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Showing 5 results for Arzanlou

Shahram Habibzadeh , Mohsen Arzanlou , Elham Jannati , Mahdi Asmar, Mahnaz Azari , Zahra Fardiazar,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (spring 2010)

  Background & Objectives : The early-onset form of GBS (Group B Streptococci) disease typically occurs in the first 24 hours of life, with fulminant sepsis or pneumonia and has associated to high mortality (5-20 %) and morbidity. In prenatal infections GBS is transmitted vertically to the newborn during labor and delivery from the vagina of a typically asymptomatic colonized woman. Preventive strategies can be done with screening program and this study has been done for determination of carriage prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of GBS in pregnant women of Ardabil.

  Methods :For determination of carriageprevalence 420 pregnant women selected stratified proportionally from 11 clusters of obstetric clinics of Ardabil. Sampling was done in pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation with a vaginal and rectal swab for culture. Swabs were inoculated into a selective broth medium (Todd-Hewitt broth with colistin, 10mg/L and nalidixic acid 15 mg/L = LIM broth), incubated overnight at 35-37°C, and subcultured onto sheep blood agar. Isolated bacteria identified by standard microbiological tests.

 Results: Out of 420 subjects 62 positive cultures were established (14.8%), 19 of them (4.5%) from anus, 19 of them (4.5%) from vagina and 24 of them (5.8%) from both.

 All of isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin and Vancomycin. There were 1 case of resistance 15 case of semi sensitivity and 46 cases of sensitive versus Erythromycin, these pattern also checked for Clindamycin, and results were respectively 11, 5, 46. All isolated GBS were sensitive to penicillin among them 3 (4.83%) isolates showed reduced susceptibility.

  Conclusion: Because of high prevalence rate we recommend screening of all pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus at 35-37 weeks' gestation with a vaginal and rectal swab. Based on antibiogram drug of choice for treatment is Ampicillin, and in cases of drug hypersensitivity Vancomycin may be choice.

Mahdi Arzanlou,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (summer 2010)

  Back ground and aim: Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in humans is caused by fungal agent which belongs to black yeasts. The disease is apparently restricted to Middle East been reported from Saudi Arabia, occupied Palestine and Qatar. The disease has not been recorded from Iran yet or its existence has not been noticed. Ramichloridium mackenziei is responsible for this disease, which belongs to fungal order chaetothyriales. Members of this order are mainly opportunistic pathogens on humans and animals causing a wide range of infections such as chromoblastomycosis (cutaneous, subcutaneous) and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Species recognition and delineation in members of this order is based on morphological features of asexual stage (anamorph). This order encompasses several genera such as Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella, Exophiala, Veronaea, Cladophialophora. Some members of this order are morphologically similar to plant pathogenic or saprotrophic species and there is no clear-cut morphological differences among these genera. Accurate identification of human pathogenic species in both clinics and natural ecological niches will play important role in our understating on ecology of these fungi.

  Materials and methods: In present study, 24 isolates belonging to 15 species from three genera viz., Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea were subjected to morphological and molecular examinations. Morphological features were evaluated on malt extract agar, using a slide culture technique. Phylogenitc relationship among isolates was inferred based on sequence data from two genomic regions of ribosomal DNA including partial sequences from ITS-rDNA and LSU-rDNA.

  Results: Phylogeny inferred from DNA sequence data placed isolates in two groups. Clade one included Rhinocladiella and Veronaea together with Ramichloridium mackenziei and R. fasiculata, R. anceps and Rhinocladiella basitona which all belong to the order Chaetothyriales. The second clade included type species of genus Ramichloridium (R. apiculatum) together with other plant pathogenic Ramicholridium species which belong to the order Capnodiales. Putting together DNA sequence data, ecology and morphology, Rhinocladiella is an appropriate genus to accommodate Ramichloridium mackenziei.

  Conclusion: taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Ramichloridium mackenziei is ascertained in Chaetothyriales. Combination of DNA data set together with morphology and ecology is indispensable in identification of human pathogenic Chaetothyriales. Current work is good starting point towards studying importance and diversity of these fungi in Iran.

