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Showing 69 results for Amani

Firooz Amani , Saeid Sadeghieh , Ahad Azami , Habib Ojaghi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2002)

 Background & Objective: In order to avoid amblyopia, the welfare organization of Iran performs a special program every year. Since there was no research regarding the mistake rates made by the educators, this study was conducted to determine the probable differences between educators and optometrists in terms of their mistakes in examining amblyopia. The study aimed also at decreasing the amount of this difference and programming for the better performance of amblyopia examination in the future.

 Methods: This study was performed on 260 children in 22 nursery schools of Ardabil using systematic sampling method. These children were first examined by the educators and after some time they were examined for a second time by optometrists using retinoscopy and the fingertip. The data was collected using a questionnaire filled out by both the educators and the optometrists. This data was then analyzed by X2 tests and ANOVA using SPSS program.

 Results: 51.2% of the subjects were male and the rest of them (48.8%) were female. 63.5% of the nursery schools (day- care centers) were private and the others were run by the ministry of education. 13.8% of the subjects used eye glasses and 8.1% were under the control of a physician. 36.4% of the centers did not observe the standard interval. 18.8% of the educators were not skillful enough. 17.7% of the children suffered from astigmatism and 5.3% of them had a weak eyesight. Because of these factors, there was a 17.7% difference between the examination of educators and that of the optometrists.

 Conclusions: It seems necessary for the authorities to have better and more careful programs in the future for examining amblyopia.

Yousef Hamidzadeh Arbaby , Firooz Amani, Abdollah Mahdavi , Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (spring 2003)

 Background & Objective: Poster is a non-projector, visual, graphic and printed medium that is applied in various cases specially in health education. On the other hand, one of the health education experts task is evaluation of educational methods and media. Since few studies were performed on effectiveness of posters on knowledge of people, this study was designed to determine the percentage of people who looked at the posters in health centers and also to determine the level of knowledge attained from these posters located in different places of health centers.

 Methods: This was a semi-experimental study. The population was people who referred to Shahid Gannadi health center. Samples were selected by simple random method. The data were collected by a questionnaire. The posters were fixed in three places during three different stages and the collected data were analyzed.

 Results: The findings showed that from among these subjects, 18.8% in the first stage, 20.8% in the second stage and 61.2% in third stage observed the fixed posters. The probability of the poster to be seen near the doorway and examination room was equal (Odds Ratio=0.9) whereas the probability of the same posters to be seen in waiting hall was 7 times as much as the previously mentioned locations. The ANOVA indicated no significant difference between demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, ets) of study subjects and their knowledge scores.

 Conclusions: The study showed that People paid very little attention to fixed poster. Therefore, regarding the role of posters in increasing the knowledge level, several strategies should be employed to make people pay more attention to these posters. Following the accepted standards in preparation and fixation of posters and preparation of three dimensional boards for the posters in health care centers are suggested.

Manoochehr Iranparvar, Abbas Yazdanbod , Firooz Amani, Shabnam Sohrabi ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (Autumn 2003)

  Background & Objective : Palpable thyroid nodules are found in almost 5% of the adults. Regarding the high prevalence of this condition, recognizing and evaluating them are important for physicians. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is the first easy and cost-effective way for recognizing pathologic nature of the nods. The present research was an attempt to investigate the epidemiology and evaluate the pathological findings among patients using FNA.

  Methods : This is a descriptive study conducted on all 145(113 female and 32 male) patients referring to the endocrinology clinic of Ardabil in the period between October 1999 to October 2002. The data were collected using a questionnaire, the physical examination of the patients, noting down the clinical finding, doing FNA and its report presented by a pathologist. The data were then analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency tables using SPSS software.

