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Showing 14 results for Arshi

Farhad Salehzadeh , Shahnam Arshi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (Autumn 2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Control of TB is regarded as a health priority program in underdeveloped countries, and Iran in no exception in this regard. Annual risk of infection (ARI) is an important index in this program. This index shows the percentage of people in a society who have been contaminated, and consequently their skin test has changed from negative to positive. In this study, Tuberculin skin test is conducted on Ardabil primary school students and its changes, if any, after one year have been regarded using renewed skin test in order to show ARI in this age group.

 Methods: 780 students were selected from among 17 primary schools using simple random sampling method. They were 8-14 years old, (mean 9.92). Tuberculin skin test was performed on all subjects two times with a one- year interval (May 1998-1999). The test results were recorded and analyzed. In this study PPD over 10 mm was considered positive.

 Results: In 55 (7.1%) students the test was positive in both tests, and in 33 (4.2%) students, PPD changed from negative (first time) to positive (second time) and in 78 subjects the results were doubtful. 765 students (98.1%) had history of BCG vaccination.

 Conclusions: This study indicated that, firstly, over the time, BCG has little effect on Tuberculin skin test, and secondly, the high rate of tuberculin skin test changes from negative (first time) to positive (second time) represents probability of severe contamination in this area.


Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Mahdi Mohebali , Seyedhashem Sezavar, Arman Javanrozegar , Darioush Emdadi , Vahid Sepehram , Nayereh Aminisani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (Autumn 2002)
Abstract

 Backgrond & Objective: In recent years, malaria has been a serious problem in Parsabad (a north-western town in Iran). A lot of health-care funding has been allocated to malaria campaign program in this area. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical epidemiology of malaria during 1999-2000.

 Methods: The data collected through epidemiology forms filled for 509 malaria positive cases during 1999- 2000 was analyzed by EPI2000 software. Frequency tables, X2 test and one way ANOVA were used in this analysis.

 Results: All 509 Malaria cases diagnosed were P vivax. They belonged to the first seven-month of the year. 69.4% of malaria cases were related to the year 2000 and the others were related to 1999. The most frequent symptoms were chills in 488 cases (95.9%) and fever in 481 of them (94.5%). Sweating was found only in 3.9% of the reported cases. Mean age and standard deviation of patients was 22.9 + 15.6. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the distribution of fever and chills.

 Conclusions: The high prevalence of fever and chills was compatible with the findings of previous studies. If one of the two symptoms is positive in the residents of this area or those people traveling there, malaria should be suspected.


Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Vahid Sepehram, Behrokh Mahmoodzadeh , Akbar Mortezazadeh , Masoud Shabani ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: The prevalence of pediculosis in communities is one of the criteria for individual hygiene and one of the important diseases among students. Pediculosis capitis is very important in boarding schools. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and relative factors among boarding school students.

 Methods: This study with a descriptive, analytic and cross - sectional method was performed upon 417 girl students from Ardabil boarding schools who were selected using systematic method. Pediculosis was diagnosed through direct observation by trained general practitioners. The data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed by EPI 2000 and SPSS10.

 Results: 116 students (27.8%) complained about itching of scalp.41.2% of the students never took a shower in school and only 45.2% of them took a bath in school once a week or more. 74.3% of the students said that there was a bathroom in their school and about the accessibility of these bathrooms, 53 students (12.7%) had previous involvement with head lice. 21 cases (5%) had previous treatment of pediculosis capitis. 119 of the students (28.5%) suffered from head lice. There was a significant relationship among suffering from head lice and previous illness and existence of bath in home. No significant relationship was observed among this disease and sharing devices such as comb or head scarf in school or home. Prevalence of the disease among rural students was more common than urban ones.

 Conclusions: some boarding school in Ardabil did not have enough hygienic facilities and the students of these schools were mostly from rural areas.


Homayoun Sadeghi , Nayereh Aminisani , Shahnam Arshi, Seyedhashem Sezavar ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (Autumn 2003)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: World health organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the reproduction health, which plays a crucial role in women health care and its promotion. The purpose of this study is to determine reproductive factors among Ashayer women in Ardabil province.

