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Showing 11 results for Type of Study: review article

Ali Nemati, Reza Mahdavi , Eiraj Faizi, Abbas Nagizadeh Baghi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Chemotherapeutics induce side effects in patients with cancer . In animal models the intake of ω3 fatty acids during chemotherapy can increase the impact of chemotherapy drugs and reduce their side effects . This study was aimed to determine the fish oilintake on side effects of chemotherapy drugs in patients with gastric cancer.

  Methods: A double blind clinical trial study on 30 adult volunteer patients (15 experiments and 15 controls) with gastric cancer was conducted during chemotherapy in Ardabil, Iran, during 2010-2011 . Experimental and control groups were selected by randomized allocation. About 3 grams ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (1.8 g Eicosapentaenoic acid & 1.2 g Docosapentaenoic acid ) and placebo were given to experimental and control groups for 6 weeks, respectively . Then, the results of data were collected at the beginning, 4 and 6 weeks after intervention of ω3/placebo in both groups and analyzed by using descriptive statistics , Chi -Square , Independent sample t-test and Cochran,s Q test.

  Results: The results of this study showed that there were significant differences of nausea in both group of patients at the end of 6 weeks (p<0.05). A bdominal cramp and nausea significant ly decreased in experimental group during the study (p<0.05). Hair loss , vomiting and diarrhea were reduced in experimental group during the study, but these differences were not statistically significant . There were no significant differences in vomiting , diarrhea and hair loss between two groups at the end of intervention.

  Conclusion: The present study showed that the intakes of fish oil strongly reduce side effects of chemotherapy drugs such as nausea and abdominal cramp. So, this oil supplementation appears to be harmless and useful in patients with gastric cancer during chemotherapy .

Masoumeh Foumani , Leila Asadpour, Alireza Azizi Saraji, Ali Sharifat Salmani, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Adjuvants are chemicals, microbial components, or mammalian proteins that enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens. Reducing vaccine-related adverse effects and inducing specific types of immunity has led to the development of numerous new adjuvants. Adjuvants in experimental and commercial vaccines include aluminum salts (alum), oil emulsions, saponins, immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), liposomes, microparticles, nonionic block copolymers, derivatized polysaccharides, cytokines, and a wide variety of bacterial derivatives. The mechanisms of action of these diverse compounds are different. Factors influencing the selection of an adjuvant include animal species, specific pathogen, vaccine antigen, route of immunization, and type of immunity needed. In this paper we review the current adjuvant types, structure and mechanism of action and their application in the design and production of animal and human vaccines to provide a source for students and researchers in related fields .

Mohammad Mosaferi-Ziaaedini, Khosro Ebrahim, Davar Amani, Zahra Arabnarmi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives : Intense training increases the production of free radicals and causes inflammatory response in athletes. Strengthen and improving athlete’s immune system may reduce the harmful effects of intense physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate supplementary consumption of coenzyme Q10 on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) during the maximal activity.

  Methods : Twelve healthy active males (age 21.75 ± 0.64 yr, BMI 23.7±0.94 kg/m2) performed 30-min exercise at 80% to 85% HRmax. Subjects 120 minutes pre-exercise received either of the following regimens: Coenzyme Q10 (2 mg per kg body weight) or placebo (food color). Blood samples were obtained prior to supplement consumption and immediately after exercise, then groups were reversed after 4 days. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

  Results: TNF-α serum level increased in both supplementation and placebo group (4.2% and 5.12% respectively) and the difference between two groups was insignificant.

  Conclusion : The results of this study indicated that after maximal activity increasing of TNF-α serum level was slower in the supplement group in comparison with placebo group but Q10 consumption did not caused a significant difference between two group (p=0.8).

Mehrnaz Mashoufi, Robab Nazari, Roghayieh Shirinkam Chouri, Afshan Sharghi, Afrouz Mardi, Maryam Azari ,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives : Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is determined by changes in microbial ecosystem of vagina and is considered as a preventable risk factor for preterm delivery. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of bacterial vaginosis screening program in routine prenatal care and its effect on decreasing preterm labor.

  Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 474 pregnant women at gestational stage between 2007 and 2008. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention group and control group. Screening was performed in intervention group with Amsel's criteria (3 of 4 needed for diagnosis). Positive cases were given clindamycin cream (2%) for one week. The outcome of the delivery was assessed in both groups afterward. Data were analyzed by SPSS11 software using descriptive statistics.

  Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding pregnancy rank, wanted and unwanted pregnancy, insufficient weight gain, mother vaccination and complication of pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in 17 out of 216 (8%) in the intervention group and then treated. Prevalence of preterm delivery in the intervention and control groups were 3 (1.4%) and 12 (4.7%), respectively. The relative risk was protective (RR: 0.3, DR: 0.033, NNT: 30).

  Conclusion: Screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women could significantly decrease the rate of preterm delivery.

Sana Mollahoseini , Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mahnaz Kesmati, Abdolrahman Rasekh,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2012)

  Background & Objectives: Several studies have shown that Glucocorticoids affect learning and memory processes by influences on limbic structures such as amygdala. The amygdala is an important region for memory formation. Considering the existence of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intra-BLA microinjection of pilocarpine on the effect of dexamethasone on memory retrieval .

  Methods: As a model of learning, using a step-through apparatus , inhibitory avoidance was used for assessment of long-term memory in 80 adult male Wistar rats . All animals were bilaterally implanted with cannulas into the BLA and were trained and tested (with 24 h interval) 7 days after surgery. Memory retrieval was evaluated by recording of the step-through latencies and the time spent in dark chamber of apparatus in the testing day.

  Results: Pre-test subcutaneous (s.c) administration of dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval in animals when trained 24 h in advance. Co-pretest microinjection of different doses of pilocarpine (1 , 2 μg/rat, intra-BLA ), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, with the dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c) caused enhancement of memory retrieval.

  Conclusion: Results of this research indicate that impairment effect of dexamethasone on memory processes may be mediates by decrease of mechanisms of BLA muscarinic cholinergic.

Mohammad Amani,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia in elderly people that is accompanied by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. The pathologic hallmarks of AD are synaptic and neuronal degeneration together with extracellular senile plaques containing amyloid-beta (Aβ) and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus and other cortical regions. Amyloid-beta peptide is believed to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD as a major component of the senile plaques. It acts as a trigger key of AD and is considered as the principal toxic factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Accumulation of amyloid β protein (Aβ), a main component of the senile plaques, in the brain initiates a cascade of events that ultimately lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Other proposed mechanisms for AD include impairment in cholinergic function, oxidative stress, inflammatory agents and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. AD is characterized neuropathologically by impaired cholinergic function, increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, synapses loss, cortical atrophy, deficiencies in steroid hormones and appearance of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity.

Niloofar Sadeghi , Marzieh Tavalaee , Mohammad Hosein Nasr- Esfahani ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (4-2018)

Infertility, especially in the last decade, has been rising as a global problem, affecting approximately 10-15% of the world's population. The abundance and origin of various types of infertility are different. Studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in infertility, in particular in male infertility. Although ROS is essential for normal physiological functions of sperm such as capacitation, hyper activation, acrosome reactions, and binding to the oocyte, excessive levels can be one of the main causes of defective sperm function, which not only impairs the health of sperm DNA, but also affects fertilization via oxidation of proteins, in particular the fatty acids of the sperm cell membrane. Also, the elevated ROS levels facilitate sperm DNA damage, which leads to activation of apoptotic pathway and cell death. Therefore, the quality of semen is functionally reduced. Since the oxidative damage to sperm DNA is associated with both miscarriage and development abnormalities in the offspring, it is essential to find new strategies to recognize the cellular and molecular biology of sperm. Therefore, considering different mechanisms of oxidative stress affecting sperm can contribute significantly to the etiology of male infertility
Hamidreza Dehghan , Masoud Mirzaei , Ebrahim Mirzaei , Eslam Moradei Asl , Amin Ataiy , Mahbobeh Mirzaei ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (4-2018)

Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that is common throughout the world. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique in which the results of two or more independent studies, with similar objectives, are mathematically combined in order to improve the reliability of the results. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metformin and linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: To identify relevant studies, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, Cochran library, Scopus and Ovid databases were searched from January 2000 to August 2016. Mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for efficacy were calculated and pooled analysis was performed using Stata V.12 and RevMan V.5.3 software.
Results: Four studies recruiting1260 patients with DM (682 patients in group linagliptin and 578 patients in metformin group) were included in this study. The MD of HbA1C outcome of 0.5 mg linagliptin was effective (0. 7295, % CI = 0. 69 - 0. 75). The MD of fasting blood sugar (FBS) test revealed that linagliptin was effective at 0.5mg (MD = 36.79, 95% CI = 35.20 - 38.38) and 5 mg (MD = 12.65, 95% CI = 2.68 to 22.63) doses.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that some doses of linagliptin versus metformin may be an effective treatment for DM2. However, the number of studies was limited, and further research is needed.
Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei , Mehdi Mohebali, Adel Spotin, Zahra Alizadeh,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2018)

Leishmania parasites as the causative agent of leishmaniasis belong to Trypanosomatidae family. Parasite, vector, vertebrate host and environment are major factors in pathogenesis of Leishmania
Parasite dependent factors are virulence factors which exist in Leishmania species such as LPG, GP63. In recent years, the importance of these factors in the field of vaccine and drug has been considered by researchers. Sand fly biting behavior and salivary gland proteins are vector dependent factors which are effective in the Leishmania pathogenesis. Age, gender, nutrition, immune system, infectious diseases, genetic, occupation, socio-economic characteristics, and habitat are vertebrate host mediated factors. Temperature, rainfall, wind and its speed, soil, and continuous changes in climate are also environmental factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of Leishmania parasites.
Alireza Badirzadeh,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic disease that has become a major health challenge in many countries of the world. Not only has not been found any effective vaccine or treatment for the disease eradication, but also the advent of drug resistance is also increasing. Therefore, it is vital to take a precise attention to the physiochemical cycles of the Leishmania parasite and to identify its biochemical pathways. One of the most important biochemical pathways of host and parasite is the arginase and nitric oxide cycles. By using L-arginine, arginase plays an important role in the metabolic pathways, particularly in ornithine production, polyamines biosynthesis and cellular activities, including proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, L-arginine, can act as a substrate for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which leads to the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), thereby activating the cellular immune system and clearing intracellular parasites. High Arginase activity reduces the parasite load inside the host cell, and since lymphocytes need L-arginine for their activity, its deficiency impairs the response of host immune cells. Also, parasites arginase alone can determine the fate of Leishmania parasite within the host cell. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of various studies on the arginase activity of both parasite and host and its direct impacts on the immune system and pathogenicity of the Leishmania parasite.
Ms Shadi Sabetghadam, Afsaneh Keramat, Mina Malary, Sedighe Rezaie Chamani,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Introduction & objectives: Vaginismus is an uncontrolled contraction of the outer third muscle of the vagina that prevents intercourse. Based on the DSM-V-TR system, this disorder is associated with dyspareunia and "Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder". The purpose of this overview was to summarize population-based studies that reported the prevalence of vaginismus in the general population and to discover the discrepancies between studies.
Methods: This systematic review study was conducted on published articles on the prevalence of vaginismus in the world and in English. In selecting the articles, the keywords including Vaginismus, Prevalence, Incidence, Sexual Dysfunction, Genito-Pelvic Pain, Penetration Disorder with all possible combinations were systematically searched in the google scholar, science direct, PubMed, Cochrane databases. No search time limit was set to retrieve all relevant articles published by September 21, 2018.
Results: Of the 10 studies, 4 articles reported prevalence of vaginismus in the general population. In selected studies, the incidence of vaginismus in the general population of women was reported 0.4% to 8%.
Conclusion: Different prevalence rates have been reported in different studies for vaginismus. In this review study, it was not possible to Meta-analyze and determines the overall prevalence due to the heterogeneity of the prevalence reports and different study methods.

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