  Results : Most of the patients (36.5%) were 30-40 years old. FNA of 115 patients (79.4%) was reported as benign and that of 6 patients (4.1%) was malignant, 16 patients (11%) had a doubtful FNA, and in 8 patients (5.5%) the sample was not enough. Among patients with benign FNA, 102 cases (70.6%) had nodular goiter, 8 cases (5.5%) had colloid cyst, 3 cases (2%) had follicular adenoma and 2 cases (1.3%) had thyroiditis. Among patients with malignant FNA 1 case (0.7%) had follicular carcinoma and 5 cases (3.4%) had papillary carcinoma.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that most of the malignant lesion is papillary carcinoma, which has a lower prevalence compared to similar studies. Regarding the higher prevalence of thyroid carcinoma in middle ages it seems necessary to investigate the thyroid nodules in this age- group.

Mohammadreza Ghodraty , Ghodrat Akhavan Akbari , Firooz Amani , Shahnaz Rahimi , Nasrin Shahab ,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (Autumn 2003)

  Background & Objective : Regional anesthesia is a method of choice in cesarean section. But in emergency cesarean sections general anesthesia is usually preferred. On the other hand, intravenous sedative drugs used in general anesthesia induction rapidly crosses the placenta and result in fetal depression. Because of higher prevalence of general anesthesia in Iran it is reasonable to conduct more researches in this field. This study set out to compare the effects of Propofol and Thiopental-Na as induction agents on the neonatal Apgar score and maternal hemodynamic status.

  Methods: In this double blind clinical trial 60 pregnant women with ASA class I & II were studied. In a random way 30 patients received 2mg/kg Propofol and the rest of them were given 4mg/kg of Thiopental-Na. All these subjects had full term and normal fetus. Pre and post-induction status of the patients was monitored noninvasively after tracheal intubations and during 12 minutes after that. Also time intervals between induction and birth (cord clipping) and between uterus incision and birth were measured. Apgar score of neonates was evaluated through clinical examination in 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th minutes after birth. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test, chi-square and ANOVA.

 Results: Apgar score in different times (1.5,10&15 minute) had no significant difference between two groups. (In the 1st minute Propofol was 7.1 ± 2.2 and Thiopental was 74 ± 1.8, in the 5th minute Propofol was 9.2 ± 0.7 and Thiopental was 9.1 ± 0.9) Maximum variation of heart rate and blood pressure in two groups were not significantly different. The time intervals between induction and birth (less than 8 minutes) on the one hand and uterus incision and birth(less than 130 seconds) on the other were similar in two groups.

  Conclusions : Thiopental-Na and Propofol can be used with similar results for induction of general anesthesia in cesarean section.

Ahad Azami , Saeid Sadeghieh, Habib Ojaghi , Firooz Amani , Manoochehr Barak ,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (Winter 2003)

 Background & Objective: The nationwide amblyopia prevention program is performed by prevention deputy of welfare organization every year. In this analytic report practical results of screening program in 1998-2001 were presented and compared with similar findings in other countries. The results were also compared with the findings of previous similar researches in Iran.

  Methods : The amblyopia screening program was performed on all 3-65 year-old children in day-care centers as well as those referring to the visual acuity measuring centers. The first examination was accomplished by trainers. In the second step doubtful cases were referred to optometrist by trainers and amblyopia was diagnosed by an optometrist and confirmed by an eye specialist after excluding organic causes.

 Results: 608 out of 8427(7.21%) children examined by trainers in 2001 were referred to an optometrist because of suspected visual disorders. The prevalence of amblyopia in different cities of Ardabil province was 2%-15%. The figures in 2000-2001 were 10% (Rangs=1%-13%), respectively. In 1998 it was 11% (Range =5%-13%). In the second phase of amblyopia plan the prevalence of visual problems was estimated about 21%, 45%, 47%, and 74% in 1998-2001, respectively. In the third phase of the plan the amblyopia prevalence for children examined by eye-specialist in 1999-2001 were 1.6%, 1.41% and 1.25% respectively.

 Conclusions: In this research the prevalence of amblyopia was found to be 1.42% which has a conformity with the findings of other countries. Moreover, the higher variation in the estimation of the prevalence of visual disorders in this province requires further comparative researches.

