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Showing 121 results for Subject: General

Shima Abtin, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mahnaz Kesmati, Hosein Najafzadeh,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Salvia officinalis is one of the memory-enhancing herbs that were used in the past. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticles which are widely used in medicine and industry may impair the brain process related to memory. In this investigation, the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis on iron oxide nanoparticle induced memory impairment and the role of beta-adrenergic receptors in this effect were studied.

Methods: To assess the inhibitory avoidance memory, animals were trained in the step-down task and drugs (saline, hydro-alcoholic extract of sage leaves, nanoparticles of iron oxide and propranolol) were injected immediately after training by intraperitoneal (ip) injections. Long-term memory was tested 24 hours later and step-down latencies were recorded.

Results: Administration of iron oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/kg, ip) impaired memory retrieval. Salvia officinalis extract (40 mg/kg, ip) also prevented iron oxide nanoparticle induced long-term memory impairment. On the other hand, administration of propranolol (5, 10 mg/kg, ip) before Salvia officinalis extract (40 mg/kg, ip) and iron oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/kg, ip) attenuated the effect of Salvia officinalis extract.

Conclusion: It seems that extract of Salvia officinalis leaves decreases iron oxide nanoparticle induced memory impairment. Beta-adrenergic mechanisms are possibly involved in these effects of Salvia officinalis extract.


Mir Mohammad Taghi Mortazavi, Masoud Niazi, Naser Rezapour, Masoud Parish,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Surgery of upper part of femor in elderly patients can be due to the fracture of femoral neck, shaft and arthroplasty. Hemodynamic changes and complications of the anesthesia are among the major concerns. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes in low dose isoflurane with propofol in upper femoral surgeries in elderly patients.

Methods: This prospective clinical trial study was done on 60 patients over 65 year-old elderly patients with ASA physical status of I and II that were candidate for upper femoral surgery in two groups (inhalational: isoflurane 0.5-0.6 MAC) and (total intravenous anesthesia with propofol 50-100 mic/kg/min). Hemodynamic changes were compared in these groups with the same anesthetic depth (HR-SBP-DBP-MBP-SaO₂).

Results: There was no significant difference in heart rate, age or sex between two groups. In isoflurane group SBP on 20 and 25th minutes and DBP and MBP on 20, 25 and 35th minutes were significantly higher than propofol group. In propofol group SaO₂ was significantly more than isoflurane group on induction, start of surgery and on 5, 25, 35 and 45th minutes of surgery.

Conclusion: In anesthesia with the same Bi-Spectral Index, isoflurane provides more stable hemodynamic parameters than propofol.


Zahra Hesami, Maryam Ayatollahi, Bita Geramizadeh, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Akbar Vahdati ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats.

Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham) intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4) intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1) at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT) tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05.

Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001) decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats


Maryam Zarkesh , Kamran Guity, Nima Hosseinzadeh, Freidoon Azizi , Maryam Sadat Daneshpour,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the extent of possible genetic influence on cardio-metabolic risk factors and to evaluate the familial aggregation of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Tehranian population.

Methods: In a cross-sectional observational study, the anthropometry, blood pressure andbiochemical measurements were examined in each member of 566 nuclear families. The role of risk factors in MetS and the Pearson partial correlation between MetS and lipid related factors were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of MetS among the mothers and girls was 78.4 and 12.9%, respectively. Grandmothers had the highest incidence of atherosclerotic risk factors. Four factors were found which explained 77.7% of the overall variance. Recurrence risk ratio among siblings was 5.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.15-9.97). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of proband’s MetS status was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.06–1.67) and adjusted OR for the four factors to predict MetS were all significant with the obesity factor having the highest risk (OR: 7.50, CI: 5.91–9.52) followed by dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia factor (OR: 4.86, CI: 4.03–5.87), and blood pressure factor (OR: 4.20, CI: 3.51-5.02).