Elham Jannati , Maliheh Asadollahi , Hadi Peeri Doghaheh , Mohsen Arzanlou ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (summer 2014)

  Background and Objectives: Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of neonatal and maternal infections. They are susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. However, resistance to other antibiotics such as erythromycin and clindamycin is common among GBS strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of allicin against colonizing GBS strains in vitro.

  Methods: Garlic extract was prepared and allicin was purified using semi-preparative HPLC procedure. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of allicin were determined for 52 GBS strains using microdilution method in Todd Hewitt broth medium.

  Results: MIC of allicin was 64-128 µg/mL (MIC90 = 128) and MBC of allicin was 128 to 512µg/mL (MBC90 = 256) for GBS strains.

  Conclusion: The results of this study showed that allicin can inhibit growth of GBS in vitro. Further studies on allicin might be worthy of evaluation as a therapeutic agent in treatment of GBS infections.

Masoomeh Parvizi, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Khadijeh Mohammadi , Mohsen Arzanlou,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (autumn 2016)

Background & objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae is  one of the major causes of vaccine - preventable diseases worldwide. Current pneumococcal vaccines consist of serotype specific capsular polysaccharide antigen and do not offer full clinical protection against pneumococcal diseases. Due to such limitations, a new generation of protein-based pneumococcal vaccines is being developed. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of gens encoding five protein antigens including pneumococcal histidine triad D and E (phtD, phtE), rlr- regulated gene A (rrgA), Autolysin (lytA) and Pneumococcal surface protein C (pcpC) among pneumococcal isolates collected from nasopharyngeal specimens in healthy children.

Methods: A total of 43 pneumococcal isolates were collected from nasopharyngeal specimens of healthy children attending the kindergartens in Ardabil province. The strains were identified using optochin susceptibility and bile solubility testes and further confirmed by amplification of capsular polysaccharide A gene (cpsA). PCR was used for screening the presence of pcpC, phtD, phtE, rrgA and lytA genes.

Results: 81.4 % of isolates were found to contain at least one of the tested genes. lytA, pcpC, phtE, phtD and rrgA were detected in 70, 60, 39.5, 35 and 25.5 percent of isolates, respectively. The results showed that the genes were not distributed consistently among the isolates and for obtaining a full coverage pneumococcal vaccine, multiple choices of these antigens should be included.

Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin , Hannane Javanpour Heravi , Mohsen Arzanlou, Mohammadreza Sarvi ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (winter 2017)

Background & objectives: Candidiasis is a fungal infection which is caused by Candida spp. Candida albicans is the most common agent of candidiasis. This infection may cause various side effects during pregnancy including prematurity, chorioamnionitis, candidal pneumonia, and systemic candidiasis of infants. This research was conducted for determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Candida spp, collected from pregnant women admitted to health centers in Ardabil, Iran.

Methods: Totally, 408 subjects were included in this study. Demographic data and risk factors were recorded using a questionnaire. Two swab samples were taken from vulvovaginal mucus. One swab was used for preparing smear and direct microscopic examination and the second one used for cultivating the specimen. After identification of Candida spp., antimicrobial resistance pattern was determined by disk diffusion method against Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Nystatin and Amphotericin B. Results were interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. The data were analyzed by χ2 and t-test using SPSS-19.

Results: Out of 408 subjects, 143 cases (35%) were positive for candida spp. The Candida albicans with 119 (83.2%) cases was the most prevalent species followed by Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parpsilosis and Candida tropicalis.According to disk diffusion test, overall 116 (81.1%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, 100 (69.9%) to Ketoconazole, 67 (46.9%) to Clotrimazole and 25 (17.5%) to Amphotericin B. Candida spp. had a highest sensitivity (118, 82.5%) to Nystatin. For Candida albicans 97(81.5%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole and 99(83.2%) isolates to Nystatin. For Candida glabrata 10 (90.9%) isolates were resistant to Fluconazole, and 9(81.8%) sensitive to Nystatin.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, vulvovaginal candidiasis is prevalent among pregnant women in Ardabil and isolates were significantly resistant against commonly used antifungal drugs. Nystatin was the most effective against Candida spp. As antibiogram for fungal agents is not routinely performed, the similar periodical studies could be useful for choosing appropriate antibiotics in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. 

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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