Firooz Amani , Bahram Sohrabi , Saeid Sadeghieh , Mehrnaz Mashoufi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2004)

  Background & Objective :Depression is one of the most common disorders which can affect every individual. However some individuals (including the students of medical sciences) who are involved in health issues are more vulnerable in this regard. The early diagnosis of this disorder among the students can lead to primary prevention and avoid any further progression and deteriration. This in turn can result in mental health among these students as well as the society. The present study set out to investigate the rate of depression among the students of Ardabil university of medical sciences.

  Methods : This research is an analytic-descriptive study conducted on 324 students from Ardabil University of Medical Scinces. A questionnaire including two sections was used to collect the data. The first section was about the demographic information and the second section included questions about depression based on Beck depression test. The data were analyzed by SPSS soft waire using descriptive and analytical statistics.

  Results : The results showed that 57.4% of total subjects (186 students) suffered from various degrees of depression. 128 of these students were suffering from clinical depression. The prevalence of depression among midwifery students was 21.4 %. Chi- square test showed a significant relationship among prevalence of depression in these students with their educational semester , the number of their siblings, any kind of major physical disorder in the subject or, a serious psychological problem among their family members , as well as any significant event during the previous year.

  Conclusions : According to obtained results there was a high degree of depression among medical university students and serious measures should be taken in the future in order to prevent this social concern.

Mehrnaz Mashoufi , Firooz Amani , Khalil Rostami , Afrooz Mardi ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2004)

  Background & Objective : Inpatient information is the best source for researches, medical education, process of patient treatment and legal organizations. Moreover, correct, complete and ontime registration of this information can play a crucial role in the production of necessary data for these kinds of researches. Regarding the importance of the issue, in this study we evaluated the quality and quantity of these data in the hospitals under Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.

  Methods : In this research 370 rcords from eight hospitals of Ardabil were studied. In each hospital samples were selected randomly based on the number of patients hospitalized in one year. Then according to admission and discharge sheets a certain check list, was completed. The information under study including demography, admission and discharge, inter-hospital and inter-ward transfer, diagnosis, treatment, surgery, death of the patients and authentications (recorded or not) were identified in the check list. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

  Results : The results showed that sex, marital status, date and place of birth had not been recorded in 5.9%, 15.7%, 2.4%, 51.6% of records respectively. Primary, interim and final diagnosis and treatment measures were not recorded about 28.1%, 41.1%, 39.2% 48% of the patients respectively. Although 13% of these patients were hospitalized due to accidents, impairments and poisoning, only in 8.5% of them the external causes were recorded. At 68.6% of the records, condition on discharge and at 76.3% of them recommendation on discharge had not been recorded. 3.5% of records related to dead patients, but only in 31%, main cause and in 8% underlying couse of death was record. 25% of the studied records were not coded. 13.7% of existing codes did not match the final diagnosis .At 52.4% of these records the correct method of writing diagnosis was not observed by physicians and at 36.5% coding had not been done carefully.

  Conclusions : The results indicated that the process of medical recording by health care services was performed deficiently and this leads to the loss of valuable information about the hospitalized patients. As a result, the authorities, physicians and specialists in medical recording should pay special attention to this problem. Physicians and specialitists of medical record to this problem were necessary.

Masoumeh Rostamnegad, Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)

 Background & Objectives: Mother ’ s milk is the best food for the newborns and has positive effects on both mother and infant health, decreasing infant mortality, satisfying emotional needs of mother and infant and economizing the domestic as well as social expenditures. Unfortunately, because of different economical, social and cultural reasons in many parts of the world breast feeding and its length of time has decreased. WHO emphasizes breast feeding in the first six months of life in developing countries. This study is an attempt to determine the causes of unsuccessful breast feeding in the first six months after birth in Ardabil.

  Methods : This descriptive analyticalstudy was conducted on 160 mothers who had 2- month- old or younger infants and did not have exclusive breast feeding until the end of 6 months. The researchers referred to 4 health centers, selected based on cluster sampling, in order to select the qualified mothers and complete the questionnaires in their presence.

