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Showing 12 results for Afshar

Afshar Tamook, Nayereh Aminisani , Joubin Mogadam Yeganeh , Afrooz Mardi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (Summer 2003)

  Background & Objective : When a cesarean is necessary, it can be a life-saving technique for both mother and infant. In recent twenty years, the cesarean childbirth rate has increased dramatically. Moreover a cesarean costs nearly twice as much as a vaginal birth. The world Health organization states that a cesarean rate greater than 10-15% cannot be justified. The aim of this study was to determine the cesarean rates and its indications in social security hospital of Ardabil.

 Methods: In this cross-sectional study was conducted all of the deliveries (both cesarean and normal delivery) in Ardabil social security hospital were investigated using a questionnaire including the characteristics of indication. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

  Results : 45.4% of the deliveries were done using cesarean and 54.6% of them with a normal procedure. 55.8% of all the cesareans had an accepted indication. 44.2% of cesareans were controversial or elective, 22.7% were repeated cesarean, 8.4% were breech presentation and 2.3% were golden baby and 10.8% of the cesareans did not have a clear indication.

 Conclusions: The cesarean section rates in this study were higher than world rates. As a result the rising cesarean birth rate must be stopped and reversed with health interventions.

Soheila Rabiey Poor , Shohreh Afshar Yavari ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Summer 2004)

  Background & Objectives : Smoking is one of the major problems in the world today. It threatens people ’ s health. Pregnant women are no exception in this regard. Today, it is found that smoker women bear low birth weight babies, but the studies don ’ t offer clear findings about passive smoking in pregnancy and its effect on weight and height of newborns. This study is an attempt to determine the effects of passive smoking on the weight and height of the newborn babies.

  M ethods : This was a retrospective cohort study. We studied 100 pregnant mothers who were exposed to cigarette smoke and 100 others who were not. A checklist was completed in order to select those who could enter the study. A questionnaire was then filled out for both groups including the information related to the newborns ’ physical specifications.

  Results: This study showed that the average age of the mothers, their education, their husband ’ s education, number of pregnancies and the sex of babies born weren ’ t meaningfully different between the two groups. In the case group the mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2.36 ± 2.28 hours on average and most of them (72%) were exposed to their husbands ’ cigarette smoke. The findings also indicated that difference in weight, height and head circumference among two groups ’ newborns were 11 grams, 0.15 cm and 0.02 cm respectively. The T-test indicated no significant difference between the two groups.

  Conclusion: The study showed that the newborns ’ of mothers exposed to the smoke had lower weigh, height and head circumference than the babies ’ of the control group subjects although the difference was not statistically significant.

Kaviean Ghandhary, Mohammad Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring 2005)

 Background & Objectives: Demographic and environmental factors are effective in the pathogenesis and prevention of Parkinson Disease (PD). Sex, family history of PD, farming, literacy, history of head trauma, smoking, well water consumption, overusing oil seeds and contact with herbicides and pesticides are apparently effective in this regard. This study set out to investigate the risk factors of PD.

 Methods: 100 patients with PD and 200 age matched controls refering to Neurology clinic of Birjand UMS were investigated in this case-control study during 2002-2003. PD was diagnosed by a neurologist and the demographic and environmental factors were recorded in a questionnaire. Student T and Chi-Squire tests were used for statistical analysis.

 Results: 68% of the cases and 53% of the controls were male. Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption were significantly more frequent in PD group(p<0.05). Smoking and overusing oil seeds were more frequent in control group (p=0.007, p=0.001 respectively). Frequency rate of contact with herbicides, pesticides and history of head trauma were not significantly different in case and control groups. Conclusion: Family history of PD, farming, literacy, stress and well-water consumption are risk factors of PD, while smoking and using oil seeds could be protective factors against PD.

Afshar Tamook, Farhad Salehzadeh, Naiere Aminisani , Goubin Moghaddam Yeganeh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

 Background & Objectives: The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia disease is noticeable. Studying neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its related factors is a step to reduce its incidence and remarkable treatment expenses. On the other hand, due to lack of on time recognition and suitable treatments, this disease can cause irreversible neuro-cerebral complications. This study was conducted to examine the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and its associated signs, in order to provide on time and suitable treatment measures.

 Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2003 on neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Ardabil Sabalan hospital. The data obtained from their conditions, clinical examination, and measurment of total and direct bilirubine was used to fill out a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (release 10).