Conclusion: The present findings confirm the idea of familial aggregation and the recurrence risk ratio in MetS traits. Sibling correlations were higher than other relatives indicating the high genetic factors of these quantitative components in which a high risk of MetS (two-fold) was found


Somaye Bahrami , Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali , Zahra Ramezani, Mehdi Pourmehdi Boroujeni , Ferial Toeimepour ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: One of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases, hydatidosis, is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcous granulosus. Investigations have shown that plants secondary metabolites, such as essential oils have anti parasitic properties. Based on previous reports on antiparasitic properties of Lepidium sativum, in this study we investigated the scolicidal effects of the essential oil (EO) extracted from this plant.

Methods: Lepidium EO was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of EO (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml) for 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining.

Results: A total of 19 compounds representing 95.5% of the total oil, were identified. α-Thujene (88.86%), Myrcene (2.9%) and P-cymene (1.67%) were found to be the major EO constituents. Based on the results, protoscolices mortality rates at 1, 3 and 5 mg/ml of EO didn’t have a significant relationship with the control group. While, the difference in mortality rate at a concentration of 10 mg/ml of EO in 30 and 60 min was significant. Also, the concentration of 15 mg/ml of EO at all times of incubation had significantly higher protoscolicidal effect. In the present study there was a significant relation between the amount of protoscolicidal activity of different EO concentrations and different incubation times. In other words mortality rates enhanced with increasing concentrations and incubation times.

Conclusion: The results of present study revealed that the EO of Lepidium is rich in α-Thujene and has a high scolicidal power. This plant may be used as a natural scolicidal agent


Mohsen Rahimi, Mehdi Mohseni, Hojjat Bostan, Sajjad Parsipour, Enayat Darabi , Tahere Mohammadzadeh,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Parasitic infections are among important health problems all over the world especially in developing countries. Considering the epidemiological importance of parasitological diseases and necessity to evaluation the parasites prevalence in different areas and populations, current study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients admitted to the laboratories of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross sectional study in which stool examination reports of all referred patients (70978) to central and emergency laboratories of Baqiyatallah hospital were evaluated during 2010-2014. In this course, at least one stool sample of patients was assessed by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate methods. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS 16. Chi-square test was used for comparison of the prevalence.

Results: From 70978 patients, 42421(59.77%) and 28557(40.23%) were male and female, respectively. From 2617 infected individuals, 1841(70.3%) and 776 (29.7%) were males and females, respectively. The prevalence of pathogen and non-pathogen intestinal parasites was 2283(87.23%) and 334(12.76%) respectively. Also the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and protozoa in infected population was 0.42% and 99.57%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis and then Giardia lamblia were the prevalent parasites.

Conclusion: In current study the prevalence of parasites is lower than those reported in other investigations. Differences in geographical location, sample size, duration and type of study (prospective or retrospective) and study population may be effective agents. The higher prevalence of "Blastocystis hominis" in comparison with other parasites can attract more attention to improve the quality of laboratory and clinical diagnosis of this protozoa


Leila Arbabi, Mina Boustanshenas , Maryam Adabi, Sara Fathizadeh, Samira Rasouli Koohi , Mastane Afshar, Mohammad Rahbar, Ali Majidpour, Malihe Talebi, Mahshid Talebi-Taher ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Enterococci are among the normal microbial flora in human and animals digestive tract. The nosocomial pathogenicity of enterococci has emerged in recent years and has caused great concern due to developing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the prevalence of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococcus) within Enterococci isolates obtained from different parts of the hospital.

Methods: Putative Enterococci (n=120) were isolated on Membrane Filter Enterococcus Selective Agar Medium and supplemented with 2, 4 and 8 µgr/ml vancomycin in medical samples. A total isolates passed the standard biochemistry tests for the genus and species as well as their specific primers. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method for 8 antibiotics. Microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) of vancomycin was also done using Agar-dilution assay by CLSI recommendations.

Results: Results showed that 38 and 84 of the isolates were E. faecium and E.faecalis, respectively. According to antimicrobial susceptibility tests 45, 88, 103, 42, 83, 73, 54 and 95 of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, penicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin, respectively. MIC test on 70% of the isolates was>256 µgr/ml.