 Methods: Part of the plan entitled Investigating health and disease among Ashayer in Ardabil which was conducted in 2003 aimed at determining the reproduction indices using a structured questionnaire. The present research was a cross-sectional study in which the data regarding the reproductive status of the Ashayer women were extracted, collected and analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics.

 Results: 268 women at the age of 10-49 completed the questionnaire. Mean age of marriage among women was 18.2, 8.6% of them had a history of stillbirth, 18.1% abortion and 38.19% unwanted pregnancy. 31.4% of the subjects did not have any reproductive health care, and 67.6% of those who did so were taken care less than four times.

 Conclusion: Improvement of reproductive indices among these women requires proper health care programs in order to enhance family planning services as well as reproductive health. This can prevent future outcomes such as unwanted pregnancy and other related complications.


Ali Majidpour , Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Seyedmorteza Shamshirgaran , Shahin Habibzadeh ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)
Abstract

 Background& Objective: Animal bites are considered to be an important threat to human health. Ardabil province in north-western Iran has the highest incidence rate of animal bites in Iran. This study was an attempt to investigate the epidemiological features of animal bites in Ardabil province during a one-year period from April 1999 to April 2000.

 Methods: In this descriptive study a special questionnaire was filled for all cases of animal bites reported during a one year period in Ardabil province. The questionnaire included questions regarding rabies, age, sex, job, etc. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (release 9). Descriptive statistics was used in the form of frequency tables and graph in order to summarize the data.

 Results: The total number of exposed persons to animal bites were 4331. Males comprised 75% of cases (3259) and 1072 persons (25%) were females. The highest incidence rate was seen among 30-50 year-olds. Animal bites were more common in summer. In 3078 cases (17%), legs were the main site of bite. Dog bite was the most common type (95%).

 Conclusions: This study confirms that animal bite such as dog bite is an important public health problem in Ardabil province. Regarding the importance of this issue it is necessary to take serious measures in order to control and prevent this health thereat.


Shahnam Arshi , Ali Majidpoor , Homayoun Sadeghi , Seyedhashem Sezavar , Reza Gasemi Bargi , Darioush Emdadi , Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Parvaneh Naftchi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2004)
Abstract

 Background & Objective: Ardabil province is the main area of Iran affected by relapsing fever (RF) for which Borrelia Persica is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease, and the frequency of infection among ticks in this region in order to take necessary measures to decrease it is incidence and increase awareness about the characteristics of this disease.

 Method: In this study a total of 391 patients who were diagnosed to have been effected by tick borne relapsing fever were investigatated in terms of clinical epidemiology between 1998 and 2001. The kind of Borrelia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease were observed. The kind and prevalence of Borrelia infection was determined in 1,421 ticks collected from 130 indoor and 14 outdoor sites. The ticks were crushed and the suspension obtained was injected into the peritoneum of two mice and two guinea pigs to determine the frequency of infection among the ticks living in this region. Data including the tick species determination were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using Chi-square and ANOVA tests.

 Results: The most prevalent clinical manifestations were fever, chills and headache. Other findings included nausea, vomiting, sweating, abdominal pain, arthralgia, cough, photophobia, eosinophilia, hematuria, jaundice, petechiae and sclera congestion. Laboratory tests performed on 60 patients showed leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anemia. Of the 1,421 ticks collected, 45.9%, 40.3% and 13.8% were infected by Ornithodoros lahorensis Ornithodoros tholozani and Argas persicus species, respectively. The prevalence of ticks was highest in Khanadabil village. The ticks collected from three villages were found to be infected with Borrelia.

 Conclusions: The clinical manifestations were similar to those reported in other studies. Petechiae occurred less frequently in our study compared to louse-borne RF. The high frequency of anemia in this region, which was not stated in other reference articles, requires further investigation.


Shahram Habibzadeh, Shahnam Arshi, Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Moharram Yusefisadat , Moharram Alimorad, Hosein Sadeghi , Hamid Jafarzadeh, Jafar Bashiri, Saeeid Sadeghiehahari , Firooz Amani, Roghaie Tafarrogi , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: In modern civilization, community participation is considered to be the most important way of development in different parts of the society. Establishing social development and health promotion centers (SDHPC) is the first step which is taken in this regard. In these centers, social development is implemented along with health promotion. During some planned activities people practice participation and having sense of responsibility while they move towards development and health. They understand that the key for solving majority of health problems are in their own hands.