 Results: From among 132 neonates affected by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, 50% were male and others were female. 85.6% of these subjects were fullterm births and the rest were premature. 56% of these neonates were born by C/S. 6.8% of hyperbilirubinemia cases, which were considered as “pathologic”, occurred during 24 hours after birth. 72% were related to the second to seventh days of birth, 17.2% to second week of birth, and the rest (4%) had prolonged Icter. 65% of these neonates were the first children of the family. The average time of hospitalization was 4.8 days. 34.8% of these neonates had pathologic signs beside hyperbilirubinemia and had a clinically serious condition. About 23% of these neonates were born by C/S and only 11.8% of them were vaginal births. 46 cases (34.8%) had accompaynig pathologic problems in addition to Icter, among whom 33 children (25%) had evident infection. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia were Crigler-Najjar syndrome in one case, ABO in 11 cases (8.33%) and RH discord in 4 cases (2.8%). Generally speaking the precise cause of 36.89% of Hyperbilirubinemia was determined.

 Conclusion: Some factors such as children by C/S, neonatal infection, prematurity, ABO discords and RH discords play an important role in hyperbilirubinemia incidence and severity.

Sarie Golmohamadloo , Farzane Broomand, Mitra Asadi Afshar ,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2005)

 Background & Objectives: Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Despite abundant efforts by lranian family planning authorities during the last decade, unintended pregnancy and its consequences such as infected abortions is still a common problem. The aim of this descriptive study was to examine the causes of unintended pregnancy in Kosar Hospital, Urmia.

  M e thods : In this descriptive-analytical study the data were collected from 330 unintendedly pregnant women (out of 1830 pegnant women) visiting gynecology unit at Koshar Hospital in Urmia in 1999. These subjects were interviewed to fill out a questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS using t-test and Chi-square.

 Results: 83.6% of the cases were illiterate and 96.36% were housewives. 59.69% of the cases were above 30 79.09% had 3 or more children. The subjects used the following prophylaxy.

 Methods: thads. Pills (40%), withdrawal (25.5%), IUD (10%), injection (6.4%), minipills (4.5%), condom (3.6%) breast feeding (2.7%), rhythmic (0.9%) and tubectomy (0.6%). The remaining 5.8% had not used any prevention methods. We found a significant correlation between aging and number of unwanted pregnancies (P<0.0001 r = 0.44) and a negative meaningful correlation between literacy and rate of pregnancy (P<0.0001 r = 0.39). Reasons for failure were irregular use of pills, minipills or condom (90% each), unfamiliarity with prevention affter forgetting to take the pill (0.77%), IUD extraction, interrupted use of DMPA method and incorrect use of breast feeding method.

 Conclusion: This study reveals that desptie available prevention methods, due to lack of knowledge irregular use and misconceptions about complications of prevention methods, the subjects used unreliable methods which are more likely to lead to failure. Therefore, new measures should be taken in family planning centers to increase awareness among women concerning risk of unitended pregnancy.

Afshar Tamook , Fereidoon Ashenaie, Joobin Yeganeh Moghadam , Mahdi Chiniforush , Nayereh Amini Sani, Shahram Habibzadeh ,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

 Background & Objective: Visceral leishmaniasis is a reticulo endothelia system and it is known as 'black fever' by Indians. According to WHO every year there are 500 thousand new cases of it in the world. The province of Ardabil, with 25-40% from all the country's leishmaniasis has a major part in the country and is considered as one of the main focuses in Iran. Due to its importance, this study was done to identify clinical signs and demographic characteristics of the patients.

 Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done retrospectively 110 children who were hospitalized in three different active hospitals between 1375-1382 entered in this study. Disease definition include parasite detection in bone marrow aspivation or special clinical signs (fever, spleenomegal, pansytopenia and weight loss) in addition direct agglutination test was positive. The samples were investigated in terms of demographic information. Place of living, clinical signs and the length of time between the symptoms of the disease and its diagnosis. To get to the results, simple descriptive statistics was used. 37.8% of the patients were diagnosed from the beginning of symptoms with in a month.

 Results: There were 56.4% boys and 43.6% girls of all the 110 children. DAT test was done in 97 patients which was positive in 91 cases (minimum positive titer 1/400). In 42 patients biopsy and bone marrow aspiration was done which was positive in 26 cases (lishman body detection). The age of the patients was 4 months -14 years. The most common findings were fever 97.3% and anorexia 97.1%. There was anemia in 90% thrombocytopenia in 60.8% and leukopenia in 24.8%. There was death in 6 patients (5.5%) and unresponsiveness to the treatment in 3 cases (2.7%).