Conclusion: Despite the fact that the prevalence of VRE strains belongs to two species, E. faecium had high resistance to a broad range of antibiotics. The results of this study indicate the important role of medical samples as reservoirs of resistance elements. Early detection of VRE with their virulence trait will help in preventing the spread of vancomycin resistant enterococcus species and urgent infection control is required in hospital setting


Naghmeh Moori Bakhtiari , Lila Jowzi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: History of medicinal plants in healing the pains goes back to five thousand years ago. In addition, strong antibacterial properties have been observed in many of these plants. In this research, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts and also homogenized form of scrophularia striata was examined on some respiratory and urogenital tract bacterial pathogens.

Methods: At first, bacterial isolates susceptibility test was done by kerby-bauer disc diffusion method and positive control was determined for every isolate. Then, several dilutions (1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5 mg/ml) of aqueous, ethanolic and homogenized extracts were prepared in distilled water separately. Thirty microliter of each diluted extract was inoculated on sterile blank disc and minimum inhibitory concentration was examined for every studied bacteria by E-test. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of extracts was determined by macrodilution method.

Results: Based on the results, smaller inhibitory zone than inhibitory zone of positive control was observed only with high concentration of aqueous extract in mannheimia haemolytica and with serial dilutions of ethanolic and homogenized extract in trueperella pyogenes, and with homogenized form in corynebacterium renale. No response was observed with other bacteria. Ethanolic extract showed bactericidal property with 62.5 mg/ml concentration and bacteriostatic property with 125 mg/ml concentration on mannheimia haemolytica which was similar to effect of this extract and homogenized form on trueperella pyogenes.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study and common application of this plant in respiratory and urogenital tract infections treatment, study on the role of different bacteria in this infections or effect of this extract on immune system stimulation can be recommended


Mehrab Hojjat, Parviz Amri, Shahnaz Barat, Ali Bijani, Valiollah Amri,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: This study was designed to compare the effect of general and spinal anesthesia on hemoglobin and hematocrit values in women following cesarean section.

Methods: This clinical trial study performed on 88 ASA class 1 pregnant women who were candidate for elective cesarean. Forty six patients received general anesthesia with isoflorane 0.75, N2O 50% and O2 and also 42 patients received spinal anesthesia with 12 mg of bupivacaine. The patients with a systemic disease or other causes of intraoperative excessive bleeding were excluded. All the operations were performed by same surgeon. Pre- and post-operative Hb and HCT values and Apgar score were recorded in both groups.

Results: Previous cesarean section history was the cause of surgery in 21 patients in group one and 22 patients in group two. Both groups were similar in age, weight, height and parity. The preoperative mean Hb or HCT values did not differ significantly between two groups. In both groups, postoperative mean Hb and HCT values were decreased significantly. Postoperative Hb and Hct reduction was significantly higher in general anesthesia group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between two groups regarding Apgar score.

Conclusion: This study showed higher postoperative Hb and Hct reduction in general anesthesia than spinal anesthesia.


Hasan Boskabadi, Maryam Kalateh Molaee ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract


Background & objectives: Weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration is a common problem in infants with inadequate nutrition. Determination of risk factors and clinical characteristics of these neonates may help to prevent or early detection of hypernatremia. This study designed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs and risk factors for hypernatremic dehydration.

Methods: This study is a sectional descriptive study that conducted on 418 newborns during 1385 to 1393 AHS that referred to Ghaem hospital in Mashhad. The hypernatremic group consisted of 197 neonates with serum sodium level higher than 150 mg/dl and 221 isonatremic newborns with sodium level less than 150 mmol/L were included as controls. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical symptoms of dehydration and maternal risk factors. All data were recorded and coded. Data analysis performed using paired T test and chi square tests by SPSS 16 software.

Results: In the present study, 2.8% of infants were hypernatremic. The most common symptoms were neonatal jaundice (62.2%), hyperthermia (25.8%), lethargy (23.6%), agitation (20.8 %) and mucous membranes dryness (17.2%). Problems in pregnancy (p=0.002), inappropriate feeding techniques (p=0.000), the first lactation duration (p=0.022) and frequency per day (p=0.000) had statistically significant difference between case and control groups.