 Results: Most of the mothers (37.5%) have begun feedings supplementary nutrition to their infants at the age of 2-4 months. The most common (90.5%) cause for the lack of the exclusive breast feeding was found to be insufficiency of mother milk.Most of the mothers (67%) stated the infant cry as the main reason for this insufficiency. There is a significant relationship between exclusive breast feeding on the one hand and the delivery, time of first feeding, occupation and mother ’ s education on the other (p<0.05).

  Conclusion : Social and economic conditions and misbeliefs have all affected the success of exclusive breast feeding. Most of these problems can be prevented through proper trainings.

Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari , Ahad Azami , Manoocher Barak, Firooz Amani , Seddigh ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)

  Background and objectives: Establishing centers to stop addiction in our country is one of the measures taken to confront this problem. Unfortunately, it has been shown that about 80% of the addicted people who refer to these centers relapse. The present study set out to investigate the possible causes of this problem.

  Methods: This is a case control study in which a questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The subjects were all addicted people who referred to Shahid Mellat Doust and Shahid Family treatment centers in 2000. The criterions for entering the study in case group were the last record of the addicted person ’ s abandonment in Tehran ’ s welfare center ( based on the patients ’ records) and using narcotics at the present time. The control group subjects, on the other hand, had abandoned using narcotics at least four months before and had never used any substance so far.

  Results: The mean age for case group was 35.99 and that of the control group was 35.09. Regarding the age distribution 98.59% of the case group and 100% of the control group were men. 88.7% of the case group and 97.2% of the control group were urban residents. Considering the job, 40.8% of the case group and 19.4% of the control group were unemployed. 52.1% of the case group and 61.6% of control group were living with their spouses. Opium was the most commoly used narcotics in both groups. In studying the relationship between the variables under study through logistic regression the job was not a main factor in the relapse. The duration of time being away from addiction had a deductive effect on the relapse, and this effect was statistically meaningful (p=0.001). Adding one month ’ s time to the period of being clear (not using the narcotics) caused 98% deduction in returning to narcotics.

  Conclusion: Because 80% of the patients who referred to the related centers began using narcotics again during the first 6 months after abandoning, it is necessary to improve the preventive measures to help the patients pass this critical period.

Mohammadhosein Dehghan , Bahareh Rajaee Far , Farnaz Ehdaivand , Firooz Amani ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (Autumn 2004)

  Background & Objectives: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active researches over the past many years, the etiology of this disorder in human pregnancy is an enigma. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C can scavenge free radicals inducing cellular damage. The present study was designed to investigate the plasma levels of vitamin C in patients with preeclampsia (case) and normotensive pregnant women (control).

  Methods: In this case-control study vitamin C as an antioxidant was estimated and compared spectrophotometrically in 40 preeclamptic and 80 normotensive pregnant women referring to Alavi Hospital of Ardabil province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The plasma levels of vitamin C were significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia (0.147 ± 0.030 mg/dl) compared to controls who were normotensive pregnants (0.347 ± 0.119 mg/dl).

  Conclusion: Attempts at prevent preeclamsia are justified but since no reliable screening test has been offered as yet for women at risk, assessment of plasma level of vitamin C in patients prone to preeclampsia is strongly suggested.

Manoogehr Barak , Firooz Amani, Mehrdad Mirza Rahimi , Nateg Abbasgholizadeh, Ali Reza Hamid Kholgh ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)

 Background & Objectives: Neglecting children can have irremediable and harmful effects on them concerning their growth, evolution, acquisition, and health both at present and in the future. Since lack of nutrition knowledge and failing to observe the principles of infant nutrition is one of the important causes of malnutrition and its unpleasant consequences, we decided to carry out an assessment concerning mothers’ level of awareness about infant nutrition and the factors affecting this knowledge, as well as the effect of this knowledge on growth and development of children.

 Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted to evaluate mothers’ knowledge of infant and neonatal nutrition and its effect on infant growth in Hir health center. The data were collected using a questionnaire, including 20 questions, which was filled out in the health center. Moreover weight, height and head circumference of 100 infants were measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

 Results: All mothers’ age ranged between15-36 and were housewives.15% were unlettered, 18% had high school education and others primary or secondary school education. 55% of children were female and 45% male. 67% of mothers had knowledge about proper neonatal and infant nutrition. 97% of them had little knowledge about when to start introducing different nutrients for infants, 3% had moderate knowledge in this regard.

 Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study and the lower knowledge level of mothers about when to start giving different food to infants as well as the importance of proper nutrition in their growth, it is necessary to improve mothers’ knowledge and promote children’s health.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Shahnam Arshi, Nategh Abbasgholizadeh , Moharram Yusefisadat , Moharram Alimorad, Hosein Sadeghi , Hamid Jafarzadeh, Jafar Bashiri, Saeeid Sadeghiehahari , Firooz Amani, Roghaie Tafarrogi , Naiere Aminisani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)

  Background & Objectives: In modern civilization, community participation is considered to be the most important way of development in different parts of the society. Establishing social development and health promotion centers (SDHPC) is the first step which is taken in this regard. In these centers, social development is implemented along with health promotion. During some planned activities people practice participation and having sense of responsibility while they move towards development and health. They understand that the key for solving majority of health problems are in their own hands.

  Methods: In the framework of an action research, interventions based on dynamic, reevaluation activities, were done in two parts: Formation of activity committees and establishment of population laboratory. SDPHC set its programs based on a planned approach to community health and community mobilization was the first practical action in this plan.

  Aiming at presentation and evaluation of community mobilization model, different activities consisting of mobilization of heath volunteers, raising participation of regional stake holders, recognizing social literature to ensure effective and pervasive communication with people, propagation and call for participation along with general enumeration of society was done to find authoritative people.

  Results: Health volunteers helped to recognize 60 key persons. 53 of them accepted participation. Objectives of the center were explained to them in three meetings, and their opinions were collected. A study of community literature showed that this region had a moderate to high cultural behaviors, and moderate to low income level and education with suitable interest in participation. The Evaluation of provincial broadcasting organization, municipality and other organizations was not desirable except for education organization. Publishing a newsletter was not welcomed by people but it created a bright perspective among governmental authorities. 287 persons accepted invitations voluntarily and took membership. After regional census, it was found that 4355 households with a total population of 19652 were living in this region 9305 (48%) of whom were females. Mean age of population was 26 and mean household dimension was 4.5. 8352 persons (42%) were married. Majority of women were house wives and majority of men had self managed job.

  Conclusion : The process of community mobilization in this project was evaluated to be successful but for establishment and continuation of activities in SDHPC most of the organizations and different groups of people should be encouraged to participate.

Firooz Amani, Saeid Sadegie Ahari , Saedollah Mohammadi, Ahad Azami,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Opium addiction is a major social, psychological and health problem in the world. In past decades addiction to legal and illegal drugs has been widespread and over 1000 kinds of narcotics have been recognized, which are used in different ways including eating, smoking, injection and inhaling. Statistics published by international organizations such as UNDCP, WHO and UNSCO indicated an increasing trend in drug abuse worldwide. The countries are different only in the pattern of drug abuse. This study investigates the pattern of drug abuse in last 5 years in Ardabil.

  Methods : This is a descriptive, analytical and prospective study. To obtain the trend of substance abuse the records of all addicts in 1998 (684 cases) and 2002-2003 (341 cases) were studied. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (rel.11) using descriptive statistics.

  Results: The findings indicated that in the last five years the use of hashish, opium extract and other substances has decreased whereas the trend of heroin and opium use has increased. The use of opium has increased from 48.07% in 1998 to 67.4% in 2002-2003. Also the heroin use has increased from 8.5% in 1998 to 27.5% in 2002-2003. Moreover, the use of hashish, opium extract and other narcotics has decreased. The highest decrease (23.5%) belonged to opium extract and the highest increase (19%) to heroin.

  Conclusion : According to the results we could say that the pattern of substance abuse in Ardabil in the last five years has changed and heroin and opium consumption has increased.