 Conclusion: The results of the present study nearly corresponds to those of other studies. The main vulnerable community of visceral lieshmaniasis are mainly children. In order to decrease the mortality and morbidity its early diagnosis is essential. It is necessary that the physicians working in endemic regions be familiar enough with the disease.

Fariba Kahnamouei, Mohammadali Mohammadi, Farideh Mostafazadeh, Afshar Ebrahimi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (Summer 2007)

  Backgrond & Objectives: Oligohydramnios is a disorder which is followed by unpleasant outcomes for fetus that can lead to termination of pregnancy before term and preterm delivery. For these patients' increase in gestational period and prevention of preterm delivery is the most important act. In this study the effect of intravenous and oral hydration therapy in increasing duration of gestation in patient with oligohydramnios was evaluated.

  Methods: In this study, the population was devided into two case and control groups with 30 female individual who were found to have oligohydramnios in course of hospital admission according to on sonographic results. Patients were randomly put in case or control groups. Case group were given 3-4 liter normal salin for 1 week and then were given oral hydration solution until the end of pregnancy, In each group whenever it was found that pregnancy was not possible the pregnancy continuance was stopped. Data collection was through history, physical examination completing relevant questionnaire and findings of sonography and in order to see the relationship among finding s, kitest and t-test from SPSS software were used.

  Results: The age means of case and control groups were 25 and 24 respectively. The mean of pregnancy duration from the diagnosis time in case group was 30.2 weeks and in control group 31.8 weeks. The mean of pregnancy terminatior in case group was 34.6 weeks and in control group 34.2. In increasing duration of pregnancy in case and control group. It was concluded that intravenous and oral Hydration therapy cause incerease in duration of pregnancy in patients suffering from oligo Hydraminos. According to the results of this study and significance of the difference.

Gholhmhosein Ettehad, Firouzeh Afshar-Ghahramani, Yasamin Pahlavan, Mojtaba Amani ,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (suppl 2012)

  Background & Objectives: Endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a type of enzyme which produces an endogenous factor called nitric oxide (NO). NO plays important role in progress of euplastic diseases. In chronic gastritis, the increased level of NO causes damages to DNA. The aim of present study is to evaluate eNOS concentration in sera of healthy people and those infected by Helicobacter pylori .

  Methods: The sera and stool specimens from 84 voluntaries (Female: 58.3%, Males 41.6%) were collected. Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stool specimens and eNOS levels in sera were determined using ELISA . Obtained data were analyzed using Excell software.

  Results : The age range was from 1 to 78 years old (Mean: 30 years old). In terms of special diseases, 70.2% did not have any special diseases, but 29.76% showed at least one special disease, mainly thyroid disease and hypertension. The results for H. pylori stool antigen detection showed that 16.6%, 29.76% and 53.57% of collected specimens were equivocal, Helicobacter pylori negative and positive respectively. Comparison of sera concentrations of eNOS showed that there is no significant change among these three groups.

  Conclusion : As mentioned in results, the eNOS sera concentrations showed no significant change in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative groups. Albeit the other studies showed the significant increase in serum concentration of Helicobacter pylori positive patient, this controversy may arise from race and variations in Helicobacter pylori pathogenic islands such as those containing VacA and CagA. We propose to conduct a similar study in Ardabil to focus on the pathogenic islands of H. pylori strains in this province.

Reza Karbasi Afshar, Ayat Shahmari, Eiman Lotfian, Amin Saburi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2013)

  Introduction : Cardiac events due to coronary artery disease (CAD) are the most common cause of death in all over the world. Myocardial ischemia and its consequent heart failure are considered as common problems and complications of CAD. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-ischemic effects of fibrates in patients with CAD.

  Methods : This clinical-trial study was conducted on patients with dyslipidemia and CAD referred to the Baqiyatallah university hospital, Tehran, during 2008-2010. A total of 124 patients randomly divided into two groups: the first group (64 patients) received simvastatin (20-60 mg/day)+fenofibrate (200 mg/day) with lipid-limited diet and exercise and the second group (60 patients) received simvastatin (20-60 mg/day) with diet and exercise for one year and the patients were evaluated at the end of this period.

  Results : The mean age was 54.3±6.5 years and 53.2% of patients were male. Metabolic equation index was changed from 4.32±0.5 to 5.68±0.5 at the first group (P<0.001) and 4.43±0.9 to 4.41±1.1 at the other one (P=0.121) and also time of exercise was changed from 5.21±1.81 to 6.01±1.8 (P<0.001) and 5.43±1.26±5.23±1.2 (P=0.089) respectively. No serious adverse effects were seen.