Conclusion: Prevalence of hypernatremic dehydrationis considerable in our study and identifying the risk factors may help to reduce its incidence or exacerbation. Weight loss, especially in newborns having jaundice, hyperthermia and irritability, may be helpful in the early diagnosis of hypernatremic dehydration


Abdollah Asadi , Hamed Rezakhani Moghaddam , Aghil Habibi, Kazem Moazedi, Yoosef Hamidzadeh, Mohaamad Taghi Savadpour,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Social capital is defined as norms and networks which provide conditions for participation in social activities in order to profit mutually. This study was designed to evaluate the social capital status of students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences and its relationship with religious attitudes.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 500 students from Ardabil University of Medical Sciences during second half of the academic year 2014. Data were collected using demographic, social capital and religious attitudes questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS 22 using T-Test, Pearson correlation and ONOVA tests.

Results: Total means score for social capital was 80.0±16. There was significant correlation between all dimensions of social capital (except for dimension of family and friends connections) and religious attitudes status (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Due to the influence of social capital and its relationship with the religious attitude, it can be a guide for reduction of concerns about the educated classes and increasing their social capital


Meysam Foroozandeh, Mohammadreza Bigdeli , Mehdi Rahnema,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Basic and clinical studies have shown that the production of free radicals was one of the main factors leading to the injury after stroke. In this study we investigated the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Origanum vulgare on infarct volume and neurological deficits in a rat stroke model.

Methods: In this experimental study 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each containing 7 animals. First group (control) received distilled water, while other three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract by gavage for 30 days (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively). These groups were subjected to 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion 2 hours after the last dose of Origanum extracts and followed by 24 hrs reperfusion. After 24 hrs, the infarct volume and neurologic deficits were evaluated in the groups. Sham operated groups (n=7) did not receive Marjoram and brain ischemia.

Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum reduced the infarct volume and neurologic deficits in all treatment groups compared to control group.

Conclusion: It seems that Origanum vulgare extract can exert the neuroprotective effect against stroke damage by reducing infarct volume and neurological disorders.


Morteza Bonyadi , Saba Ahmadpournazm, Simin Taghavi, Farzam Ajamian ,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) occurs in 1–3% of couples attempting to bear children. Thrombophilia is one of the suspected causes of recurrent miscarriage. The factor XIII makes the clot stable at the end of coagulation cascade. The polymorphism G103T of factor XIII gene is the most common polymorphism that affects F XIII activity. We aimed to study the possible association of FXIII gene polymorphism (V34L) with recurrent miscarriage among patients in Northwest of Iran.

Methods: The study groups consisted of 70 patients with two or more consecutive miscarriages. The control group included 50 women with at least two successful deliveries and no history of pregnancy loss.  DNA from both groups analyzed for carrying mutation of FXIII by PCR-RFLP. The  test used for statistical analyze.

Results: Two patients (%2.85) in the case group were homozygote (TT) for 34 Leu mutation whereas no homozygote (TT) was found in control group (p>0.05). 19 patients (%27.1) in the case group and 13 women (%26) in the control group were found to be heterozygote for G103T polymorphism (p>0.05). No significant difference was observed between patients with RPL and healthy women for G103T mutation.

Conclusion: No statistically difference was observed between case and control group.


Ebrahim Hosseini, Zahra Zia,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: The teratogenic effects of electromagnetic radiation on different processes of growth caused many concerns related to the harmful effects of cell-phone radiation on human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cell-phone radiation on estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones together with dynastic sexual cells of adult female offspring of pregnant rats affected by these radiations.

Methods: In this experimental study, 24 pregnant female rats divided into 3 groups including the control, sham and experimental groups were used. The control group received no radiation and the experimental group was exposed to cell-phone radiation at the beginning of pregnancy (4 hours daily for 14 days). The control group was exposed around turning-on cell-phone without conversation over the same period. After giving birth and after maturity, 10 female offsprings of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, sexual hormones levels was measured and by separating the ovaries, ovarian follicles species were counted. The results analyzed using ANOVA and T tests. Differences in statistical analysis of data were considered significant at p<0.05.

Results: The results showed that the pregnant female exposure to cell-phone radiation caused significant increase in the size and weight of the ovaries and atresic follicles (p<0.05) without significant effect on the number of primary and secondary follicles, antral, graph, primordial, corpus luteum and sexual hormones.