Mohammad Bager Setoude, Firooz Amani, Sahar Farahmand Rad ,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2005)

 Background & Objectives: Hearing disorders are the most common causes of pediatric communicative and functional disorders in the united states which result in communicative and learning disorders, educational failure and vast socio-economic problems. It is estimated that the incidence of hearing loss in pediatric population is 2-4% and otitis media, which is the second infectious cause after the ordinary cold, is the most common cause of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss is categorized into two distinct groups, namely conductive and sensorineural, the former being more common among children. Most of the causes for conductive hearing loss can be diagnosed and treated. Hence, majority of hearing loss cases can be prevented by taking appropriate measures. This study was performed to examine the incidence and common causes of hearing loss among school children in Ardabil.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1999 primary school boys and girls (grades 1-5). The data were collected through a questionnaire in the from of autoscopic examinations and Tuning Fork tests. 654 cases were referred to the audiometric and tympana metrics centers for further examinations as well as filling out the questionnaires. 483 (24.2%) students were definitely suffering from hearing loss. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and SPSS software.

 Results: In this study, the hearing disorders of male students was more than female ones. The most common causes of conductive hearing loss in both sexes and all 5 grades was cerumen (50.3%) and the second cause was otitis media with effusion (34.6%). The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss was 1.86%. Hearing loss disorders in low socioeconomic households is high (44.1%). There was a meaningful relation between hearing loss disorders and positive family history, educational failure, social class and seasons (p=0.001). Hearing loss disorders are high during the cold seasons (73.90%).

 Conclusion:Regarding the high prevalence of hearing loss among school children, more extensive and interventional studies as well as wide ranging screening are required.

Firooz Amani , Manoogehr Barak , Naiere Aminisani, Mohammad Hosein Dehghan ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Providing, maintainance and promotion of neonatal health as a special high-risk group has a special role in heath services. According to statistics, 4 million out of 130 million neonates, born every year, die in the first week of their life. 99% of this mortality takes place in developing countries. 38% of the deaths below the age of 5 belongs to neonatal deaths. To decrease this mortality, some factors such as mother condition (including health care both before and after pregnancy), perinatal factors and life-threatening factors in the first 28 days after birth. This study was performed in hospitals under Ardabil University of Medical Sciences to determine the related factors of neonatal mortality.

  Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 160 neonatals (80 cases of neonatal deaths and 80 live births as controls). The demographic data of two groups were separately analyzed to obtain descriptive results. Also the most common causes of neonatal mortality were obtained through studying cases. Moreover, the parents of live neonates were asked questions to evaluate the effect of social factors. Finally all of these related factors were compared.

  Results: From 160 neonates under study, 71 (44.4%) were female and others were male. Neonatal mortality in males was 1.3 times as much as that in females. 16(12.1%) mothers had history of still birth. 18(11.3%) mothers were illiterate and 27 (16.9%) had college education. 31(19.4%) neonates were under 1500gr, 42 (26.3%) 1500- 2500gr and others above 2500 gr. 37 (46.3%) mothers in case group and 24(30%) in control had no access to transportation facilities. The most common causes for neonatal mortality were prematurity with 44 (55.1%) cases and aspiration, septicemia, asphyxia each one with 4 (2.5%) cases. There were statistically significant relationship between neonatal mortality rate on the one hand and birth weight, access to transportation facilities and mothers, living place (rural or urban) (p=0.023).

  Conclusion: According to the results, factors such as birth weight, access to transportation facilities as well as the mothers’ living location (rural or urban) were determining factors in the neonatal mortality. Some measures seem necessary to by taken in order to decrease the effect of thses factors.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Zahra Tazacori , Firooz Amani , Uoones Sheshgellani, Khadige Khodapanahi ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

  Background & Objectives: Since 1985 because of increasing incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV background, the outbreaks of TB have been reported in different parts of the world. From 1985 to 1991 the incidence of TB increased by 18% in United States and Europe. In Multi Drug Resistant outbreaks of TB in United States 18 to 35% of heath care workers (HCW) who had exposure to TB patients had PPD Converted to positive test (Seroconversion). That is why the risk of TB incidence in health care workers has been put forward again. This study was designed to determine the rate of Buali hospital HCW exposure to mycobacterium tuberculosis.

