, WHO and UNSCO indicated an increasing trend in drug abuse worldwide. The countries are different only in the pattern of drug abuse. This study investigates the pattern of drug abuse in last 5 years in Ardabil.
Methods : This is a descriptive, analytical and prospective study. To obtain the trend of substance abuse the records of all addicts in 1998 (684 cases) and 2002-2003 (341 cases) were studied. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (rel.11) using descriptive statistics.
Results: The findings indicated that in the last five years the use of hashish, opium extract and other substances has decreased whereas the trend of heroin and opium use has increased. The use of opium has increased from 48.07% in 1998 to 67.4% in 2002-2003. Also the heroin use has increased from 8.5% in 1998 to 27.5% in 2002-2003. Moreover, the use of hashish, opium extract and other narcotics has decreased. The highest decrease (23.5%) belonged to opium extract and the highest increase (19%) to heroin.
Conclusion : According to the results we could say that the pattern of substance abuse in Ardabil in the last five years has changed and heroin and opium consumption has increased.
Ahad Azami , Abbas Yazdanbod, Nateg Abbasgolizadeh, Yegane Sadeghy,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)
Background & Objectives: According to a recent report published by the ministry of health, Esophageal cancer is the second most common fatal cancer in Ardabil. This study investigated the relationship between anatomical sites and pathological features of Esophagus cancer with related risk factors.
Methods: This descriptive-cross-secional and prospective study was conducted on patients referring to GI clinic of Ardabil (Aras) between 2000-2003. Patients with suspicious upper GI symptoms underwent upper GI vide-endoscopy. At least five to six endoscopic punch biopsies were obtained from all the lesions and sent for pathology. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. Anatomical sites, demographic information of the patients (age, sex, educational state, residential area) smoking habit, alcohol and opium consumption were entered into the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the EPI 2000 statistical software.
Results: The mean age of the patients with cancer was 59 ± 11.64 years and the male to female ratio was 1:1. Villagers constituted 117 (77%) of the patients. 93.4% of these patients were illiterate. The cancers were of the following types: 126 (82.9%) SCC, 25 (16.4%) adenocarcinoma and 1(0.7%) in situ carcinoma. The most common site of esophageal SCC cancer was middle third of esophagus with 73 (48%) patients. In contrast the most common site of adenocarcinoma in 31 (20%) patients was lower third of esophagus. No meaningful relationship was found between esophageal cancer and smoking drinking or opium consumption.
Conclusion: The findings indicated that unlikewestern countries esophagus cancer had no relationship with smoking or alcohol consumption in Ardabil. Other studies are recommended to be performed to find out more about relationship between known esophageal risk factors including nutritional habits, nitrosamines, soil contents, agricultural products and genetic background.
Ahad Azami , Shahram Habibzadeh , Hosein Doostkami , Firooz Amani , Faramarz Ajri ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (Autumn 2006)
Background and Objectives: pericardial effusion is characterized by the accumulation of excessive fluid in the pericardial space, which can lead to cardiac dysfunction or death. Most of the previous studies have been performed in developed countries and its epidemiologic aspects in developing countries were not well-recognized. The aim of this research was determination of etiology, clinical and paraclinical findings in patients with pericardial effusion.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and retrospective study. From all of the patients admitted to Buali hospital between 2001 to 2003 ,49 patients that showed moderate to massive pericardial effusion in echocardiography were selected and studied in terms of history, physical examination, CXR, ECG and pericardial fluid analysis (if performed).
Results: From 49 patients 25 (51%) were female and 24 were male. Age ranges of patients were 11 to 85 years. The age of 42% of the patients was above 60 years. The most common clinical complaints were dyspnea (44.9%) and chest pain (24.5%). ECG in most of them (53.1%) were normal sinus rhythm. Cardiac electrical axis in 83.7 % was normal, but ECG in 83.7% of cases showed low voltage QRS complex. The most common findings in CXR was cardiomegaly (85.7%) and 14.3% of patients had normal CXR. Common etiologies of pericardial effusion were chronic renal failure (16.3%), tuberculosis (8.2%), heart failure (8.2%) and malignancies (6.1%). Etiology of disease in 44.8% of patients was unknown.
Conclusion: It seems that most of pericardial effusions occur in higher ages. It can be due to high prevalence of different diseases such as heart failure, chronic renal failure or malignancies in senile persons.
Masoud Entezari Asl , Ahad Azami , Firooz Amani , Solmaz Khorasani ,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (Winter 2006)
Background & Objectives : Most of the people who need blood and blood products transfusion, are the critic cases under transfusional therapy for their bleeding, chronic disease anemia, clotting disorders, platlet problems and so on. Considering the problems and high costs of providing safe blood and due to the transfusional complications, it is necessary for the blood products to be used based on scientific standards and only in the time of emergency. This study examined the cases of transfusion in a surgery and burning hospital and to determine the unnecessary cases of transfusion in a period of six months.
Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 150 patients under blood and blood products transfusion in Ardabil Dr Fatemi hospital during 2003. Necessary and unnecessary cases of transfusion were categorized according to the patients clinical situations, laboratory criteria, the evidence existing in their records and on the basis of standards documented in the literature. The data were analyzed by SPSS software.
Results: Among 150 cases transfused, 46 (25.7%) received whole blood, 92 (51.4%) packed cell, 36 (20.1%) FFP and 5 (2.3%) platlet. The ward of transfusion was ICU in 60 cases (40%), surgery ward in 31 (20.7%), operation room in 28 (18.7%), orthepedic ward in 11 (7.3%), burning ward in 10 (6.7%) and emergency ward in 9 (6%). Highest rate belonged to 20 to 40 age-group (32.7%). 67.3% of the cases were male transfusion, based on documented criteria, with regard to the necessary of 26.08% of the cases in whole-blood group, 30.44 in packed cell group, 47.22 in FFP group and 80% in platlet group received umecessary transfusion.
Conclusions: Considering the high cost of preparation of safe blood and blood products and regarding the problems which can affect the patients after transfusion, these products should be used carefully and on the basis of the documented. The high rate of unnecessary transfusion of blood and its products at the present reseaech demands more attention in this regard.
Hosein Dostkamy, Raeouf Mollajavad , Ahad Azami ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)
Background & objectives: Hypertension is a disease with high prevalence and complications and unfortunately the freatment of which is not desirable in many communities including ours. The aim of this study is to assess the therapeutic diet giving and level control of HTN in patients with Hypertension who refered to Ardabil Boali Hospital emergency room and out patient Clinic room.
Methods: This study was performed on 200 patients who refered to the emergency room and out patient Clinic in Ardabil Boali Hospital from 2003 to 2004 due to high blood pressure. In this study, blood pressure and other factors such as sex, age and the therapeutic modality including compliance to theyapy and kind and quality of drugs were determined, then the data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics.
Results: Of 200 patients only 1% did not take drug 59.5% of patients were on monotherapy and 39.5% took two or more drugs 33.5% were on Beta blocker (Atenolol) and 11% on ACE inhibitor (Enalapril). Among patients on combination therapy the highest prevalence was B.bloche and ACE.I 40%, and the least one prevalence was diuretic and CCB (2%). All patients on diuretic were pre hypertensive whereas the majority of patients on CCB had stageII hypertension. In patients on multi drug therapy all patients on diuretics + CCB were pre hypertensive but 57% of patients on ACEI + CCB or ACE.I + diuretic had stageII hypertension.
Conclusion: In this study for combination therapy Diuretic and CCB had the best result in controlling hypertension.
Mehrdad Mirzarahimi , Hakimeh Saadati, Manoochehr Barak , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Ahad Azami, Afsaneh Enteshari ,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (spring 2009)
Background & Objectives: Birth weight less than 2500gr (as result of preterm delivery and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)) is a major cause of both neonatal health. Predominate cause of LBW in developed countries is premature birth, whereas in developing countries is more often IUGR. Different risk factors, including demographic and behavioral during and before pregnancy are effective in LBW incidences which can reduce LBW and neonatal mortality rate by identification and control of these risk factors. The present study has been carried out with purpose of identification and decreasing the LBW rate in Ardabil.
Methods: In this case – control study all infants delivered in 2006 in hospitals in Ardabil were investigated. Every neonate whose weight was less than 2500gr was taken as a case (n=470) and 482 neonates whose weight was more than 2500gr was taken as a control. Data gathering was done through questionnaires, interviewing the mothers and physical examination. The data were analyzed statistically through SPSS.
Results: In the present study, the presence of LBW amount is %6.4 in Ardabil hospitals. The results of our study showed that a significant relationship existed between prematurely and gestational age<37wk, mother’s age, mother’s job and maternal weight, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), maternal diseases, multiple births, bleeding during pregnancy, interval between pregnancies less than <2 years, prior history of low birth weight, use of drugs by mother in pregnancy, congenital malformation with LBW. In this study relation between parity, the use of Folic Acid, Fe, cigarette smoking and addiction of mother, living area (village or city), family marriage, health care and mother’s education were not significant with LBW.
Conclusion: The LBW important risk factors in Ardabil hospitals were prematurity or gestational age <37wk, multiple pregnancies, PROM, mother’s age over 35 years, and mother weight <50kg, maternal diseases.