Conclusion: Exposure to cell-phone radiations caused increase in the size, weight and atresic follicles of offspring’s ovaries in pregnant females


Zahra Kiasalari, Mehrdad Roghani, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Athar Abdolrazaghnezhad,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuronal apoptosis. Curcumin has antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities, therefore this study was conducted to assess involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in protective effect of curcumin in epileptic rats.

Methods: 28 rats were divided into sham, curcumin-pretreated sham, epileptic (kainate), and curcumin-pretreated epileptic groups. Experimental model of epilepsy was induced by intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid. Rats received curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Finally, Nissl staining and Bax and Bcl2 immunohistochemistry were conducted on hippocampal sections and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. The p-value less than 0.05was considered statistically significant.

Results: Induction of epilepsy was followed by a significant seizure and curcumin pretreatment significantly reduced seizure intensity (p<0.01). In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups in Nissl staining of CA3 area neurons. In addition, Bax positive neurons were observed in CA3 area in kainate group and significantly decreased in curcumin pretreated rats (p<0.05). Meanwhile, Bcl2 positive neurons were also moderately observed in kainate group and curcumin pretreatment significantly increased it (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Curcumin pretreatment exhibits anticonvulsant activity in epileptic rats. It also decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and significantly enhances the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and hence could reduce neuronal apoptosis.


Farhad Salehzadeh, Morteza Eslami,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: FMF is an auto-inflammatory and hereditary periodic disorder. The symptoms can occur in more than 80% during the first decade of life. With regard to high prevalence of FMF in northwest of Iran, this study was conducted to introduce especial features of FMF in this area.

Methods: This is a descriptive study performed on 403 patients with diagnosis of FMF according to the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Information obtained from patients' file and entered in the questionnaire. Data analyzed by SPSS v20 using simple descriptive statistical analysis.

Results: In this study 228 (56.6%) patients were male, and the mean age of patients was 21.03 years. The common symptoms were abdominal pain in 93.3% and fever in 88.1% of patients. Abdominal pain was the main complaint(49.6%), the average duration of pain was 43.3±34.5 hours and the average attack-free period was 36.5±29.6 days. 15.1% of patients had positive family history and 12.7% had history of appendectomy. Delayed diagnosis was more than three years in 52.3% of patients. Genetic analysis has been done in 239 patients in which 21.33% had no mutations, 39.7% were compound heterozygous genotype, 25.52% heterozygote and 13.38% had compound homozygous mutations. The most common mutations were M694V/V726A (10.46%) and the most common alleles were M694V (20.9%) and V726A (12.7%). The M694V-V726A genotype (12.7%) was the most common combined mutations in male and the common mutations in female was M694V/M694V (10.4%). Among the patients with abdominal pain M694V/V726A (12.5%) was more common. The genotypes of M680I/V726A (13.9%), M694/V726A and M694V/R761H (16.7%) and the M694V/M694V (33.3%) had the common mutations in patients with fever, chest pain and joint symptoms respectively.

Conclusion: First decade is usual age to presentation of FMF. M694V is the most common mutation and M694V-V726A is the common compound heterozygous mutation. MEFV mutations in this study are similar to Arabs results. It seems that clinical criteria still are the best way in diagnosis of FMF in spite of the fact that erysipelas like skin rash  is not common as a clinical criteria in this area


Maryam Fallah, Sajjad Basharpoor, Aboulfazl Bagheri ,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: One of the difficulties of community of dentists, especially dentists dealing with children, is the pain and fear of dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and distraction on reducing fear and pain in children with dental problems.

Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study designed with pretest-posttest multi groups according to control group. For this purpose, 45 children with dental problems referred to the dental clinic of Ardabil was selected and divided into three groups of 15 people: systematic desensitization (n=15), distraction (n=15) and control group (n=15). All of three groups answered to dental fears survey and numeric scale of pain as pre-test. Then, the therapeutic method of systematic desensitization and distraction was performed on two experimental groups. After completion of the treatments, three groups answered to dental fear survey and numeric scale of pain. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used for the analysis of the data.

Results: The results showed a significant difference in the score of post-test between three groups in pain (F=197.27; p<0.001) anddental fear (F=178.36; p<0.001). LSD post hoc test results showed that systematic desensitization method was more effective in reduction of pain and the distraction method was more affective in reduction of dental fear.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that psychological interventions of distracting and systematic desensitization can be used to reduce fear and pain at pediatric clinics.


