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Showing 8 results for Subject: فیزیولوژی

Mohammad Hossein Esmaeili, Zohrea Rozbahani,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2018)

Background & objectives: Epidemiological Studies have shown that diabetes increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD).also several studies have confirmed that long term use of Metformin (Met) improves cognitive function in diabetic patients.  The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Met on learning and memory in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.
Methods: Animals were divided into 2 groups including healthy and diabetic group. In healthy group, normal rats subdivided into control, saline and Met groups which received saline or Met (500mg/kg) and in diabetic group including DM, DM+saline and DM+Met subgroups, diabetic rats  received saline or Met (100, and 200mg/kg) for 20 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of streptozotocin (STZ).
Results: Our results showed that Met (500mg/kg, ip) impaired spatial learning but improved spatial memory in normal rats. The results also showed that Met improved learning and memory in diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner, so that the rats of DM+Met group compared to DM+saline group found platform in less time and with less distance traveled. Met also increased the percentage of time elapsed and the distance swum in the target quadrant in diabetic rats during the probe trial.
Conclusion: An intraperitoneal injection of STZ resulted in a significant decline in learning and memory and treatment with Met can enhance learning and memory in a dose dependent manner, therefore, it is useful for treatment of cognitive impairment in diabetic patients.
Hamidreza Abri, Minoo Mahmoodi , Siamsk Shahidi ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2018)

Background & objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of   oral creatine supplementation on biochemical markers of liver, kidney and testis in the male rats under swimming training plan.
Methods: In this study, male Wistar rats, weighing 245±5gr, were divided into five groups (n=8): control, exercise plus zero dose, exercise plus low-dose, exercise plus moderate dose and exercise plus high dose of creatine (200,300 and 600 mg/kg/d respectively). Biochemical studies of blood serum were performed ten days after creatine supplementation and swimming exercises. Following serum collection, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and testosterone levels were measured using spectrophotometry method. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software using mixed model ANOVA.
Results: serum levels of ALP showed statistically significant differences between groups receiving low and moderate doses of creatine compared to both control and exercise with zero dose  (p<0.05). Also, the results of serum levels of BUN, ALT and AST showed there was no significant difference between the exercise plus zero dose of creatine, exercise plus low-doses of creatine group, exercise plus moderate dose of creatine, exercise plus high dose of creatine groups and control group. The exercise group with high doses of creatine significantly showed a higher serum creatinine level than control group (p<0.05).The serum testosterone level was significantly higher in the exercise with moderate doses of creatine group than in the control group and exercise plus zerecaratin dose (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results suggested that short-term creatine supplementation (up to 10 days) might adversely affect some biochemical markers of liver, kidney and testis. However, further studies are necessarily needed to clarify the consumption of short-term creatine supplementation.
Raha Zalkhani, Hossein Najafzadehvarzi, Ahmad Ali Moazedi,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Background & objectives: Diet plays an important role in control of seizure in epileptic patients. Therefore in this research, the effect of acute and chronic sesame oil consumption on the seizure induced by strychnine in adult rats was investigated.
Methods: In this experimental study, forty -two rats were divided into six groups: control (saline recipient, 1 ml/kg (, acute recipients of sodium valproate as positive control group (100 or 200 mg/kg, ip.), acute recipients of sesame oil (0.75 or 1.5 ml/kg, ip.) and chronic recipient of sesame oil (1.5 ml/kg/day, orally, 21 days). To induce seizure, strychnine was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes after receiving saline, valproate or oil. Then seizure onset time and death time were recorded within 30 minutes.
Results: Acute injection of sesame oil increased seizure onset time and death time compared to control group but it was no significantly different. The chronic consumption of sesame oil significantly increased seizure onset time (p=0.029) in compared to control group, but there was no effect on the death time. Also, there were no significant differences in seizure onset time and death time between acute and chronic groups.
Conclusion: It seems that chronic consumption of sesame oil delayed the onset of seizure and reduced the kindled seizure acquisition.
Rana Keyhanmanesh, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Hasan Ghobadi, Mahdi Ahmadi, Alireza Moradi, Mohammadreza Aslani,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Background & objectives: Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a close relationship between asthma and obesity. The present study examined the effect of obesity on the airway response to methacholine and the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid of ovalbumin-sensitized male rats.
Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: normal diet (C+ND), OVA‐sensitized with the normal diet (S+ND), high-fat diet (C+HFD) and OVA‐sensitized with high‐fat diet (S+HFD). All animals were fed for 8 weeks with standard diet or high-fat diet, and then were sensitized with ovalbumin or normal saline for another 4 weeks while receiving the designed regimens. At the end of the study, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and tracheal responsiveness to methacholine were examined.
Results: In diet-induced obesity groups, weight and obesity indices increased (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The results also showed that tracheal responsiveness to methacholine in S+HFD group compared to S+ND group, was significantly increased (p<0.05). In addition, the number of inflammatory cells in the BAL, in the S+HFD group was higher than other groups (p<0.001).
Conclusion: the results of this study suggest that the response of the airways to methacholine and the number of inflammatory cells are increased in obese-asthmatic male rats.
Elnaz Salmani Korjan, Kamila Kamali, Majid Katebi, Afshin Samiei, Farhad Ghadiri Soufi,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2019)