  Methods: In the framework of an action research, interventions based on dynamic, reevaluation activities, were done in two parts: Formation of activity committees and establishment of population laboratory. SDPHC set its programs based on a planned approach to community health and community mobilization was the first practical action in this plan.

  Aiming at presentation and evaluation of community mobilization model, different activities consisting of mobilization of heath volunteers, raising participation of regional stake holders, recognizing social literature to ensure effective and pervasive communication with people, propagation and call for participation along with general enumeration of society was done to find authoritative people.

  Results: Health volunteers helped to recognize 60 key persons. 53 of them accepted participation. Objectives of the center were explained to them in three meetings, and their opinions were collected. A study of community literature showed that this region had a moderate to high cultural behaviors, and moderate to low income level and education with suitable interest in participation. The Evaluation of provincial broadcasting organization, municipality and other organizations was not desirable except for education organization. Publishing a newsletter was not welcomed by people but it created a bright perspective among governmental authorities. 287 persons accepted invitations voluntarily and took membership. After regional census, it was found that 4355 households with a total population of 19652 were living in this region 9305 (48%) of whom were females. Mean age of population was 26 and mean household dimension was 4.5. 8352 persons (42%) were married. Majority of women were house wives and majority of men had self managed job.

  Conclusion : The process of community mobilization in this project was evaluated to be successful but for establishment and continuation of activities in SDHPC most of the organizations and different groups of people should be encouraged to participate.


Homayoun Sadegi Bazargani , Shahnam Arshi, Ali Akbar Mortazazadeh, Jafar Bashiri , Naiere Aminisani, Saied Hashem Sezavar , Hasan Adalatkhah , Shahram Seifnejad, Ali Ruhi, Hale Shahlazadeh ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Summer 2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives : Providing health services for all population subgroups of a community is a major hallmark for health administration. Little is known about health status of Ashayer population in Iran. This study aims at evaluating health status and quality of health service delivery to them.

 Methods: In a cross-sectional research 320 households (1800 persons), entered the study. Moreover, blood samples from 458 dogs were taken and studied with both Direct Aglutination Test (DAT) and a newly presented dipstick test . All children under 12 were also studied with DAT. In computing the sample size the generalizability for 63 variables with a minimum and maximum probability level of 90% and 97% respectively were taken into account and since the cluster sampling was employed, the Design Effect would be at least 1.56 and for different variables in the first sample it would be at most 4.

 Results: Only 30 households(9.7%) used piped water supply inside their houses while most of the other families (41%) obtained their water from mobile water tanks. Residual water chlorine was measured to be zero in 88.7% of the samples taken from drinking water of Ashayer. 89 (27.8%) households had lavatories and 22 (7%) households had bathrooms inside their houses. 90.4% of those using raw vegetables washed them only with plain water. Monthly incidence rate for accidents was 230 per 10000. 18.1% of women in reproductive age had a history of abortion. Unwanted pregnancy rate was 38.9%. 47.1% of women with a labor history in past three years had never been visited by any person legally allowed to do so. Women in reproductive age had a poor knowledge about contraceptive methods. The minimum delay for vaccination was 16.9 (SD= 19.26) days regarding the third dose of OPV and the highest delay in vaccination was 46.44 (SD=60.7) days belonging to the third dose of HBV. From all 503 persons above 12 years old, 77 cases had hypertension. Periodontal easy bleeding was observed in 13.7 % and pyorrhea in 19.3%. 10.2 % had aching neck, 18.7% had backache and arthralgia was shown in 13.5%. The unmet need for physician's visit was 64.8%. The frequency of positive cases of leshmaniasis was 3.4% and 3.06% for boys and girls respectively. 28 male and 6 female dogs were positive in DAT test making an overall positive rate of 7.4%. Sensitivity of dipstick test was higher than 80 percent only when golden standard was considered to be DAT ≥ 1 /640.

  Conclusion: Many of the health indices of Ashayer except for vaccination were suitable. This requires further attemps on the part of govermental and health outhorities. Kale-azar disease can spread to the north of the province as well as the neighboring provinces due to the migration of these tribes. It is predicted that Bilesavar and Parsabad cities will be added to the andemic regions of this disease in coming years. Using dipstick test recently offered by WHO is recommended to be used to screen the infected dogs.