 Methods: All 96 HCW of Buali hospital took part in this cross-sectional and analytical study. No PPD test was performed for HCW in this hospital in the beginning of their employment. For this reason 30 officers who had not previously worked in hospital wards and 60 medical students who had not started their clinical course were selected to obtain an estimation of PPD test before starting professional nursing.

  Results: Out of 96 subjects, 72 were female and 24 were male. Rate of positive PPD was 50% in general. Data analysis showed that PPD positivity was in direct relationship with number of working years in hospital. In 60 university students whose mean age was 21.6± 0/2.9 PPD positivity rate was 13.3%. I the third group consisting of 30 office workers (mean age=333±6.5) it was 23.3%.

 Conclusion: This study shows that HCW with 50% of PPD positivity are in exceeding probability of mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, which is almost twice as much as the other office workers, possibility of exposure.

Shahram Habibzadeh, Afshin Fathi , Homauoon Sadegi , Firooz Amani, Mahiar Gamari,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)

  Background & Objectives : Sinusitis is inflammation of perinasal sinuses. Gold standard for diagnosis and etiology of bacterial sinusitis is a positive culture of punctured samples in sterile conditions, which is invasive procedure. This study was designed to compare the effects of clarithromycin versus amoxicillin on treatment of acute community acquired bacterial sinusitis in children.

  Methods: This study was conducted as a single-blind clinical trial, with 30 randomly selected patients in each of two groups (case and control). Acute sinusitis was defined as sinusitis not lasting more than 4 weeks. Inclusion criteria were defined as existence of post nasal septic drip or nasal prulent secretions plus at least 3 out of 4 conditions as follows: unilateral local pain on face or head, halitosis, deterioration of symptoms in recent 5 to 7 days and axillary temperature equal to or greater than 38 degrees centigrade. For one group of patients (group A) clarithromycin (KLACID) 15 mg/kg in two divided doses, and for another group (group B) amoxicillin 40 mg/kg in three divided doses, were administered. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (rel 9) using Chi-square and t-test.

  Results: In view of response to treatment, 9 persons in group B (30%) and 26 persons in group A (86%) felt healthy on tenth day of therapy. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001) using Chi-square test. Mean days before patients’ improvement was calculated to be 10 ± 0 (mean ± SD) days for group B and 6±1.9 days for group A. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001).

  Conclusion: Despite relatively small sample size, the difference found between effectiveness of two drugs was significant (p=0.001). Thus clarithromycin can be used as one of the effective drugs in treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis.

Ali Majidpour, Shahram Habibzadeh , Firooz Amani , Fateme Hemmati,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2006)

  Background & Objectives: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with a history of only three decades, has turned into a threatening pandemic disease world wide giving rise to 3.1 million deaths in 2005. Since there is no distinctive treatment or effective vaccine for AIDS, its epidemiology is similar to non-communicable and behavioral diseases. Since accurate knowledge and attitude is necessary for a healthy behavior, we conducted this study on high school students of Ardabil to determine their sources of acquiring information on AIDS as well as to find out their attitude and knowledge about this disease.

  Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 students in Ardabil high schools during the year 2002 using cluster random sampling method. A questionnaire with 4 groups of questions including demographic information, source of information used for AIDS and the amount each source is used as well as attitude and knowledge of the participants regarding AIDS was distributed in the school. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS.