  Conclusion : Lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin and fenofibrate reduces myocardial ischemia. Therefore it’s recommended to add fenofibrate to statinsin the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with high risk of cardiovascular accidents as complementary treatment.

Maryam Adabi, Mahshid Talebi Taher , Leila Arbabi, Mastaneh Afshar , Sara Fathizadeh, Sara Minaeian, Niloofar Moghadam-Marageh, Ali Majidpour ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (spring 2015)

  Background & objectives: Wound infection is a predominant cause of death in burned patients who are clearly at increased risk of nosocomial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of burn infections and is difficult to treat because of having high level of resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to perform isolation, identification and determination of antibiotics resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounds of hospitalized burn patient.

  Methods: Biochemical and molecular tests were used for identification of the P. aeruginosa and antibacterial susceptibility test was performed using disk diffusion (Kirby- Bauer) methods. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed for four representatives of different groups of antibiotics.

  Results: Among 94 evaluated strains of P. aeruginosa, 83 isolates (88.3%) were multi drugs resistant. Based on Kirby-Bauer method, the most resistance was seen to cefepime (89.5 %) and among the antibiotics studied to determine the MIC, the most resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin (89 %).

Conclusion: These results indicate high range of resistance to different antibiotics among strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds of patients. So, the fast and accurate measurement and evaluation of antibiotic resistance for appropriate antibiotic therapy of burned patients is imperative.

Leila Arbabi, Mina Boustanshenas , Maryam Adabi, Sara Fathizadeh, Samira Rasouli Koohi , Mastane Afshar, Mohammad Rahbar, Ali Majidpour, Malihe Talebi, Mahshid Talebi-Taher ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (winter 2016)

Background & objectives: Enterococci are among the normal microbial flora in human and animals digestive tract. The nosocomial pathogenicity of enterococci has emerged in recent years and has caused great concern due to developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the prevalence of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococcus) within Enterococci isolates obtained from different parts of the hospital.

Methods: Putative Enterococci (n=120) were isolated on Membrane Filter Enterococcus Selective Agar Medium and supplemented with 2, 4 and 8 µgr/ml vancomycin in medical samples. A total isolates passed the standard biochemistry tests for the genus and species as well as their specific primers. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method for 8 antibiotics. Microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) of vancomycin was also done using Agar-dilution assay by CLSI recommendations.

Results: Results showed that 38 and 84 of the isolates were E. faecium and E.faecalis, respectively. According to antimicrobial susceptibility tests 45, 88, 103, 42, 83, 73, 54 and 95 of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, penicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin, respectively. MIC test on 70% of the isolates was>256 µgr/ml.

Conclusion: Despite the fact that the prevalence of VRE strains belongs to two species, E. faecium had high resistance to a broad range of antibiotics. The results of this study indicate the important role of medical samples as reservoirs of resistance elements. Early detection of VRE with their virulence trait will help in preventing the spread of vancomycin resistant enterococcus species and urgent infection control is required in hospital setting

Mehdi Parsa Moghadam , Mohammadhossein Yazdani, Afshar Seyyedin, Manouchehr Pashazadeh ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (winter 2017)

Background & objectives: Construction of new service centers including hospitals is expensive and requires optimal site selection for these centers so that all citizens benefit from its increased productivity. It can also help them lower their costs. This study investigates the optimal locations for construction of hospitals in Ardabil using GIS software.

Methods: This is an applied research which incorporates a descriptive-analytic methodology. The data is made up of 11 criteria; proximity to densely populated areas, proximity to green space, closeness to main thoroughfares, proximity to fire departments and distance from existing hospitals, industrial centers, slopes, learning centers, cemetery, military bases and from sport facilities. They were all weighted using analytic network process (ANP) model.

Results: After performing the necessary calculations and evaluations, the highest and lowest weight of criteria belonged to the proximity to densely populated areas (0.229) and distance from the cemetery (0.033), respectively. According to the criteria weights and overlapping of layers, the most and least favorable locations for the establishment of hospitals were identified.

Conclusion: Results of the classification showed the best location for construction of hospitals in Ardabil city based on four municipal regions. In region one it belongs to the 8th, 5th, 2nd, and 11th districts in region two districts of 6 and 7 which cover southeastern edge of the city, in region 3 districts of 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 and 10 which contain the western part of the city, and in region four it belongs to districts of 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 11 that encompass the blocks in the northern and north-western route of the city. These regions can be used for construction of new hospitals in order to improve people’s access to healthcare services.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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