Shahnam Arshi , Homayoun Sadeghi , Shahram Seifnejad , Parviz Salemsafi, Mehrdad Biria ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Summer 2005)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: The unsatisfied demands of employees can present itself in different forms such as lower output, efficacy, effectiveness and aborted objectives of the organization. Periodic evaluation and investigation of the demands of staff can increase satisfaction and motivation among them.

 Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study stratified systematic sampling was used for selecting the employees both with and without academic education. The total sample size was 615. The data were collected by means of a two-section questionnaire and analyzed by EPI Info 2002 and SPSS (ver.11) statistical packages.

 Results: 23.2% the staff members were not satisfied with their job. 26.9% of those bearing an academic cerrtificate were not happy with their field of study. 63% of the personnel were not satisfied with the health authorities’ attitude towards their welfare state. There was a 51% dissatisfaction regarding the concern about the issues related to the staff. There was also a 44.2% of dissatisfaction among the staff members about the performance of the related deputies. 35.9% of the personnel were not satisfied with their manager about paying attention to their problems. The staff requirements were graded as follows: self-actualization, respectability, social belonging, security and physiologic needs. There was a reverse relation between the personnel satisfaction and level of management. The findings indicated that the staff were more satisfied with their direct manager (64%) compared with university administrations (49%). There was a significant relation between the personnel satisfaction and their level of education (p<0.05). The relation between satisfaction with organization performance and sex was not statistically significant. The findings indicated a significant relation between type of education and different levels of personnel’s needs. The relationship between satisfaction and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was investigated using Chi-square test, which indicated a statistically significant relationship only between group D needs and job satisfaction (p<0.05).

 Conclusion: Staff satisfaction with university administrations of Ardabil university of medical sciences and health services was low. Moreover, the self-actualization and self-esteem needs were of high priority among the employees.


Shahnam Arshi, Seid Reza Majdzadeh, Homauoon Sadegi, Seid Hadi Sezavar, Zahra Tahmacian, Looeiz Amanati , Ali Ruhi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Regarding the recent implementation of new information system in medical universities, it seems quite necessary to perform an evaluation study on its effectiveness as well as on the functioning of health care systems regarding the different parts of this system. The aim of this study was to investigate skills of family health personnel in health centers of Ardabil province on correctly completing two common data forms called family planning form and maternity care data form. This can be a reasonable criterion for how well the new system is working in the field of family health.

  Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study. All family health care personnel from Ardabil province heal care centers were entered into the study. They were asked to enter data related to 10 case presentations into blank forms. After filling out the forms they were checked and evaluated for correctness and final scores were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results : From all the data collected from 9 cities of the province, 38.5% lacked an academic education and 52% were graduated in midwifery. Mean personnel skill was 4.38 out of 10 and only 11.7% had acceptable skills in filling out the forms. Those with academic education outperformed the non-academic ones. Discrepancies regarding the correct ways of filling the forms, were observed among different cities’ health care centers.

  Conclusion: The findings indicated family health personnel were not skillful enough in completing the data forms. This led to their weak and non-dependable statistic which in turn would waste budget and energy. Moreover, the validity of the collected data would be under question. So the form 108 is very complicated and needs revision.


Mehrdad Biriya, Shahnam Arshi, Homayoun Sadeghi, Niloofar Malekpoor,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (Spring 2008)
Abstract

Background & Objective: one of the most important challenges during the recent century will be to decrease the global burden of accidents. In Iran although respiratory infections and diarrhea were major reasons of mortality rates, Accidents have come to be one of the main causes of child mortality. In rural areas of ardebil province burns constituted 75% of home
injuries in preschool aged children.
Methods: The study was conducted as a case-control study which included rural children of Ardabil under 6. Number of cases were 145 & controls were 289. Data analysis was done using SPSS 11 ver.
Results: 6.8% of case group mothers and 12% of control group mothers had academic education. Difference of mean for sill of kitchen and the ratio of sill of kitchen on sill of house and also difference of mean for sill of house per person were not statistically significant between case and control groups. No statistically significant difference was found in fuel type used cooking or heating between case and control group. No statistically significant
difference was found in heating device between Them. only in one third of houses in both groups separate place was available for cooking purpose and cooking was done in rooms.
Child presence in kitchen while cooking was 76.7% in case and 70.9% in control group. Child access to flamers like lighters and matches was 80% in case compared to 69% in control group. The difference was shown to be statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was found in using Valor's and picnic gas for cooking between case and control group.
Conclusion:chance of burn injury in preschool aged children in those houses that keepmatches and the lighters out of children reach was 1.8 times lower.
Saeid Sadeghie Ahari , Solmaz Arshi , Manoochehr Iranparvar , Firouz Amani, Hosein Siahpoosh,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (Winter 2008)
Abstract