  Results : 378 (47.2%) out of 800 students were girls and the rest of them were boys. The media used for getting informed about AIDS was determined to be: 84.5% TV, 51.4% newspapers and magazines, 49.6% papers and books and 30.6% radio. 89% of the girls and 67% of the boys used TV. The difference was statistically significant(p<0.001). Sources of information in interview form were found to be health care workers with 17.7%, teachers with 10.2%, friends with 9.5%, religious authorities with 8.6%, family members with 8% and other relatives with 5.6%. A combition of the above-mentioned methods plus other souces formed 41.3% of the information source of the students about AIDS. Only 46.3% of the students had a proper insight in their interaction with role-playing patients of AIDS. 44% of the participants had weak and 56% had moderate knowledge about transmission ways of HIV and no one had good knowledge in this regard. There was no significant difference between age, sex and knowledge. The highest percentage of moderate knowledge score was seen in student studying experimental sciences. Only TV had a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001).

  Conclusion: This study entails that more attention must be paid to education through effective use of TV broadcasting. Films, pictures, teachers, clergymen, radio, books and papers had not an effective educational role among high school students regarding AIDS.

Mahdi Farhoudi , Mohammadkazem TarzAmani , Khandan Ghannadi Emami ,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)

  Background & Objectives: Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common disabiling neurologic disorders and the third cause of death in the population over 45 years of age. Most of the strokes in adults are ischemic and almost one-fifth of them are due to intra- or extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, cost-effective and safe technique for evaluation of intra or extracranial vessels that is available in two methods: TCD and carotid Duplex. The present research is an attempt to investigate the appropriatens and comprehensiveness of TCD in diagnosing symptomatic significant carotid stenosis.

  Methods : This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on fifty patients admitted to the neurology ward of Imam Hospital who underwent both carotid duplex and TCD examination. Variables of blood flow velocities, collateral flow evidences and degree of carotid stenosis were assessed with both methods. The data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.11.5) using T.test, Chi-square and Fisher test.

  Results : 34 patieuts were. Male mean age of the patients was 66.70% of the subjects were above 65 and 68% of them had a history of hypertension. No statistically significant difference was seen between systolic and diatolic blood flow velocity in internal carotid artery and pulsatile index obtnined from reported by TCD and carotid Duplex. There was no statistically significant difference between the percentage of stenosis TCD finding of the patients with carotid stenosis showed collateral flow in 78.57% of the cases.

  Conclusion: Acceptable correlation of the flow velocity parameters and the percentage of carotid stenosis between TCD and Carotid Duplex results showed that the primary performance of TCD to diagnose significant carotid stenosis (that causes hemodynamic disorder) and screen ischemic cerebrovascular accident is a reliable and effective method, but for precise determination of stenosis, plaque typing and for diagnosing stenisis below 50% the performance of carotid duplex study is also necessary and to complemantory TCD.

Behnam Mohammadi Ghalehbin, Esmaeil Falah , Mohammad Asghar Zadeg, Abdol Hasan Kazemi, Ahmad Daryani, Firooz Amani, Saeide Amani, Mina Agazade, Rasool Abdollahi, Rouhollah Arab,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Summer 2006)

 Background & Objectives: Cryptosporidium is an intracellular – extracytoplasmic parasite that has taken much attention in last 20 years as a clinically important human pathogen. Cryptosporidial infection can be transmitted from fecally contaminated food or water and from animal-human or human-human contact. In immunocompromised persons, the illness is much more severe such as debilitation, fatigue, cholera-like diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, low-grade fever, severe weight loss and Anorexia. Because there was no regional study about cryptosporidiosis in Ardabil, we carried out this survey to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among the children hospitalized in Ardabil.

 Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was carried out on 371 patients in Sabalab and Aliasghar hospitals of Ardabil between 2004 and 2005. A questionnaire was filled for each patient. Stool samples were examined by concentrated formal - ether method and stained with modified Ziehl-Neelson method. The data were analyzed with SPSS (ver 11) using Chi-square test.

  Results: We analyzed 371 stool samples from children with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected microscopically in 15 samples. Its prevalence was 4.04% in infected patients. 66.7% of the infected ones were at the age of 6 to 24 months, 20% 25-48 months, and 13.3% 49-72 months.

 Condusion: Because cryptosporidiosis was more prevalent at the age of 6-24 months, health education is more necessary for their mothers.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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