Background & objectives: Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB), a master switch transcription factor, plays a critical role in the progression and development of hyperglycemia-induced microangiopathy. Hyperglycemia activates NF-κB, and subsequently increases pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β leading to development of inflammation. Some new studies have revealed the involvement of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through an NF-κB-dependent negative feedback loop manner. Despite numerous reports indicating changes of plasma miR-146a during hyperglycemia, the origin of this change remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the role of NF-κB on the miR-146a gene expression level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) during a hyperglycemic condition.
Methods: HUVECs were cultured in normal glucose (5 mmol/L), and hyperglycemic (25 mmol/L) endothelial cell growth medium in the six well plates for 24 h. JSH-23 (30 μmol/L), as an inhibitor of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, was added to the culture medium, 30 min before induction of hyperglycemia. Quantitative Real Time PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of miR-146a and mRNA NF-κB. NF-κB activity was measured by Elisa.
Results: Hyperglycemia markedly increased the NF-κB activity and mRNA level in HUVECs. The expression of miR-146a significantly increased in hyperglycemic group compared to the normoglycemic group. On the other hand, JSH-23 prevented from miR-146a increment in hyperglycemic group and also it increased the mRNA expression level of NF-κB in this group.
Conclusion: This result shows that NF-κB increases the gene expression of miRNA-146a in the early phase of hyperglycemia in HUVECs.
Parisa Kerishchi Khiabani , Sayeh Bidaran ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background & objectives: Allium cepa has anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to flavonoid compounds. Allium cepa can prevent the onset and progression of cancer by removing free radicals. In this study, the preventive effect of Allium cepa in preventing the proliferation of breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice was evaluated.
Methods: In the present study, Female BALB/c mice at 6–7 weeks of age were subjected to the abdominal mammary gland subcutaneous injection with 5×106 viable 4T1 cells. Eight mice were placed in 3 groups: healthy group, the patient without treatment and the experimental group. The experimental group received Allium cepa root juice, three weeks before induction of disease. Daily, each mouse in the experimental group received 0.1 ml / 100 g BW / day fresh Allium cepa root juice. Seven weeks after induction, the mice were exposed to deep anesthesia. During the test, the mice were weighed every other day and after the appearance of the tumor, by the end of the seventh week, the volume of the tumor was measured using digital caliper and the tumor mass was removed and weighed. The spleen was removed from the body and cultured in 1640-RPMI medium containing 10%, FBS, and ELISA test was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18. One-way variance analysis was used to assess the difference between the groups and, if it was significant, Tukey's post hoc test was employed to determine the differences between the groups. Also, p-value less than 0.05 were considered as the level of significance for examining the hypothesis test and deciding whether or not to reject the hypothesis.
Results: The weight of mice in all three groups increased and tumor weight and tumor volume decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the patient group (sham) (p<0.001, p<0.0001 respectively). In the experimental group, compared with the patient group, the levels of IFN-γ (p<0.001) and IL-4 levels decreased significantly (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of Allium cepa can prevent and reduce the growth and proliferation of cancer cells and disease progression in breast cancer mouse model.
Rahmatollah Parandin, Leili Mohammadi,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Background & objectives: In recent years, regarding the side effects of chemical drugs, the use of medicinal plants has increased due to their low side effects, low costs and effective compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-pyretic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa canina L. fruit in male mice.
Methods: In this experimental study, 120 male BALB/c mice weighing 23-30 g were used. In each test, the mice were divided into 5 groups (in each group, n=6), including control group, positive control and three experimental groups treated intraperitoneally with hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa canina L. fruit at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using xylene-induced ear edema and brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. In addition, the antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and formalin tests. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software and One Way ANOVA test. The level of significance was set at   p<0.05.
Results: 200 (p<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (p<0.001) doses of extract reduced significantly inflammation. Doses of 100 (p<0.05), 200 (p<0.01) and 400 (p<0.001 significantly reduced pain in the abdominal constriction test and dose of 400 mg/kg (p<0.05) decreased the chronic pain in formalin test. Extract treatment did not reduce fever in any of the existing doses.
Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that Rosa canina L. fruit has anti-inflammatory and visceral analgesic activity, which may be due to its antioxidant potential.
Lale Naderi , Allahyar Arabmomeni,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Background & objectives: Due to the prevalence of obesity and the subsequent development of metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular and fatty liver complications, exercise programs and the use of natural supplements can play a significant role in controlling and preventing these diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the effect of eight weeks of combined exercise and Chlorogenic acid intake on C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in obese women.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, which was performed as a pre-test, post-test with a control group, a total of 48 obese women were selected purposefully and divided randomly into four equal groups (n=12); exercise, supplement, exercise+supplementation and control group. The exercises program consisted of 8 weeks of aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions with 60 minutes per week. The chlorogenic acid supplement group received daily Green coffee in capsule form contain 400 mg powder for 8 weeks and the concurrent group performed exercise and received Green coffee simultaneously. By using blood sampling the variables were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA at significance level of p<0.05.
Results: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the supplement group were the lowest and in the exercise+supplementation group had the highest decrease and there was no significant difference in the control group. The C-reactive protein (CRP) in the training+supplementation group was significantly decreased and in the three experimental groups there was a significant difference compared to the control group (p0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that combined exercise and natural substances rich in chlorogenic acid can decrease inflammatory factors such as C-reactive protein and liver enzymes.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اردبیل Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
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