 Background & Objectives: The prevalence of diabetes and its different methods of treatment have significantly been increased in the last two decades. The actual effect of these treatments is a common topic in the patients’ health and quality of life among these patients has a considerable importance in the community medicine. This study was designed to indicate the quality of life in the diabetic type II patients.

  Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive analytic study in 2004 on 110 type 2 diabetic patients who had referred to Bu Ali Hospital in Ardabil. The patients were randomly selected and took the SF-36 Questionnaire and in the end the data were analyzed by SPSS.

  Results: The average age of the patients was 52.5 with the standard deviation of 11.3 years. 73 of the patients were female (66.4%) and rest of them were male. The average period of sickness among diabetics was 8 years from the time of diagnosis with a standard deviation of 6.2 years. The average of duration of therapy was 7.7 years with 6.1 years standard deviation. 51 patients (46.36%) had the history of hospitalization. Vitality indicator was low in 39.1% of patients. Social functioning was low in 50% of patients. In general, by adding up the quality of life’s various indexes scores based on SF-36 questionnaires standard coefficients, 77% of patients had intermediate and low quality of life.

  Conclusion: According to this study most of the patients in this study had a low quality of life.


Mahin Jamshidi Makiani, Seiyed Abdollah Moosavi, FArshid Abedi, Shafei Rahimi, Elham Goodarzi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (spring 2010)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives : One of the first steps in diagnosis of pleural effusion is distinction between exudative and transudative types. The aim of this study was to assess C – reactive protein (CRP) level as one of the diagnostic marker for differentiation of exudative from transudative pleural effusions.

  Methods : In this descriptive and sectional study, 80 patients with confirmed pleural effusion were assessed. These patients were divided into two groups based on Light´s criteria. Serum and pleural CRP were measured with Latex Agglutination Test.

  Results : Out of 80 patients with pleural effusion 26 were transudative (32.5%) and 54 were exudative (67.5%). In exudative group, 72.2% of cases were CRP positive (1+ to 3+), and in transudative group, only 38.5% of cases were CRP positive (p < 0.05). There was no significant differences between different exudative pleural effusion etiologies (infectious and non infectious, malignant and non malignant and tuberculosis) and the number of CRP positive cases (p > 0.05). The rate of CRP positivity in exudative pleural effusion group was more than transudative group (p < 0.05).

  Conclusion: According to our study it seems that CRP criterion could help in distinction between exudative and transudative types of pleural effusion.


FArshid Kafilzadeh , Faranak Dehdari , Najmeh Namdar ,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (spring 2013)
Abstract

  Background & Objectives: Recent studies have shown that aquatic actinomycetes can be a source of new biological products such as antibiotics and i n dustrial products. This study was designed to examine the aquatic actinomycetes isolated from mangrove forests in South of Iran and their antibacterial activities against some human pathogens.

  Methods: In this study 115 samples were randomly taken from different places of a mangrove forests in South of Iran. Isolation was based on serial dilution of the samples and plating them on starch casein agar medium. Agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assays were used to examine the antibacterial activity of the isolated purified aquatic actinomycetes.

  Results: The aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 83 samples (70%). Of them, 66 (80 percent) showed antibacterial activity and 17 (20%) could not inhibit the human pathogenic bacteria. The diameter of the inhibitory zones (ZOI) ranged from 4 to 11 mm and the biggest zone belonged to B acillus cereus (p≤0.05).

  Conclusion: The findings showed that the various and useful aquatic actinomycetes for production of new antibiotic compounds are isolated easily from the mangrove forests in South of Iran. Considering the vast spreading of mangrove forests in South of Iran and the economic and simplicity of isolation of actinomycetes for industrial usage, these source can be an important and new place for research and industry.



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