Mehdi Faramoushi, Ramin Amir Sasan , Sari Sarraf Vahid, Pouran Karimi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder accompanied with insulin resistance of the whole body cells and is considered be the fifth cause of death in the world. Adaptation to altitude can lead to tolerance to many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of simulated intermittent altitude on the metabolic and hematologic parameters and liver function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Methods: In the current experimental study, twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 220±20 gr were randomly divided into three groups; normal control group (NC, n=8), diabetic control group (D, n=8) received fat diet for 2 weeks then were injected with streptozotocin (37 mg/kg) and diabetic+hypoxia group (D+H, n=8) including diabetic rat exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (PiO2≈106 mm Hg, simulated altitude≈3400 m, 14% oxygen for 8 weeks). Diabetic, hematologic and lipid parameters as well as ALT and AST activities were measured in peripheral blood.

Results: Our findings showed that intermittent hypoxia significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL ,VLDL and triglyceride in D+H group compared to D group (p<0.05). Serum levels of fasting blood glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance )HOMA-IR( index and ALT were decreased in D+H group vs. D group )p<0.05). Also, hemoglubin and hematocrite level increased in D+H group in comparison to D group )p<0.05). No significant difference was detected in red blood cell count in D+H vs. D group.

Conclusion: Based on resultant data, it seems that intermittent exposure to hypoxia (simulated to chronic and intermittent lodgement in altitude) can be used to control of type 2 diabetes by increasing hemoglobin, decreasing insulin resistance and improving liver function as well as lipid parameters.


Amirabbas Rashidi, Piraste Norouzi, Hamid Kalalianmoghaddam, Mehdi Khaksari, Mehdi Bagheri,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus mediated by oxidative stress, creates serious metabolic disorders in testis. Kudzu root with an isoflavonin and saponin contents is often used as antidiabetic and antioxidant. This study aimed at preventing the oxidative effects of diabetes using Kudzu root.

Methods: In this study, 32 male Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups: control, diabetic and diabetic rats treated with Kudzu 50 and100 mg/kg. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 55mg/kg streptozocin. One week after injection, the rats started to receive Kudzu at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for five weeks by gavage. Testicular damage was examined by using hematoxylin-eosin staining protocol. Hormonal and blood biochemical factors were measured.

Results: The results of this study showed that diabetes causes a high blood sugar levels and reduces the spermatogonia and Sertoli cells with decreased spermatogenesis,sperm count and function. These effects were improved in the treatment groups. Decrease in blood sugar and increase in the number and motility of sperm cells and spermatogonic cells were also observed together with enhanced seminiferous tubule diameter and lower basement membrane thickness.

Conclusion: Kudzu with the ability to reduce blood sugar, improves diabetic-induced testicular damage and can have a therapeutic role in diabetes.v


Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Farshad Tofigi, Hasanpour Hasanpour, Khatere Isazadehfar,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background & objectives: Cardiac arrhythmia after CABG surgery is a common complication which results in other side effects. Therapeutic effect of prophylactic magnesium administration is controversial and there are many different ideas in this case. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of magnesium in reducing cardiac arrhythmia after CABG.

Methods: The clinical trial enrolled 140 patients undergoing CABG. Based on the initial blood levels of magnesium, patients were divided into two groups, one group with low serum magnesium and the other group with normal one. The low serum magnesium group treated with magnesium preoperatively and had normal serum magnesium level before operation. Postoperatively, both groups were randomly divided into two sub-groups, one receiving 2 gr. of magnesium sulfate and the other group received placebo. Both groups monitored for occurrence of arrhythmia in the ICU – OH for 3 days. Data were analyzed with statistical methods. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that the occurrence of arrhythmia in any of the sub-groups was not significantly different from each other (p> 0.05). There was no significant relationship between blood levels of magnesium and arrhythmia at different days (p> 0.05).

Conclusions: Blood level of magnesium and prophylactic magnesium administration have not effect on reducing arrhythmia after CABG surgery. The highest incidence of arrhythmias happened in the hypomagnesium group without prophylaxis on the third day after surgery, but this difference was not statistically significant.



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